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n England Winter. 

Photo by Chark's Phelps Gushing. (.Courtesy of SociFTY for Visi'Aii Education, 


^ ■ 





hove — Super DeVry 35 
.m. theatre projector — 
reamlined — exclusively 
odern in design and 

Ahovs right — Standard 
DeVry shown with 4000 
ft. magiizines and 2100 
watt mazda lamps. 

elow left — The new DeVry 16 m.m. arc sound pro- 
ctor — Built to professional standards. Unequalled 
; construction and performance. 


Below — The famous 
DeVry Portable 35 
m.m. sound projector. 
Basically the Original 
DeVry creation — com- 
pletely redesigned with 
every worthwhile 
and modern 
sound improve- 

Below right — The De 
Vry semi-portable 35 
m.m. sound projector. 
Heavy duty mechanism 
and advanced optical 
system. This equipment 
is ideal for 
small theatres 
and most audi- 


Right — DeVry professional 35 
m.m. sound camera for single 
and double system recording — 
extreme right — the DeVry sepa- 
rate 35 m.m. recorder. 

Below left — {at top) — The new 
DeVry "Interpreter" I6 m.m. 
sound projector. Almost human 
in operation. Superior picture 
and sound — moderately priced. 

Lejt middle — The DeVry Deluxe 
16 m.m. sound projector. Peer 
of all portable units 1600 ft. 

Lejt {at bottom) — The new DeVry 
model "Q". Single case con- 
struction. Projector, Amplifier, 
and Speaker in one unit. 


— manufacturers of precision mo- 
tion picture equipment for 26 
years. DeVry 35 m.m. cameras 
and projectors have been the 
choice of Hollywood studios and 
theatres throughout the world; 
and the DeVry line of 16 m.m. 
equipment is already the choice 
of those who have taken the 
time to investigate, dourifii 

Write for circular on any par- 
ticular product listed here, which 
does not include DeVry printers, 
silent projectors and film stereo 




Above — DeVry 16 m.m. 
sound camera — built 
to professional stand- 
ards. 400 ft. capacity. 

Below — The DeVry auto- 
matic 35 m.m. camera — 
choice of newsreel 
cameramen and explor- 
ers throughout the world. 

Above — The DeVry 
m.m. separate sounc 
corder 400 ft. capac 

Below— The DeVry 
m.m. all purpose can 
Built for heavy duty 
dependable use. 10( 
capacity — black 
white or color film. 

December, 1940 

Paee 437 

Index to Volume XIX 



Xo. Page 

The Editorial Advisory Board Jan. 6, Feb. 47 

The Film Evaluation Project. . . .Jan. 6. Feb, 47, Mar. 92, June 226 

"Perceptual Learning" —Our Modern Curriculum Feb. 47 

The St. Louis Meeting — The Midwestern Forum Mar.. .92 

The "Zone" Plan for the D. V. I. — "Movie" and "Still" To- 
gether June 220 

The D. V. I. and the Coming Year— A New "Department" in 
October — To the Judging Committee of the National Film 

Evaluation Project Sept. 274 

The First Film Evaluation Supplement Sept. 274, Nov. 36« 

Oificontinuance of the Film Estimatets Nov. 36tj 


(Arranged Alphabetically by Authors) 

Anburt/, Emery, H(»w One Junior Hisli School Got Movies. . . .June 233 

Bowen, Ward C, The School Journey May 185 

Vhrifitefton, Frances, A Fable for Film Makers Nov. 377 

Couch, William U., Audio-Visual Teaching Aids Nov. 370 

Dear. Elaine M., The Motion Picture — A Teaching Assistant 

for Physical Education Nov, 375 

Erikfifn. Walter B., Using Educational Motion Pictures 

Effectively Dec. 412 

EranM. Marian, Museum Materials for Learninsr Dec. 411 

Genung, Harriet, A Laboratory in Visual EducHtion Jan. 14 

Givler, John Paul. An Undeveloped Mine of Materials for 

Visual Education Feb. 53 

Goldin. Myron R.. The Motion Picture "Feature" as a Visual 

Aid Sept. 277 

Green. William S., Jr., How Visual Instruction Functions at 

East High June 228 

Gregory, W. M., Standards of Geographical Film for Instruc- 
tion Mar. 95 

Hansen, John E., A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness 
of Three Methods of Using Motion Pictures in Teach- 
ing Feb. 55, Mar. 97 

Where Do We Go From Here ? Nov. 368 

UoUinger, John A., Perceptual Learning Feb. 49 

Johnnon. George F.. New Horizons in Visual Aids Oct. 325 

Krowx, Arthur Edivin, Motion Pictures — Not for Theatres 

Jan. 16, Feb. 58, May 193, June 235, Sept. 286. Oct. 333 

Nov. 379. DfC. p. 417. 
Leniz, John. Making a Film Strip: An Educational Adventure. May 187 
Lerin:ton. Gigi. Motion Pictures for Di.^seminating Occupa- 
tional Information May 189 

Lirermon. Ruth. The Sound Film Develops Student Leader- 
ship Oct. 323 

Lobaugh, Ruth E.. Motion Picture IVograms for Children ... May 191 

MacIJarg, John B., Of Lantern Slides and Me June 231 

McCowen. Max C, A Controlled Experiment in Visual Edu- 
cation in General Science Apr. 143 

Rakestraiv. Boyd B.. Danger I E.xpert at Work Oct. 322 

Reed, Paul C, "Invention Ls the Mother of Necessity" Jan. 7 

Rixui". JuHtim, How Wt* Make and Use Engineering Drawing 

Films I>tc. 414 

Shermatx, Mendel, Using Visual Aids to Correlate a First 

Grade Subject — "Gray Squirrel" Feb. 11 

Skaggs, Darry A.. A Cooperative Glass Slide Library Nov. 378 

Stamen. W. Gayle. The Need for Audio Visual Aids Directors. Sept. 276 

Trolinger. helia. Selecting Projection Equipment Apr. 141 

Wagner, William .V. School-Made Motion Pictures for Public 

Relations in Ohio Tan. 8. Feb. 50, Mar. 99 

WhUtinyhill, W. W., Tr.-nds June 227 


Program St. Louis Meeting of D. V. I. — Visual Education 

Program for Louisiana Jan. -I 

"Catalogue of Aids to Perceptual Learning" — Meeting on 
"Evaluation and Use of Audio-Visual Materials in the 
Classroom" at Pittsbargh— Schoctl Excursions Meeting at 
St. Louis — Survey of School Journeys Feb. 64 

Proceedings of the Winter Meeting of the D. V. T. 

The Statewide Program (J. W. Brouillette) — The City 
Program (Alex Jardinf )— The Individual School Program 
(R. B. Woodworth) — Problems in the Production of 
Educational Motion Pictures iW. 11. Haddock) — Stan- 
dards in Teachtr Training in the Use of Visual Aids 

(Clarmrr I) Jayn-) Mar. 101-14 

Use of the Silent Film in Study of Finland ( Ahna B. 
Rogers) — Producing I^ilms for Instruc'ion in the Social 
Studies {V. C. Arnspiger) —Thf Use of the Sound Film, 
"Colonial Children." in the Third Grade < Ruth J.irprmoyi) 
— The Present Situation in School-Made Public Relations 
Films (William G. IZorf)-- The Future for School Made 
Public Relations Films (Godfr-y Elliott) —ImcuX Produc- 
tion of Educational Films (William F. Kru^e) — The Cost 
of Visual Instruction (W. M. Gregory) — Where Are We 
Headed in Visiml Instruction ?^Joint Dinner with the 
Association of School Film Libraries. . Apr. 147-55 

Summary of Visual Meetings — Bulletin on "Films on War and 

American N( utrality"^"Fisht for Life" Apr. 156 

Standards of Visual Materials of Instruction (Herbert Jensen) .^Ay 198 

Program Milwaukfe Meeting of the D. V, I. — Denver films — 

Official Membership Roster June 245 

To the Members of the Department of Vijual 

fnstrnction St pi. 201. Oct. 838. Nov. 382. D-^e. 423 

Resolution at Milwaukee Sept. 291 

Report of Committee on Zonal Organization Oct. 338 

New England Branch News Nov. 382 

Notes from the Field D» c. 422 


(Conducted by Don White) 
Kviiluations of educational films bv n Teacher Committee : 
7 films (Oct. pp. 344-45), 8 films (Nov. pp. 386-7, 6 



(Condit,cte^ 'lay- Etta Scuneidkk) 
Administration of Visual Aids 

Rural School Progress in Oklahoma ( Proceedings of Confi-rence on 
A"is. Ed. ) — Selecting a Projector ( Nation's Sch. ) — Organizing for 
Visual Education t.Weldon Brown, Proceedings of Okla. Conference on 
Vis. Ed ) Jan. p. 20-1. . . . Implications of Increase in Audio-Visual 
Equipment (H. Arnold Perry, N. C. Ed.) — Administering a Film Li- 
brary (Janet McDonald, Tex. Outlook )— Selecting Geography Equip- 
ment (Frank E. Sorennon, Neb. Ed.) Feb. p. 70. . . . What Do 
High Schools Want in Films? (Godfrey M. Elliott, Sec. Ed.) — New 
Xprves for Modern Teaching (Paul Reed, Scholastic) — How Oakland 
Does It (Gardwr L. Hart. Scholastic) Mar. p. 115. . . . Problems 
iu Sound Pictures (Arthur L. Richter, Nation's Sch.) May p. 205. . . 
Picture Pro,iection in Minnesota Schools (Carl A. Pearson, Minn. Jl. 
Ed. ) — The Student Participates ( TT'. M. Gregory. Scholastic) — Class- 
room Facilities (S. B. Zixman. Scholas'ic ) — Using Mot inn Pictures 
(A. Doornboofi, Mont. Ed.) June p. 243. . . . Learning to Use Sensory 
.Vids (f'atnilla Best, Scholastic) — The Teacher's Role in the Film Pro- 
gram {.v. Evi'lyn Dari^. Scholastic) Oct. p. 340. . . . Trends in the 
Use-of -Educational Motion Piclures ( W. W. Whittinghill, Natl. Bd. 
Rev.) — Lei's Visualize (1). ('. Widdowson. .Via. Sch. Jl.) — Classroom 
Moving Pictuns \E. L. Blins. Sierra Ed. News) Dec. p. 420. 
Techniques of Utilization 

Visual Aids in a Social Studies Unit (Lois Lowe, Neb. Ed. Jl.) — The 
Teacher in the Visualization Movement (Mary Ann Dale, Neb. Ed. Jl.) 
— Using Visual Aids in Teaching Physics (G. A. Van Ltar, Proc. of 
Okla. Conf. on Vis. Ed.) — Motion Pictures in Education (D. L. Kruz- 
ner. Wash. Ed. .11.) — Jan. p. 19. . . . They Use Projected Pictures 
(Imernatl. J!. Rel. Ed.) — How We Use Slides (Chester F. Leonard, 
Church Man.) — Visual Teaching .Aids (M. F. Fans, Ind. Arts & Voc. 
Ed.) Mar. p. X\^. . . . Visual Aids for the Woodworking Shoo (Robt. 
A. Brenholtz, Ind. Arts & Voc. Ed.) — Books vs. Movies, Phonographs 
and Radios (Donald Bean, Peabodv Jl. Ed.) Apr. p. IfiO. . . . Which 
Visual Aid Shall I Use? (Edwin Kirwin, Minn. Jl. Ed.) — Films for 
Your Foreign Language Classes ( Wesley Greene, Scholastic) — Films 
for Your English Class ( Walter Gintberg, Scliolastic) — Educational 
Films Related to Home-Making Education (Ayine Becchetti. Prac. 
Home Ec.) — Documentary Films for Social Studies (Godfrey M. 
Elliott, Soc. Studies) — Visual Education Project (Rosalie Bonifay, Ala. 
Sch. Jl.) May p. 204. . . . The Many-Sided Motion Picture (E. Way- 
goner, Scholastic) June p. 243. . . . The Teacher Selects Her Visual Aid 
{Mary Ann Dale, pamphlet) June p. 256. . . . The Use of Motion 
Pictures in the Classrooms of Clifton Forge and Virginia (Paul 6. 
Hook. Va. Jl. Ed.) — Applying Visual Aids (Clifford Ettinger, Nation's 
Sch.) — Astronomy : A Guide for Use with Instructional Sound Films 
(Brodshaug, Eraser, Bergin, Univ. Clii. Pref^s) Oct. p. 340. . . . 
Historv Number (Daniel Knowlton, ed., Ed. Mag.) — Simple Visual Aids 
(Godfrey Elliott, W. Va. Sch. Jl.) — Movies in High School History 
Teaching (Hanon Moon, Tex. Outlook) — r^'isual Aids to Learning (Sch, 
Exec.) — Visual Aids in Education (Okla. Conf. Proc.) Nov. p. 383. . . . 
Eflfective Use of Still Pictures in Elementary Social Studies (Mineta 
Merton, Soc. Ed.) — Opaque Projection in Biology ( W. H. Stickler, 
Amer. Biol. Tchr, ) — Use and Production of Sound and Silent Film- 
slides : Miniature Slides and Microfilms in Schools (Orlin Trapp, docu- 
ment) — The Eyes and Ears of Rhode Island (Henry E. Childs, Apr. Jl. 
R. I. Inst. Instruction) r>ec. p. 420. 

Research and Evaluation 

Evaluating a Safety Film (Chas. F. Hoban. Jr.. Safety Ed.) — Rel- 
ative Importance of Placement of Motion Pictures in Classroom In- 
struction (Elizabeth Stadtlander. Elem. Sch. Jl.) Feb. p. 70. . . . 
Visual Aids and Safety (Xathan Doscher, Safety Ed.) — Photographic 
Method for Studying Discrimination-Learning in Children (T. A. 
Jackson, Jl. Exper. Psych.) Mar. p. 115. . . . Finding the Right Film 
(Ford L. hemler, Scholastic) — Let the Movie Be Your Guide (Blake 
Cochran, W. H. Hartley. Sch. Exec.) Apr. p. 160. . . . Teaching 
Industrial Arts with Motion Pictures (Dale J. Baughman, Ohio Sch.) 
— Pupil Evaluation of Sound-Film Components (H. A. Gray, Elem. 
Sch. J!.) June p. 243. . . . Report on Classroom Films ( /. V. SuUiran. 
Sec. Ed.) Sept. p. 296. . . . Experiment to Determine the Most 
Effective Method of Teaching Current History (Charles Eichel. Jl. 
Exper. Ed.) Nov. p. 383. . . . .\ Sound Motion-Picture for Teaching 
Beginning Reading (Irving Anderson. Sch. & Soc. ) — An Experiment 
in the Use of Motion Piet\ires in Teaching Current Events (Donald 
Brumbaugh, Colo. Sch. Jl.) Dec. p. 420. 

School Journeys. Museums, Maps, Globes 

Museums in a Changing World (F. //. Taylor. Atlantic) Jan. p, 29. 
. . . The Migratory Museum (Alice E. J ohannse n, Jl. Adult Ed. ) — 
Museums; an Interpretative Study (Charles J. Russell, Jl. Adult Ed.) 
May p. 206. . . . Method of Procedure for an Excursion (Ivan C. Diehl, 
Jl. Oeog.) — The Excursion as an Avenue to Learning (Minnie Bean, 
Ida Jl. Ed.) June p, 256. . . . Selection and Distribution of Maps and 
Globes (Francis L. Drag. Cal. Jl. Elem. Ed.) Oct. p. 342. . . . Con- 
servation Excursions (Effie G. Hathurst, U. S. Ed. Bull.) .... The 
School Journey (Euaenia Burnet. Amer. Annals of Deaf) — Exploring 
Your Community (Gladys L. Potter, pamphlet) Nov. p. 384. . . . 

Teacher Trainins: 

Seeing Is Believing ; Visual 1 tist ruction ( Colin G. Welles, mono- 
graph) Apr. p. 162. ... A Stuily '*( the Status of Visual Education 
Courses in Teacher-Trainintr Institutions (E. Win' f red Crawford. Sec. 
Ed.) — Opportunities for the Preparation of Teacliers in the Use of 
Visual Aids for Instruction ( Katherine M. CookFlort-nce E. Reynolds, 
pamphlet.) — Teacher-Education (W. Gayle Starnes. Phi Delta Kappan) 
Sept. p. 296; ... 

Photoplay Appreciation 

Our Motion Picture Eniovnienl Club ( Grarit W. Rasmustten, Sch. 
Activ.) Jan. p. 29. . . . What Shall We Do About Hatred? (Alice V. 
Keliher, Prog. Ed.) — Group Discussion Guide (Ed. & R-'c. Guides) 
Feb, p. 72. ... A Pion* er School ('lub in Motion Pictiire Appreciation 
i Knthr>/n Y. AUebach. Sch. Activ. ) — Motion Pictures and English 
( Florence Mann, Sec. Ed. ) — Motion Pictures and Radio {Eleanor D. 
Child-Hardy R. Finch, Conn. Tchr.) May p. 200. . . . Hollywood 
Hokum — Tiie English Teacher's Responsibility (Seerley Retd. Eng. Jl.) 
— Study Guides (Ed. & Rec. Guides) June p. 265. . . . Motion 
Pictures and Literature Appi'eciation (John R. Aiidrews. Tex. Outlook) 
Oct. p. 340. . . . Movif's Aren't Literary (R. G. Lillard. Eng. Jl.) — 
The Speech Teacher Keeps .Vbreast of the Radio and the Motion 

Page 438 ^ ^ 

Picture (Jeaui'Hr IW-^; tji;..^b-itt»t'''(-J!)"^t'J3'i<'.si ^Iti^o ♦uiU Keadin? 

Photography apd Scho^l-M|ide ^i«iyM M^\ * 

Pupil-Made LaVl*'-n * Hl^l^s ^n tlie.^ot;^.^ hixi^f* il*elam^ S. March. 
Soc. Ed.) — Use lAfiteuli Slide^ (C7i3?<ir(f *>•. '^cV■'f*i^ Sfigui-* Ed. News) 
Jan. p. 20. . . . Higlv SehoAl Movie' Production (A. P. Smith, Jl. of 
NE.A.) Mar. p. IIG. . . . Camera -in, Bi^louy ( fv C. Oi/lesby, Sierra 
Ed. News) — Indians on Loration (^I?lnl ;^^ail*'}j. 'H. -f. P>1. Rev.) May 
p 200 . Motion Pictures and She" t«Tnniencement Pro^'ram (T. S. 

O'Neill, Sec. Ed.) — Movies and lh»V Ptibli^ Speaking Classes (Glenn 
M. Eready, Sec. Ed.)— Visual Aids and Amateur Photography (Elhs 
E. Persing, Sci. Ed.) — Take a Camera and Find Out {Willard Tan 
Dyke, Scholastic) — Class-Made Charts as Permanent A'isual Aids {Wil- 
liam S. Vincent. Va. Jl. Ed.) June p. 256. . . . The Production of 
lOnim Motion Picture Films (Sione-Valentine-Miles, Psych. Bull.) — 
Future Farmers in the Movies (Ag. Ed. Mag.) — Photography: Its 
Value in the Curriculum (Worthington Prince, Sierra Ed. News) Sept. 
p. 296. . . . The School-Made Film in a Public Relations Program 
iW. G. Hart. Amer. Sch. Bd. Jl.) — Our Children Learn to Read (IV. 
G. Hart, Nation's Sch.) Nov. p. 384. . . . Making 2x2 Slides (/. B. 
Macflarg, Scholastic) — Bring the World to You (G. H. Grxfftth, 
Scholastic) -Photographv in the College Curriculum {J. D. Schu- 
macher, Jl. Chem. Ed.) — San Diego Library Film (Lib. J!.) Dec. 
1). 421. 

Source Materials 

Utilizing Local and Regional Resources for Visual Education (S. B. 
Zittman, Proc. Okla. Conf. Vis. Ed.) Jan. p. 20. . . . List of Free 
Films pnd Recommended Literature (Wiersch-Nelson-Sviith, pamphlet) 
— A List of Films on Skiing (L. E. Briggs, Jl. Health & Phys. Ed.) — 
Sources of Fiee and Inexpensive Aids (Francis Feeney, Ariz. Tchr.) 
— Visual Education (Paul Anderson. Mont. Ed.) Feb. p. 72. . . . 
Visual Aids {Lih Ileimers, pamphlet) — Motion Pictures and Other 
Visual Aids for Business Education (Lawrence Van Horn, booklet) — 
Visual Aids in Safety Education (Safety Ed. Projects, bulletin) Apr. 
p. 162. . . . Fifty Foreign Films (Otto F. Bond, pamphlet) — The Use 
of Motion Pictures in the Science Classroom (Science Forum) — Visual 
Method in the Church Curriculum (Internatl. Council Rel. Ed., bulle- 
tin) Apr. p. 179. . . . Directory of Training Films (Natl. Ret. Dry 
Goods Assn.) — Bibliography of Economic and Social Study Material 
(Natl. Assn. Manufacturers) — Silent and Sound Films for Use in In- 
dustrial Arts (George Mohr. Ind. Arts & Voc. Ed.) — Consumer Edu- 
cation (Inst, for Consumer Ed., bulletin) June p. 265. . . . Education 
through Films (Ida Sunderlin, Bull. Amer. Home Ec.) — Projected Aids 
iu Industrial Arts and Vocational Education (W. R. Cleveland, Ind. 
Arts & Voc. Ed.) — Free or Inexpensive Visual Aids for Use in the 
Teaching of World Geography (James W. Brown, bulletin) — Visual 
Aids for Pupil Adventure in the Realm of Geography (Seymour 
West, pamphlet) Oct. p. 358. . . . Presentation Techniques: Writing, 
Radio and Motion Pictures (Proceedings Conf. Inst. Consumer Ed., 
bulletin) — Teaching with Motion Pictures (Mary E. Townes, booklet)' — 
Films at the New York World's Fair (Natl. Bd. Rev. Mag.) — Visual 
Aids in the Realm of Chemistry (N. J. Teachers Coll., Moutclair. 
pamphlet,) Nov. p. ;jH3-4. . . . Propaganda Analysis: An Annotated 
Bibliography (Edgar Dnle-Norma Vernon) An Annotated Bibliography 
on Visual Education (Conn. WPA Project) Dec. p. 421. 

Social Effects of Films 

Some Educational Aspects of Motion Pictures (Jl. Ed. Soc, Freder- 
ick M. Ihrasher, ed.) Apr. p. IfiO — Movies and Tolerance (Alice V. 
Keliher, Amer. Tchr.) Apr. p. 162. 

Library and Visual Aids 

Libraries and Educational Films (Mary 77. Rothrock, A.L.A. Bull.) 
— Library and Related Films (Francis H. Henshaw, leaflet) — Audio- 
Visual Aids and the Library (M. L. Shane. CoU. & Research Lib.) — 
The Place of Microphotography in Research and Library Work (A. F. 
K2thlman, Peabody Jl. Ed.) June p. 25fi. 

Television and Sound 

Television in Education (Gilbert Seldes. Education) — Sound Re- 
cording Equipment for Schools; Central Sound Systems for Schools 
(Com. on Scientific Aids to Learning reports) Sept. p. 298. 

Book Reviews 

Modern Methods and Materials for Teaching Science (Elwood D. 
Heiss) — Visual Review, 1940 (Soc. for Vis. Ed.) — Memo on the 
Movies: War Propaganda 1914-39 (Winifred Johnston) Mar. p. 116. 
. . . Motion Pictures in Adult Education (T. R. Adam) May p. 206. 
. . . Visual Education (Com. on Vis. Ed., Dept. Elem. Sch. Prin.) 
June p. 265. . . . Film and Radio as Educational Media (/. A. Lauw- 
erys) Sept. p. 298, , . . Selected Films for American History and 
Problems ( iri7K«m H. Hartley) — Children in the Cinema (Richard 
Ford) Oct. p. 342. . . . Filming for Amateurs (Paul Burnford) — A 
Guide to Making Better Movies (Amat. Cin. League) Nov. p. 384. 
Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction (McKown-Roherts) Dec. p. 421. 


Films (quarterly) — Design (Motion Picture No.) Feb. p. 72. . . . 
Building America (Nos. 1-4. vol. 5) Apr. p. 162. . . . Phi Delta 
Kappan (Audio- Visual Aids No.) — Sight and Sound (Summer) Sept. 
p. 298. 

(Conducted by Akch A. Mercy) 
New Accessions to the National Archives — Federal Housing 

Revamps Film Policy — "The City" and "Land of Liberty" 

Not Government Films — No 8mm Government Films Jan. 22 

Microphotography for Educators (G. A. Schwegmann, Jr.) — 

Re-edited U. S. D. A. Short Subjects Feb. 68 9 

Census Training Films — Health and Safety Films Mar. 127 

Pictures Tell Dramatic Stories — Directory of Government 

Films Revised Apr. 175 

World's Largest Camera — New Government Films — Bibliog- 

laphy Revised May 202-3 

Film Service Finale — Housing Films June 250-1 


(Conducted by Joskphine HorrMAN) 
Case of the Motion Picture in Speech Training — Annual Radio 
Conference — Visual Education Courses Bring Results — 
YMCA Film Distribution Increases — Visual Sessions. . . .Jan. 26-8 
American Library Association Holds Visual Instruction Con- 
ference—Northwestern University Film Programs — Texas 
Visual Education Facts "Ten liest" Theatrifat Films 

for Year Feb. 78 9 

Midwest Forum on Visual Teaching Aids — Visual Sessions at 
Progressives Meeting — Wisconsin Visual Conference — 

The Educational Screen 

New England Section Meets — Spring Quarter Visual 

Course — Non-Theatrical Association to Meet Mar. 124-2R 

Activities at Boston University — Florida Progress — Indiana 
Audio-Visual Conference— Michigan Film Library Grows 
— New Jer.sey Visual Educators Meet — Electrical Trans- 
ecriptions — Texas Departments Producing Films .... Apr. 170-72 

Pennsylvania Audio- Visual Conference — Available Electrical 
Transcriptions — New York Fair Offers Service to Teachers 
— New York Cooperative Film Library — Visual Forum at 
Milwaukee May 21012 

New York to Hold Vi&.ual Conference — Chicago Buys More 
Projectors and Films — Traffic Safety Film Project — South 
Carolina Activity— Ohio State Questionnaire— Television 
Broadcasts Films — Government Equipment Survey — 
Metropolitan Motion Picture Council Annual Meeting — 
Allied Non-Theatrical Film Association — Atlanta Churches 
Form Religious Film Cooperative — Field Course on South 
America June 258-60, 262 

Educational Film Institute Uses Motion Pictures to Report 
Educational Experiments — Visual Education Dealers Or- 
ganize — Documentary Scenario Contest — U. S. Govern- 
ment Films Awarded — Eastman Photographic Col- 
lection Sept. 304-06 

Southern Conference on Audio-Vi.sual Education — Activity at 
Indiana— Sound Slide Films on Safety— Modern Library 
Trends — Cooperative Film Libraries — More Cavalcade of 
America Recordings Ready Oct. 350-52 

Visual E<lucation Meetings^ — Training for the Hard of Hear- 
ing — Film Membership Plans at Boston University — 
Buffalo Museum Gets Slides from State Department — 
SMPE Meeting Nov. 394-97 

Audio- Visual Conference Stresses Teaching of .Vmericanism — 
Otlier Visual Meetings— Health Films for County's 
Schools — Documentary Film Programs Dec. 430-31 


(Conducted by Hardv R. Finch) 
This department reports on school-made film productions in every 
issue, appearing on the following pages: 66-67 (Feb.), 118-19 (Mar.), 
164-65 (Apr.). 208 09 (Mav), 248 49, 263 (June). 294 95 (Sept.), 
346-47 (Oct.), 392-93 (Nov.). 42H-29 (Dec.) 


(Conducted by Wii.riKK Emmkrt) 
Art Activities Developed through Geography Unit on Mexico 

(Alma Gasslander) Jan. 30 

Safety Education — In Hand- Made Lantern Slides (Esau 

Motorich) Feb. 62 

Models for F^nrichment Apr. 166 

A Combined Social Studies and Science Project (Donald 

A. Bayer) June 254 

Kodachrome Slides and Movies for Instruction and Publicity. .Sept. 300 
Classroom Mu.'^eum Promotes School-Community Relations. . . Nov. 388 
Electrical Transcriptions As an Aid to Learning (Theodore 

N. Rogers) Nov. 381^ 

Visual Education in Industrial Arts (John J. Horan) — The 

Use of Home-Made Lantern Slides iJ. M. .1 f^ux' ) . . . . Dec. 426-27 


This department is devoted to announcements and brief descriptions 
of new films, with sources, and film producing and distributing services. 
It appears on the following pages: 34 (Jan.), 80, 82-3 (Feb.), 130. 
133 (Mar). 176, 179 (Apr.), 214 (Mav), 264-65 (June), 308. 310 
(Sept.). 354, 356 (Oct). 390 (Nov.). 434. 436. (Dec). 


New Spencer Projectors for 2x2 Slides — Information Booklets 
on Sound Films — The Selectroslide Junior — Film Storage 
Device Tan. 36 

RCA New Sound Projector — S.O.S. Expansion — Ampro Offers 
8mni Projector — Keystone Science Units — New Pilmo 
Master 8 Projector Feb. 84 

New Picture Series for Classrooms — Film Slides on the Art of 
the World — Mechanical Movements on Film Slides — RCA 
Victor Book of Audio-Visual Aids — "Mighty Midget'* 
Photoflash Bulb Mar. 132-33 

New Slide Projector by B & L — Prices on Kodachrome Dupli- 
cates Lowered — Vocational Guidance Filmstrips — Ampro 
Catalogue — New Victor Amplifier for Sound Movies — • 
Bell & Howell Projector for Home Use — Spencer Teach- 
ing Aids — Leica Manual Revised Anr. 178-7& 

SVE Slide Binder — Room-Darkening Shades— Latest B&H 
Products— Kodaslide Information — Victor 2-in-l Speaker 
Case May 216 

New SVE Kodachrome Slide Library — New Automatic Pro- 
jector Shows Color Slides in Three Dimensions June 244 

New SVE Slide Projector.s — New Radiant Projection Lamps — 
First Turret-Head Magazine Loading Camera — A New 
Slide Series (Race Decline and Race Regeneration) — 
B&H Editing Outfit — Amplifier for Dual Projection — 
Film Strips for Social Studies Sept. 311-12 

New Biology Filmslides — Spencer Enlarges Plant Again — 

Bell & Howell Recorder — Filmack 16mm Services. Oct. 357 

Army Uses Slidefilms for Mechanical Training — Desk Viewer 
for 2x2 Slides — Bausch & Lomb and Our National De- 
fense — New Synchrosound System Makes Talking Pic- 
txires — "Three-in-One" Projector — New Kodak Printer — 
Equipment for Titling — Victor Visual Edu-Graph — DeVry 
Experiences witli Numbers (Oct. 337) — Clothing '.Dec. 432 


Available Electrical Transcriptions Mar. 12& 

Summer Courses in Visual and .\udio- Visual Instruction. 

1940 Apr. 157S. May 201, June 255 

A Dozen "Do's" and "Don'ts" for Beginntis {Arthur L. 

Richter) May 217 

The Second Midwestern Forum on Visual Aids June 2Z9 

Visual Aids at the American Association for the Advancement 

of Sci< nee (Roy Wenger) Tune 252 

Does It Pay to Use Lanterns and Slides? June 262 

New England Film Library Association (John A. Fox) Sept. 291 

James Garfield Sigman Oct. 33ft 

Ten Commandments for Sound-Film Users ( 11'. //. Uartleg) . .Ocl. 353 
A Clearing House for School-Made Public Relations Films 

( William G. Hart) Feb. 65 

Hand- Made Lantern Slides (Ann Gale)— Froga and Toads 

(Apr. p. 159), A School Garden Project (May p. 200), 

Experiences with Numbers (Oct. 337). Clothing Dec. 43tJ 




Nelson L. Greene - - - Editor-in-Chief 
Evelyn J. Baker - Advertising Manager 
JosEniiNE Hoffman - Office Manager 

Camilla Best - - - 


Hardy R. Finch - - 
Ann Gale - - - - 
Josephine Hoffman - 
Abraham Krasker - 
F. Dean McClusky - 
Arch A. Mercey - - 
Etta Schneider - - 

New Orleans, La. 

- - Indiana, Pa. 
Greenwich, Conn. 

- - Chicago, 111. 

- - Chicago, 111. 

- - Boston, Mass. 
Scarborough, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 

New York, N. Y. 

Editorial Advisory Board 

Ward C. Bowen, Director, Visual Instruc- 
tion Division, University of the State 
of New York, Albany, N. Y. 

Marian Evans, Director, Visual Instruction 
Center, Public Schools, San Diego, 

W. M. Gregory, Director, Educational Mu- 
seum, Public Schools, Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. E. HanseIv, Chief. Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

J. A. Hollinceh, Director, Department 
of Science and Visualization, Public 
Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Boyd B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director, 
Extension Division, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

Paul C. Reed. Director, Department of Ra- 
dio and Visual Education, Board of 
Education, Rochester, N. Y. 

W. Gayle Starnes, in charge of Audio- 
Visual Aids, Department of University 
Extension, University of Kentucky, 
Lexington, Ky. 

Lelia Trolinger, Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

W. W. Whittinghill, Director, Depart- 
ment of Visual and Radio Education, 
Board of Education, Detroit, Mich. 




JANUARY, 1940 


Invention Is the Mother of Necessity. Paul C. Reed 7 

School-Made Motion Pictures for Public Relations 

in Ohio William S. Wagner 8 

Using Visual Aids to Correlate a First Grade Subject — 

"Gray Squirrel" _ Mendel Sherman I I 

A Laboratory in Visual Education Harriett Genung 14 

Motion Pictures — Not for Theatres Arthur Edwin Krows 16 

The Literature in Visual Instruction — 

A Monthly Digest Conducted by Etta Schneider 19 

Among Ourselves — Notes from and by 

The Department of Visual Instruction 21 

The Federal Film — Edited by Arch A. Mercey 22 

News and Notes Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 26 

In and for the Classroom Conducted by Wllber Emmert 30 

Current Film News 34 

Among the Producers 36 

Film Estimates 38 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 40 


Domestic $2.00 

Canada $2.25 

Foreign ._ $3.00 

Single Copies .25 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published monthly except July and August by The 
Educational Screen, Inc. Publication Office, Pontlac, Illinois; Executive Office, 64 
East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontlac, Illinois, as 
Second Class Matter. 
Address communications to The Educational Screen, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, III. 

Vby Ibis Sound Projector 

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IMPROVED light optical systera^In perfect align- 
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Curved film guides placed before and after sound 
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USES Standard lamps— Standard prefocused lamps, 
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of the new Ampro Sound Models "X" 
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A powerful Auxiliary Amplifier for use with 
any AMPROSOUND Projector. Provides 
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low-priced Amprosound class-room and in- 
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boost the volume output to 55 watts with 
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a maximum output of 85 watts. An addi- 
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automatic fading from one projector to the 

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facilitating operation in darkened rooms. 
A monitor outlet enables operator to "listen 
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Please send me the new 1940 Ampro CataloK. I 
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D Ampro 16mm. Silent and Convertible to Sound I 


January, 1940 

Page 5 

Note how conveniently large periodicals are used. 

Show them the world 
with this Spencer Delineascope 

Today's treasure chest of pictures is an almost bottomless one. News week- 
lies, travel magazines, educational publications, photographs, post cards and lan- 
tern slides yield a wealth of material which can be magnified vividly and dramati- 
cally in the classroom by means of this Spencer Combination Delineascope. 

This type of instrument is rapidly being recognized as the logical teaching 
aid in current events, history, geography, art, and many other subjects. Material 
is always available and at no cost. Indifference is transformed to eager interest 
when students summarize their projects by opaque projection. Grade school 
children enjoy operating the instrument. 

The Spencer representative in your vicinity will be glad to arrange a demon- 
stration. Or, if you prefer, we will send you an illustrated folder upon request. Write 
Dept. A12. 

Spencer Lens Company 



Page 6 

The Educational Screen 


The Editorial Advisory Board 

/^^ UR readers will share our pleasure in the an- 
^^ nouncement that our new Editorial Advisory 
Board begins functioning with this issue, their names 
appearing on the title page henceforth. The series of 
articles by the Board members, one in every issue, is 
opened on the following pages by Paul C. Reed with a 
thought-provoking discussion of radio and electrical 
transcription as a problem of administration. In Feb- 
ruary, John A. Hollinger will write on perceptual 

It was our fond intention to present in this issue a 
full page of photographs of the Board. We issued an 
urgent call for the pictures and nine of the ten re- 
sponded nobly. Several took the trouble to sit for a new 
portrait for the occasion ! But there had to be the rift 
in the lute — one of the ten failed to respond to repeated 
pleas, and the page must wait for the February issue. 

(We unlock a form to state that the precious tenth 
picture has just arrived ! But the picture page must still 
await the February issue.) 

The Film Evaluation Project 

7\ S a sample of data accumulating steadily in our 
■^"^ files of Score Cards from the Film Evaluation 
Project we present here a tentative summary on two 
films— "The Plow That Broke the Plains" (15 cards 
from 9 States) and "The River" (30 cards from 12 
States.) On the Standard Score Cards the first three 
questions are informative, the rest critical. Questions 
4 to 11 inclusive are tabulated below, with the percent- 
ages on each question yielded by the 15 and 30 Score 
Cards respectively. 

The Plow The River 

% % 

Question A — Correlation with course 

of study 75 y^ 

Question 5 — Selection, truth, unity, 

sequence of contents 81 91 

Question 6— Pictorial and Technical 

quality 92 9g 

Question 7 — Student interest in pic- 

^"•■e ■•• 88 86 

Questions 8, 9 — Silent Titles 

and/or Sound Accompaniment . . 64 78 
Question 10 — Irrelevant matter, ad- 
vertising, pro]3aganda, etc 98 93 

Question 11— "I would use this film 

again" (Summary opinion) 84 94 

Percentage rating of picture as a 

whole (Questions 8, 9, 11 weighted) 88% 91% 

The 30 cards so far received on "The River" afford 
an interesting confirmation of one of the fundamental 
convictions with which we started the Film Evaluation 
Project — namely, that individual teacher-judgments 
from actual classroom use of the film are desirable, 
rather than judgments determined by group discussion 
at a preview apart from the teaching situation. We 
believed that the preview-group would show a lower 
])ercentage of evaluation, and for obvious reasons. The 
attitude and mind-set of the judges differ greatly in the 
two situations. In the discussion-group-preview, each 
teacher is free of any teaching effort toward classroom 
accomplishment and therefore free to concentrate on 
"criticisms." Each teacher, naturally convinced of his 
own critical acumen, will not only comb the film for 
the slightest flaws but will readily recognize flaws 
pointed out by others (or he would not appear as a 
keen critic). Adoption of colleague criticisms along with 
his own extended list results in his Score Card being 
pretty heavily weighted with minutiae, many of which 
would have no effect whatever on results obtained by 
able use of that film with a class. Again, if one mem- 
ber of the group be of particular eminence or influence, 
his dicta are quite likely to appear on all the Score 
Cards. But the single teacher, using the film with his 
class, striving to realize maximum values for his pupils, 
is in a position to judge that film by the supreme 
criterion of "results for the class" — the end for which 
educational films are made. 

An additional tabulation on "The River" will illus- 
trate this rather vividly. Of the thirty cards, six came 
from a discussion-group previewing the film. The scor- 
ings were not by any means identical but were notice- 
ably similar to each other and markedly different from 
the other 24 cards from 12 states. 

Questions The 30 cards The 6 cards The 24 cards 

from group without group 
































Grand average 91% 81%, 94% 

From which it may be concluded that "The River" 
is considered a good film, especially by those teachers 
who have actually used it with classes. 

The St. Louis Meeting 

OUR dynamic President, J. E. Hansen, has prepared 
a full and meaty program needing every minute 
of available time for completion. Note carefully the im- 
portant line in the program on page 21 — "All sessions 
will begin promptly on the hour." He means it. N.L.G. 

January, 1940 

Page 7 

"Invention Is the Mother of Necessity" 

THE human need for spending countless hours in 
effortless relaxation and escape in the motion pic- 
ture theaters and in listening to home radios cer- 
tainly was not the reason for the invention of these 
modern marvels of communication. The need for bet- 
ter advertising methods in the business world was not 
a contributing factor in bringing about the original 
radio and motion picture inventions. The need for 
more effective instructional procedures and materials in 
school classrooms did not motivate Marconi and Bell 
and Edison and Eastman to invent new tools for com- 
munication. An inventor may be moved by some com- 
paratively unimportant real or imagined need, but most 
needs that are filled by inventions are discovered after 
the invention rather than before. There may be some 
justification for the well-worn expression, "necessity 
is the mother of invention," but there seems to be much 
more reason for the statement that "invention is the 
mother of necessity." 

Inventions alone are not important. The uses to 
which inventions are applied is of supreme importance. 
The promptness with which needs that may be served 
by new inventions are recognized and the effectiveness 
with which these new inventions are made to function 
in fulfilling these needs is of major significance. 

Our business and economic system within which the 
profit motive is such a strong incentive for individual 
iniliative has promoted well the early discovery of needs 
that can be filled by inventions. Our educational or- 
ganization does not seem to encourage the rapid ap- 
plication of new materials to aid in the instructional 
process. The use of motion pictures and radio in 
meeting educational needs has lagged unfortunately 
but not hopelessly behind their use in meeting enter- 
tainment and commercial needs. Invention has been 
just as kind and generous to her step-children — the 
needs of education — as she has to the rest of her child- 
ren. But these step children are poorly adjusted, un- 
dernourished, and pitifully retarded. 

Many reasons account for the slowness with which 
new inventions are put to work in the schools. These 
reasons are well recognized among those who are de- 
voting their full time to the development of visual edu- 
cation. Lack of funds, lack of understanding on the 
part of other school administrators, teacher training 
courses that do not emphasize visual methods, limited 
suitable materials, and poorly organized distributional 
methods are among the retarding factors most often 
mentioned. Leaders in the field of visual education 
have been making every effort to overcome these ob- 
stacles which seem to block the way toward under- 
standing and more rapid development. The devotion 
and zeal of visual educators cannot be questioned. Or 
can it be? 

A broader view of the administration of audio-visual 
aids, with particular reference to radio and the pos- 
sibilities of electrical transcriptions in education. 


Director of Visual and Radio Education 
Rochester, New York, Public Schools 

Could it be that the visual education field is too 
highly specialized and its workers too zealous and de- 
voted for the good of the cause they embrace? Could 
it be that visual education in itself is so minor a part 
in the-tot^l educational job that it cannot by itself com- 
mand the support it deserves? Could it be that work- 
ers in the visual field sometimes become so narrow in 
their point of view that they fail to comprehend the use 
of visual materials with a balanced perspective toward 
the whole of education? Could it be that even within 
the visual field there are some who further specialize 
too narrowly, concentrating their attentions on the 
motion picture or some other visual aid to the exclusion 
of other visual materials? 

To overworked directors and supervisors of visual 
education such questions might seem almost impudent. 
"After all, don't we have too much to do already?" 
"There are so many new developments in the visual 
field it is almost impossible to keep up to date now!" 
"We need more assistance, not more work." This is all 
quite true. The field of visual education could be 
narrowed and it would still be true. The scope of the 
interests of visual workers could be broadened and it 
would still be true. But perhaps greater progress could 
be made in the effective and increased use of visual ma- 
terials if the base were to be broadened. 

Let us consider the logic of bringing visual and radio 
education to the same focal point of educational think- 
ing. Both fields are the result of applications to the 
needs of education in the classroom of inventions that 
facilitate communication. The motion picture can 
bring visual illusion of reality into the classroom. The 
radio program can bring an auditory illusion of reality 
to that same classroom. From the point of view of the 
classroom teacher both are valuable aids to achieving 
teaching objectives. Both bring life and reality into 
the classroom. There are practically no differences in 
the way teachers use radio programs and motion pic- 
tures effectively. The techniques of utilization are 
essentially identical. Yet in some school systems there 
is a radio supervisor to help the teacher in using radio 
programs and there is a visual supervisor to help the 
teacher in using motion pictures and other visual aids. 
Some teacher training institutions have separate courses 
to cover these two fields. Are classroom teachers being 
helped or hindered in arriving at clear understand- 
ings? Are they becoming "whole" teachers or teach- 
ers of parts ? 

One of the most significant potential applications of 
new inventions and materials to teaching needs is now 
being developed by a few pioneering educators. But 
the development of the electrical transcription for edu- 
cational purposes is being retarded because the radio 
educators sav it isn't radio and the visual educators 

Page 8 

The Educational Screen 

say it isn't visual. It is neither radio nor visual, yet 
exploratory experimentation indicates that a valuable 
teaching tool has so far had more than its share of 

Radio's unique function in education is to bring the 
timely and the immediate to the classroom — or rather 
to thousands of classrooms instantaneously. Yet when 
one examines the educational programs being broad- 
cast, one finds the material not restricted to the timely 
and the immediate. Most of this other program ma- 
terial — the dramatization, the music appreciation pro- 
gram, the interview with people of national importance. 
the single voice authoritative informational program — 
all of these programs can be more useful to instruction 
if they are recorded and distributed to classrooms for 
playback when they are most needed. The electrical 
transcription should be a most valuable instructional 
aid. What group is going to develop it? Electrical 
transcriptions are not radio and they are not visual aids. 
If specialization continues, perhaps there must be new 
departments of transcription education. 

Will there be departments of television education 
too ? The visual educators are a group of comparatively 
young people ; radio educators are even younger ; and 
televised pictures will be used in classrooms long be- 
fore most of these specialists have reached retirement 
age. Does television come within the scope of radio edu- 
cation or visual education? The very fact that such 

ciuestions have to be raised is unfortunate. Ringside 
scats should be held for a premium when such ques- 
tions are being answered in those school systems with 
separate visual and radio divisions. 

Not only are solutions going to be found, but the 
whole task of effectively putting newer educational tools 
to work swiftly in the improvement of instruction is 
going to come about when a halt is called to further 
specialization, and when consolidation and coordination 
take place. 

Lack of adequate terminology is hindering necessary 
re-organization and re-alignments. "Visual education" 
never was a good term ; "radio education" has been 
equally unsuitable in that field. Combining the two and 
making "visual and radio education" or calling it 
"visual-auditory education" or "sensory education" is 
an inadequate attempt to find a term that covers a 
broadened concept in this realm of educational think- 
ing and educational organization. 

A newer plan should be a most flexible one — one 
that can take into consideration the yet uninvented in- 
ventions of the years to come. Education needs creative 
and imaginative workers, thoroughly grounded in the 
objectives and responsibilities of education, who will 
strive constantly to improve instructional methods and 
to make learning more effective and efficient through 
the practical application of newer means and materials. 

School - Made Motion Pictures 
For Public Relations in Ohio " ( I ) 

First article of series, presenting standards and 
purposes of the public-school film, with full 
continuity of a school-made movie on reading. 


Montpelier, Ohio, Public Schools 

Chapter I 
Public-School Relations 

THE aim of a public-school relations program is to 
acquaint the. public with the schools. In a democracy 
the public are the stockholders of the schools and as 
such they are entitled to be honestly informed of the 
schools' policies, work, needs, and achievements. 


If a program of interpretation is to be successful, 
"it should be continuous, honest, inclusive, understand- 
able, dignified but aggressive, reach everyone in the 
community, use every facility at hand."i As these stand- 
ards are the very heart of a public-school relations 
program they should be clearly defined. 

*A Master's thesis, with the above title, submitted to Ohio 
State University, to be presented in installments in consecutive 
issues of The Educational Screen. 

iFroni J. Erie Grinnell's, Interpreting the Public Schools, 
p. 26, Copyright by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1937. 

Continuous. The opposite of a continuous program 
is the technique used to gain support in time of stress, 
or to sell to the public some single phase of the school's 
program. The continuous program, however, keeps 
the public informed by an unbroken series of related 
facts concerning all activities of the school. 

Honest. The public will believe what it is told about 
the schools if it is certain that the information is genuine 
and unadulterated, and that all the facts necessary for 
interpretation are given. 

Inclusive. The aim is to provide all tlie information 
needed by the public to correctly interpret the school. 
Hence, to "ride" a single phase of the school's pro- 
gram and neglect the others, to present all phases of 
the school's program but with information too meager 
on each, does not meet the standard of inclusiveness. 

Understandable. Educators are often guilty of put- 
ting on a spectacle for the public enjoyment, and call- 
ing it interpretation of the school. A public relations 
program must make certain that the information it 

January, 1940 

desires to give to the public 
is the information the public 

Dignified but aggressive. 
The school should inspire 
respect. Cheap advertising 
methods are never dignified 
and never inspire respect. 
"A consistent program of 
enlightenment, carried on ag- 
gressively, without apologies 
and without unseasoned de- 
mands, can and will win the 
vital moral and financial sup- 
port of the community. It is 
one of the happy signs of the 
times that school men every- 
where are coming to realize 
that they are in no sense beg- 
gars for a small local charity, 

but that they are entrusted with civilization's most im- 
portant enterprise and as trustees must give a con- 
tinuous and dignified account of its values, aims, prog- 
ress, and needs. ""- 

Reach everyone in community. Too often the pro- 
gram confines itself to one group, usually the parents 
who have children in school. The other groups can 
not be neglected. The administrator, then, must inter- 
pret the school not just for one group, but for all in- 
dividuals and groups which together make up the gen- 
eral public. He must see that appropriate information 
reaches every individual in all these groups. 

Use every facility at hand. The first step in using 
every facility at hand is to know what interpretative 
facilities are available for use. (1) There is the array 
of printed material which includes student yearbooks, 
student magazines, student newspapers, the community 
newspapers, school bulletins, report cards, the prin- 
cipal's or teachers' letters to parents, superintendent's 
annual report, school catalogues, school house organs, 
pupils' handbooks, teachers' handbooks, and articles on 
education in current magazines. (2) Another type of 
media is the spoken word. Included here are the 
speeches or talks to community groups by the school 
staff and other educational experts, either directly, or 
over the radio. Although dift'erent in approach, the 
spoken word used by the school staff in daily contacts 
would also come under this category. (3) The third 
classification includes those agencies which can be seen. 
These are school exhibits, the pupils at work (school 
visits), lantern slides, motion pictures, and the physical 
properties of the school. 

It IS not, however, the purpose of this thesis to set 

I up a full program of public-school relations. Its purpose 
is merely to show how the school-made motion picture 
may be utilized as a public relations medium and to 
show what has already been done by thirty-eight schools 
in Ohio who use this medium. The preceding aims and 
standards of a public-relations program are included in 
this thesis so that the reader may be better able to in- 
terpret the value of the school-made motion picture as 

•J. Erie Grinnell, Op. Cit.. p. 38. 

A kindergarten group in a story hour with the teacher. 

a relative part of a total continuous public-relations 
program. These aims and standards are included also 
to discourage educators from depending upon the motion 
picture to do all the interpreting for the school. 

Chapter II 

The Role of the Motion Picture 
in Public Relations 

The preceding chapter presented the standards and 
agencies for a public relations program which are ac- 
ceptable to most public relations authorities. How the 
various interpretative media are to be set up and re- 
lated to form one continuous and balanced program in 
a paiticular situation will depend upon the background 
and skill of the interpreter. 

Advantages of Motion Pictures 

The schools have made rapid strides in the use of 
newer and better methods of education. New courses 
have been added to the curriculum, such as industrial 
arts, home economics, music, dramatics, physical educa- 
tion, and business education. Some of the innovations 
in method are the unit plan, the socialized recitation, 
and the .so-called activity program. The extra-curri- 
cular activities play an important part in the traditional 
school set-up ; usually these are the varsity sports pro- 
gram, student clubs, student government and the safety 

A major job of the public relations program is to 
bring and keep the public up to date, by mterpreting 
for them these newer courses, methods, and materials. 
The motion picture can be a big factor in doing this 
because it is a medium which is easily understood and 
which can reach every level of public mtelligence. 

A specific example of how one school has attempted 
to bring the public up to date on the use of newer edu- 
cational methods and materials through the use of the 
school-made motion picture is shown in the following 
"Continuity for a Movie On Reading." Note that this 
continuity answers the public's usual queries concern- 
ing progressive methods for the teaching of reading. 

Page 10 

The Educational Screen 

The following list shows how these queries are an- 
swered in the film. 

1. Why concrete things are labeled with their names. 
This promotes functional learning on the part of 
the child. 

2. A definite part of the program is the eye test. 
If eyes are weak or need correction, reading will 
be difficult. 

3. The "reading readiness" test demonstrates why 
all children are not ready for regular reading 
activities at the same age. 

4. The most important single item which the pic- 
ture so adequately portrays is the fact that mean- 
ingful reading for the beginner is based almost 
entirely upon concrete experience. The movie 
shows how this concrete experience is integrated 
with the reading program. 

5. In the upper grades the movie shows how the 
reading becomes more abstract and the pupils de- 
pend more and more on reference materials for 
their source of information. 

Continuity — Movie on Reading^ 

1. Title — "Our Children Learn to Read." 

2. Scroll Subtitle 

3. Flash shots of several of the following situations where 
reading is necessary : 

a. Builder reading blueprint 

b. Man scanning bus timetable 

c. Pedestrian reading street signs 

d. Travelers consulting map 

e. A couple looking at circle advertisement (Neon) 

f. Hunter suddenly noticing "No Hunting" sign 

g. Man ordering meal from menu 

h. Woman consulting prices in a store 
i. Home scene: Man reading nevk'spaper, woman con- 
sulting recipe as she bakes cake. Youngster of 
Kindergarten age plays on the floor. Mother picks 
up circular inviting her to visit school on Wed- 
nesday to "observe how your child learns to read 
in the Fordson Schools." She indicates by actions 
that she is interested. 

4. Youngster in previous shot leaves home, crosses street 
aided by safety patrol, enters school, opens door marked 

"Used by permission of William G. Hart, Director of Visual 
Education, Fordson Public Schools, Dearborn, Mich. 

A first grade group doing experience reading from class-made charts. 

5. Youngster proceeds to coat hook, picks out his name, 
hangs up coat, walks to group of kindergartners. 

6. End of story hour, teacher using pictures. Principal 
leads mother of youngster into room ; mother is greeted 
by teacher who proceeds with her to various points in 
room : 

a. Nature table with articles labeled 

b. Grocery store project with articles marked 

c. Calendar, child crossing oft" day. 

7. Teacher leads mother across hall to room marked 
"Junior Primary" as she explains, gestures toward IB 
room — fade. 

8. a. Child being given eye test 

b. Other children taking "treading Readiness" test — 

9. Subtitle — "We find that not all children are ready for 
regular reading activities at the same age." 

10. Mother watches scenes in Junior Primary room : 

a. Playhouse activity 

b. Story telling from large colored pictures 

11. Principal enters, leads mother to room marked " 
Grade." They enter and watch activities — 

a. Group reading stories on family life. One child 
reads as others follow their books 

b. Youngster examining rabbit or turtle. Teacher 
walks into scene, begins to write story as children 

c. Flashes — 

Group fixing weather chart. Others looking at 
Weekly Readers, reading easy books 

12. Shot of door lettered 4th grade, room with children 
seated and reading. Principal and mother walk into 
background, proceed to case where variety of books is 

13. Principal explains, gesturing in direction of books 

a. Fade into shot of teacher examining and selecting 
books from assistant superintendent's assortment — 

14. Principal finishes explanation and iioth turn to activities : 

a. Shot of student reading "Homes in Far Away 
Lands." Others in room making pictures from 
stories, while a group, in recitation, goes to map, 
points out country, shows picture in illustration 

b. Students writing stories. Student runs into diffi- 
culty, scratches his head, goes to dictionary, re- 
turns and continues. 

15. Principal and parent proceed down the hall, enter 6th 
grade room, vi'here they find: 

a. Social study or science reading 

b. Portion of group leaves room for library shots of 

1. Use of card index, encyclopedia and other 
reference materia! 

16. Closeup of principal and 
mother seated in office talk- 
ing; principal opens desk, 
pulls out Standard Achieve- 
ment Test, points to test as 
he explains — fade 

a. Group taking Stanford 
Achievement Tests 

b. Junior High scene — 
remedial reading — fade 

c. Senior High — "Circle 
Groups" — 

d. Senior High library — 

17. Mother leaves office and 
building — fade 

18. Family scene as in opening. 
Youngster picks up his book, 
runs to his father pointing 
out a picture — dissolve into 

19. Silhouette shot of man in 
factory reading blueprint, 
slow fade 

20. The end. 
(To he continued) 

January, 1940 

Page 11 

Using Visual Aids to Correlate 

a First Grade Subject - ''Gray Squirrel" ' 

Describing a noteworthy application of visual aids 
in a First Grade unit by Helen Lammers of the 
Roosevelt School, Cincinnati, assisted by the author. 


Cincinnati, Ohio, Public Schools 

THE unit was opened with a story "Billy and the 
Nuts."i The pictures in the book were discussed 
and the children asked questions which were pur- 
posely not answered by the teacher. The story was then 
dramatized and read to the other groups. With interest 
very high the teacher then mentioned the film "Gray 
Squirrel."- After the enthusiasm subsided the group 
was asked "What do we want to know about squirrels ?" 
These are the questions which were asked by a mixed 
group of first grade children whose I. Q. range was 

1. Where do the squirrels stay in winter? 

2. Has a squirrel lots of hair? 

3. Where do they put their nuts in winter? 

4. How do they get their color ? 

5. How do they know where to look for nuts? 

6. How can they jump in the trees? 

7. How do they come down from the tree? 

8. How do they eat ? 

9. How do they hang on the tree trunk? 

10. How do the}' keep warm? 

11. How do they crack nut shells? 

12. How do they build their nests ? 

13. How do they get up in the tree with their nuts? 

14. How do they climb hills ? 

15. How do they go to bed? 

16. How do they keep dry? 

17. How do they walk ? 

18. How do they keep out of the weather? 

19. What wakes them up? 

20. How do they drink? 

21. Why do they have long tails ? 

22. How do they know where to hunt for water? 

23. Why are their teeth so sharp? 

24. How do they keep clean? 

25. How do they keep their home warm? 

26. Where do they find the material to build their nests? 

27. Why are their ears so little? 

28. How do they get their food in winter ? 

29. How do they keep their nests clean? 
(Additional questions asked later by children and 

added by the teacher) 

30. How does color protect squirrels? 

31. Use of fur to squirrel. Is it the same in winter as in 

32. How many claws on each foot ? 

33. How do they help him to climb? 

34. What does it like best to eat? 

*From a Master's Thesis, "Some Aspects of a Program of 
Visual Education for Cincinnati Public Schools." submitted 
by the author to the University of Cincinnati. 

lElson Gray, Elson Basic Reader — Primer. New York: Scott 
Foresman and Co., 1930, p. 67. 

'Produced by Erpi Classroom Films, Inc., 35-11 35th .\ve.. 
Long Island City, N. Y. 

35. _What kind of teeth does it Iiave? 

36. How does it keep teeth sharp? 

37. Are their eyes and ears small? 

38. Can squirrels see well ? 

39. Can a squirrel hear well? 

A cursory examination of the questions shows that 
many of the children now had an adequate background 
for the showing of the film and were interested in see- 
ing that which they had experienced in their reading, 
dramatization and discussion. For example, John knew 
that squirrels cracked nuts but he wanted to see exactly 
how this was done. Other questions such as "Why do 
they have long tails?" show that they were also inter- 
ested in new ideas not already i:i their realm of knowl- 

At this point the children were asked how many 
had ever seen a squirrel. (Possibly this question should 
have been asked earlier). Only five of the thirty-six 
children raised their hands and of the five there was 
considerable doubt about two who had vivid imagina- 
tions. Thus to at least thirty-one children the film was 
to be their first experience with a squirrel in motion, 
and most of us would agree that a squirrel has not been 
seen until it has been seen in motion. 

The film, lasting ten minutes, was shown to the child- 
len. The teacher, although having no previous ex- 
perience with the motion picture in the classroom, had 
followed the cardinal principle of previewing the film. 
No comments whatsoever were made by the teacher 
at this time, although there were many comments that 
the children w-ere making to themselves. One little girl 
kept up a running commentary, inaudible to all save 
herself and the teacher at her shoulder. She was busy 
answering the questions asked about the squirrel. 

It was noticed at this time that the more intelligent 
pupils were paying perfect attention while those of low 
I. Q. would occasionally let their gaze wander for a 
few seconds at a time. 

After the showing of the film the teacher held a 
class discussion. Nona remarked about the squirrels" 
winter home. Harry said he still didn't see how the 
squirrel kept warm and Albert reminded him of the 
coat of hair on the squirrel. Someone else told Harr}- 
that he noticed that the scjuirrel had his tail wrapped 
around him while he slept. The other questions were 
also discussed and misconceptions were cleared up — 
mostly by contributions by children who had observed 
closely at the point in question. 

The following day the film was again shown but in 
the meantime correlated activities had been taking 
place. Songs were learned about the squirrel. More 

Page 12 

The Educational Screen 

First grade children at work on the squirrel unit. 

Stories were read with increased interest. Other activi- 
ties in language, health and the others listed in the out- 
line were in progress. The children without a single ex- 
ception seemed engrossed in the unit. At this second 
showing of the film it was occasionally stopped for 
comment by the teacher or because of questions raised 
by members of the class. 

It was now again repeated as part of the language 
program. The sound was turned off and a microphone 
connected. Members of the class took turns at being the 
commentator. The first few were too awed and excited 
to get in more than a gasp or two. The film was stopped 
and the children instructed to visualize ahead as they 
could prepare their words. The film was again started 
and results gradually improved with lapses here and 
there. In many instances the children remembered the 
situation perfectly and told the story as naturally as 
the commentator himself. In all, sixteen of the children 
had the opportunity to "broadcast." They discussed 
the clearness of some of the voices and decided that 
"lazy lips" would never do if they wanted to have good 

The children then trooped down to compose their 
story of the film. All went well until they came to the 
part where the squirrel smelled the fox coming and 
scampered away. Some insisted that the squirrel 
dropped the nut in his hurry to escape. Others were 
just as positive that he had taken it with him. To 
settle the argument and clear up any other miscon- 
ceptions the children again trooped upstairs and the 
film was repeated. An interesting thing was noted by 
the teachers, for although this was the fourth time they 
had seen the film they were more interested than the 
first ! The first time the attention of the less intelligent 
wandered at times, but now every eye was fastened 
on the screen. They were interested, of course, in clear- 
ing up the argument but they watched the whole story 
with the highest degree of interest. When the bone of 
contention flashed on the screen all watched breathlessly 
as their hero put the acorn in his cheek and dashed 
away, saving his dinner as well as his skin. The argu- 
ment was over and everyone agreed that the squirrel 
was brave to hold on to the acorn with the enemy so 

Now the story could be told and as it was told the 
teacher wrote it on the blackboard. Following is the 
remarkable job that was done : 


Once upon a time there was a gray squirrel. 

Her name was Mrs. Gray Squirrel. 

She lived in a hole in an old oak tree. 

She had three baby squirrels. 

The baby squirrels were born with their eyes closed. 

Mrs. Squirrel gave them milk to drink. 

They grew and grew and got fat. 

They played down in the hole in the tree. 

Sometimes they played rough games. 

Then brother squirrel would say, "This game is getting too 

rough, let go of my ear." 
Soon the squirrels were two months old. 
Mrs. Squirrel made a summer home up in the oak tree. 
She made it out of twigs and leaves. 
Mrs. Squirrel led the baby squirrels to the new home. 
She came out of the hole first. 
Then Brother Squirrel came. 
Then all of them went up to the nest, at the top of the 

oak tree. 
They went up the tree head first. 
The squirrels played in the oak tree. 
Sometimes they did tricks. * 

They liked to hang by their hind legs. 
One day Brother Squirrel went down the tree trunk. 
He went down head first. 
He found an acorn, in a hole in the ground. 
He said, "I'll hide it for winter." 
One day Brother Squirrel found more nuts. 
The baby squirrels had a party on a stump of a tree. 
They had a good time. 
The squirrels liked to go to the brook and to get nice, 

cool, fresh water. 
Soon winter came with cold, frosty, and snowy days. 
Baby Squirrel was getting big now. 
He went to sleep in the hole in the tree. 
He covered himself with his tail. 
When he woke up he was very hungry. 
So he went down the tree to find something to eat. 
He found an acorn he had buried in the fall. 
He picked it up very carefully. 
Now to find a place to eat it. 
Then he smelled Red Fo.x. 
Red Fox was coming toward him. 
Gray Squirrel ran away very fast. 
Red Fox ran faster and faster. 
Gray Squirrel climbed up the oak tree. 
Gray Squirrel peeped out of the hole. 
He had the acorn in his mouth. 
He was eating it. 
Gray Squirrel was safe in his home in tlie hole in the 

oak tree. 
Red Fox could not get him. 
He could not climb the tree. 

The story was then divided into twelve pictures, and 
creative art work with its provision for individual dif- 
ferences took place. Sometimes considerable discussion 
took place before they could agree on the pictures. Each 
child made his picture according to his conception and 
his ability, and the results were then made into booklets, 
each child having his own. 

The children as a group, compo.sed a poem "Squirrel, 
Squirrel." There were many suggestions and contribu- 
tions before the "weeding-out" produced the final poem 
as herein reproduced. With the direction of the music 
teacher the poem was set to music. 

Although the final phrases accepted were the work 
of four children many more had tried and all felt that 
they had contributed — it was their song. 

January, 1940 

Page 13 

Original Poem 
Squirrel, Squirrel 

Squirrel, squirrel, come to me 
Here I am under the tree. 
Waiting for you to come to me. 
With your baby squirrels three. 

Squirrel, squirrel, come to me, 
I found some nuts under the tree. 
Come and eat them beside me. 
Bring j^our baby squirrels three. 

Squirrel, squirrel, up in the tree, 

I found some acorns under the tree, 

Come here alongside of me, 

And I will give them to you. 

You can eat and eat. 

You and your baby squirrels three. 

Original Music 
to the Above Words 



As can be seen the music fits only the first and second 
stanzas. The children couldn't quite revamp the last 
stanza and were so unwilling to radically change it that 
their teacher felt the music would be adequate with two 

General Evaluation of the Unit 

The first grade teacher, Miss Lammers, and the 
writer feel that the film was of the highest value to the 
children. They can think of no other way in which the 
lesson of "Gray Squirrel" can so adequately be brought 
into the lives of the children. 

The time elapsed enabled them to see the squirrel 
grow up on his diet of milk, his exercise and his right 
amount of rest. A squirrel in the room could not have 
brought the same lesson as the squirrel in his native 
habitat. Combined with the other activities as listed 
in the outline, the film certainly attained the desired 

The greatest contribution of the film as a peculiar 
medium was its ability to supply the necessary motion. 
The squirrel eating, learning to climb, digging while 
perfectly balanced, playing, running, sniffing the air, 
were all concepts that were portrayed to the children 
more adequately than could have been done by any 
other medium. 

A detailed presentation of the "Gray Squirrel Unit" 
in outline form is given here : 

I. Objectives 

(a) To know about squirrel life — his food habits— home 

To teach that animals diflfer from one another in 
their habits. 

To learn more about squirrels' relatives. 
To increase vocabulary — new words such as haunches, 
furry, bark. 

(e) To increase interest in reading and poetry. 

(f) To induce neatness and pride in work. 

(g) To teach love and care of animals. 




(h) To develop an appreciation of the interdependence of 

(i) To learn to criticize own work fairly, 
(j) To learn cooperation in the use of materials, 
(k) To increase power to observe facts carefully. 
• (1) To feel free in asking thoughtful questions. 

II. Materials Used 

Poster paint, crayons, poster paper, clay, chalk, paste, maga- 
zines, bulletin board, magazine pictures mounted, acorns 
and other nuts, books, 16mm film and projector, glass 
slides and stereopticon. 

III. Approach 

Read story in Elson Basic Reader. 
Children asked questions about squirrel. 
Discussion of other pictures about squirrel. 
Read story to other groups. 
Dramatized the story. 

All this led to questions about the squirrel. 
TRe ftim "Gray Squirrel" was mentioned and the showing 

IV. Correlation With Other Subjects 

(a) Language — 

Discussion of how to prepare for excursion — what 
to look for — what we saw in film that we did not 
see on squirrel excursion and vice versa — how we 
act on our excursion— what we need to feed the 
squirrel — where to get it. 

1. Discussion of how many of our questions were 
answered in the film. 

2. How mother squirrel cares for her babies- 
compare with our mothers. 

3. How the squirrels prepare for winter and sum- 
mer. Compare with other animals we know — 
dog, cat, birds— compare with father and mother 
(link up with our farm unit.) 

4. Dangers to which squirrel is exposed — how he 
meets these dangers. Dangers we are exposed to 

(Continued on page 24) 




by the 


Page 14 

The Educational Screen 

A Laboratory In Visual Education 

VISUAL education is part of the main course — 
neither a side-dish nor an appetizer. Yet strangely 
enough, visual aids have been served to student 
teachers like paprika on a spring salad, a sprinkle here 
and there, hors d'oeuvres or extras ! The question is : 
How can student teachers, or experienced ones, for that 
matter, be expected to use the visual aid effectively 
without at first having had the opportunity of actually 
studying it, of knowing those available for specific 
subjects, of finally actually relating them to the subject 
matter and pupils to be taught? 

Few, indeed, would think of presenting a unit of 
activity without at first having studied the books to 
be used. Of just as great importance is the study of the 
visual and other supplementary tools. Libraries 
have been provided for the study of books, but labora- 
tories for the study of visual aids have been conspicuous 
by their absence ! 

Increasing opportunity is being given to study visual 
education in courses and seminars bearing this title. 
Excellent books and articles in the professional library, 
results of experiments and tests disclose the reasons 
for and the desirability of visual education. Yet, there 
is a difference between the study of visual education 
and the study of visual aids. The former is the theo- 
retical study about the latter, and the one is incom- 
plete without the other. To be sure one of these aids, 
the motion picture, is studied, viewed, and previewed. 
Yet, because the other types of visual aids are not in- 
cluded for study, because samplings of motion pictures 
for limited fields of subject matter only are shown, 
teachers leave the classroom with the distorted idea that 
visual education is the motion picture. 

It has certainly not been the intention of the well- 
informed instructor to convey a false idea of the situa- 
tion, inasmuch as scientifically acquired data has proved 
that the field trip, the slide, the motion picture, the 
object-specimen-model, the print picture and photo- 
graph, the third-dimension picture, the diorama, in 
short the other types of visual aids, must all be used 
together and are applicable as teaching tools for nearly 
every subject. That the motion picture is only one 
fraction of the visual aids which must be used in the 
classroom for the achievement of desired results is a 
recognized fact. Either consciously or unconsciously, 
instead of remedying the situation by supplying the 
other types of visual aids for study in relation to specific 
subject matter, a series of useless rationalizations has 
developed attempting to explain the problem. 

Some argue that visual education centers, busy with 
research and distribution of materials, will take the time 
to teach all that is necessary about these aids. Visual 
education centers, on the contrary, have faintly hoped, 
and are still hoping, that the training schools will some- 

A telling discussion of the importance of studying 
the application of visual aids to specific subjects. 


Visual Aids Office, Claremont College, 
Claremont, California 

time prepare their teachers for the intelligent use of 
these aids. Some contend that for fear of destroying 
individual independence of research, or of "wasting 
time on the practical." which they assume students 
teachers will eventually acquire, time should not be 
spent in rendering assistance in this field. Others, too 
absorbed in solving the pedagogical question whether 
visual education should be taught in a course bearing 
this title, or incorporated in a departmental method- 
ology course, overlook one important question, which 
could, if considered, solve the entire problem. 

As the situation has existed, the study of visual 
education as a subject in itself too often has not been 
related or applied to particular subjects to be taught in 
the school system. As a result, those interested in 
seeing it actually applied to particular subjects have 
contended that as a course it should be dispensed with, 
and incorporated with methodology for the specific 
subjects. Yet, if the latter were to be done, the im- 
portant study of the theory underlying the use of visual 
aids could not be adequately studied, and therefore 
visual education would not advance as a science, and no 
progress would be made in the field. If. however, the 
visual education course could be supplemented by a 
library or laboratory of visual aids wherein adequate 
study of these aids would make possible their intelligent 
application and relation to specific subjects at the same 
time supplementing the theory which would serve as 
the point of departure or basis for this study, the prob- 
lem of how to present this subject would be solved. 
The value of the laboratory period is recognized in 
various fields even in the most liberal of the liberal 
arts colleges. Certainly its value in the professional 
school cannot be overlooked. 

To test this idea and refute non-constructive rational- 
izations, with a view to later organizing a seminar in 
visual education to be supplemented by a visual aids 
laboratory, such a laboratory was set up in the spring 
of 1936 at Claremont Colleges.^ The plan was to build 
resources which would include all types of visual aids 
for various subjects both in the elenipntary and second- 
ary field. 

As the work advanced it was soon found that the 
research and the building of resources for the laboratory 
could not be the sole function of the office. For the 
student teacher there are three important factors to be 
considered as he anticipates actual teaching. First, the 
planning of the unit and course of study ; secondly, the 
location and study of the tools to lie used in the develop- 

' Under the direction of Mrs. E. H. Genung. to whom credit 
is due for this experiment, the laboratory was conducted with 
the assistance of her daughter, writer of this article, in con- 
nection with the Department of Education, Claremont Colleges, 
Claremont, California. 

January, 1940 

ment of the unit ; and thirdly, a study and understand- 
ing of the interests, abilities, and environment of the 
pupils to be taught. Adequacy of resources of tools 
and materials alone will not solve these {problems for 
several reasons. Regardless of the training and prepa- 
ration which he has had, it is not until he actually 
comprehends the problems in relation to an actual situa- 
tion that he realizes their significance. Lack of experi- 
ence is a handicap to the student teacher at the out- 
set, and unfortunately, at the time when he most needs 
guidance and encouragement, he receives little or no 
assistance as he enters the teaching situation because 
it is assumed that he has had adccjuate ])reparation. 

To use successfully the visual aid as a tool the 
user must have insight in relating it to the unit plan, 
to other tools and supplementary materials, such as 
books, and to the interests and abilities of the pupils. 
If the student teacher is having difficulty to plan the 
unit, to study the pupils, to adjust himself to this new 
situation, he will also have difficulty in relating his 
tools to the unit and to the pupils. Unlike the carpenter, 
he has the tools, the materials, but cannot build the 
house. The teacher also needs plans, an insight into 
the situation, a knowledge how to use the tools, an 
understanding of the goal toward which he is building. 
For this reason each teacher individually has been as- 
sisted and encouraged in prejiaring plans for the units 
under construction, in relating the tools to the unit, to 
other tools, and to the pupils to be taught. With these 
additional functions it is evident why this office has been 
called a laboratory rather than a library of visual aids. 
Its function is something more than collecting, filing 
and mechanically distributing these tools ! 

To be of complete assistance a library of school text 
— and supplementary — books, courses of study and 
suggested outlines for units were added in connection 
with the laboratory, thus making possible the relating 
of visual aids to the supplementary materials to be used. 
"No expression without impression" is as true for 
student teachers as for the pupils whom they are to 
teach. Study of suggested courses of study and units 
prepare for individual creation and contribution to the 
field. With the resulting insight, stimulus, interest, 
and enthusiasm, combined with the spirit of discovery, 
exploration, creativeness, and skill, education becomes 
dynamic, alive, and vital for both teacher and pupils. 
With this background the student teacher is pre- 
pared to intelligently explore the resources of the visual 
education distributing centers located in the public 
school systems. Realizing the value of the training 
thus rendered in the laboratory, the directors of the 
visual education centers in the district have co-operated 
wonderfully with the undertaking, making available 
for student teachers first hand information regarding 
the development of special projects in their offices. 
Lists of their resources have been made available, and 
frequent exhibits have been sent from these centers 
for special study. One of outstanding merit was that 
of a complete set of miniature, working models depict- 
ing the evolution of the textile industry consisting of 
perfectly constructed spinning wheels, looms, etc. 
complete in every detail. ^ 

^Exhibit from the Los Angeles County Visual Education 
Center, under the director of Marion Louise Israel. 

Page 15 

Samples of exhibit materials for study. 

As student teachers, with their acquired skill and 
understanding of visual education, have contacted 
school systems in accepting positions, teachers already 
in the field, aroused by the accomplished results of 
these new teachers, have come to the laboratory to learn 
more about this field. It has been discovered' that be- 
cause of lack of opportunity heretofore to study theory 
combined with the actual visual materials, many 
teachers have not realized the significance of the visual 
education centers in their own school .systems, and 
have not made use of this service. The enthusiasm 
with which these teachers study the field when given 
the opportunity, the success with which they achieve re- 
sults has not only been gratifying but also stimulating 
to student teachers. 

As a result of this contact, there has developed in 
the laboratory an exchange of ideas, not only in the 
techniques of using visual aids, but in the production 
of visual aids. Surprising accomplishments have been 
achieved in districts where no visual education dis- 
tributing centers have been provided, but where 
teachers, realizing the need for such, have resorted to 
building their own visual aids libraries. A table has 
been set aside purposely for the display of such 
materials. Animals, expertly made by pupils from 
nothing more than peanuts and pipe-cleaners, colored 
and mounted on milk-bottle stoppers, have been ingen- 
iously studied in the one-room school in the study of 
man's needs around the world. The Roman forum, 
expertly carved from soap in the Latin class ; Germany's 
contributions to United States culture beautifully por- 
trayed in pictures by pupils of a German class, have 
been a few of the inspiring exhibits. 

In order to make it possible for enrolled teachers to 

(Continued on page 32) 

Page 16 

The Educational Screen 



Editor of "The Spur," New York City 

Lincoln & Parker 

OUR interest is, however, in Lin- 
coln and Parker, who I believe, 
organized their Educational Films 
Bureau in Worcester considerably before 
Cornell entered the line — about 1914. They 
are said to have been the first picture peo- 
ple to issue teaching syllabi with their re- 
leases. Fred Lincoln of Boston was the 
production man ; Parker cared for the 
routine business end, especially import- 
ant to him because he had invested his 
savings in the concern. They apparently 
justified their organization for, as long 
afterward as the peacetime breakup of 
Community Motion Picture Bureau, 
Henry Bollman came over from New 
York and found them sufficiently pros- 
perous to engage his services for a period 
of six months. 

Both partners had been teachers. 
Parker is said to have been principal of 
a school in Worcester, but this post he 
had resigned in favor of the new venture. 
Lincoln, who conceived the original idea 
of the concern, it seems, is believed to 
have taught school long before in some 
small community in northern New Eng- 
land. Some say that he once taught in 
Worcester, too. The scheme which he 
evolved was intended to supply class- 
rooms with pictures in all departments of 
learning, designed specifically for peda 
gogical needs, together with teachers' 
handbooks, projectors and screens as re- 

Lincoln had worked it out in such 
complete detail, and had so convinced 
himself of its probable efficacy that, after 
his eventual certainty, he refused all 
proposed outside alliances which ex- 
pected to arrive at the same end. More- 
over, he saw that end as so eminently 
worthwhile in the great cause of educa- 
tion that he apparently felt that any risk 
Vv'as justified to make it come true. 
Parker also was certain of the merit of 
the enterprise, but he was more liberal 
in his views — more "down-to-earth," as 
I have heard it expressed — in applying 
methods of realization. 

Lincoln was at first richly rewarded 
in financial promotion of his scheme ; and 
the partnership began with all favorable 
signs prevailing. Led by Lincoln, the 
new business removed from Worcester 
to Boston as more advantageously 
situated, and took over an entire build- 
ing of its own, fitted with everything 
believed to be necessary to carry on a 
nationwide operation. They produced 
many films and purchased others which 
could be edited to meet the strict re- 
quirements. Their teachers' handbooks, to 
guide users to full benefit from the ap- 
paratus, were extraordinarily voluminous 

and complete. They had their own pro- 
jector, probably one of the first success- 
ful "suitcase" machines on the niarke;. 
It was designed by Hall of Boston, an 
able technician who today sells — from his 
.!;n)all machine shop— an interesting pro- 
jector of his own invention, which 
functions without any "intermittent" 

Ir the Lincoln and Parker personnel 
was a young man named Floyd A. Rams- 
dell. He had been a physics instructor 
in a Coimecticut school, but his home was 
in Worcester and he hud graduated from 
Clark College there. His interest, training 
in natural science and his knack for 
mechanical adaptations doubtless ac- 

Autbor's Note — The manifest 
impracticability of reviewing a 
huge mass of research — accumu- 
lated over many 5'ears and re- 
quiring more than 20,000 index 
cards to catalogue it — means 
that the Editors of Educational 
Screen have accepted the manu- 
script of this long history mainly 
on faith. In the circumstances, the 
Author assumes full responsibility 
for all statements of fact and ex- 
pressions of opinion herein, at the 
same time that he invites cor- 
rections and emendations for the 
betterment of the record when it 
is published eventually in book 

counted for his gradual specialization in 
film production ; and it was not long be- 
fore he, himself, qualified as an ex-'eit 
with the camera. But his official position 
v./ith Lincoln and Parker was sales man- 

It was also in the sales division that 
another interesting and able member of 
the organization appeared. This was W. 
Allen Luey, the son of a Lincoln and 
Parker stockholder in the West. He had 
been educated as an engineer, but had 
had the usual difficulty in obtaining 
proper employment following his gradua- 
tion, so, about 1915, using his father's 
introduction, he had become a sales repre- 
sentative of Lincoln and Parker in De- 
troit. A third staff man, to whom at- 
taches a later interest, was Paul Hugon, 
then in the production department and 
today a resident of Hollywood, more 
widely known as editor and compiler of 
a recent reference book entitled The 
Modern Word-Finder. 

Lincoln and Parker had believed that 
$250,000 would be sufficient to establish 
their enterprise. It proved to be a fallacy ; 
and the fallacy seems to have been in 
their belief that they could grow there- 

Installment Number Fifteen — about 
the rise and fall of non-theatrical 
New England and the happier 
hunting grounds of the Midwest 

after unaided into their full strength— 
that is, sell their first pictures for money 
sufficient to produce the later ones. Un- 
happily, it soon became evident that 
school systems were unwilling to pur- 
chase what they believed to be incom- 
plete sets. There were other opposing 
reasons in combination. 

Whatever those causes were, Lincoln 
and Parker were deceived, as so many 
other non-theatrical producers were to be 
in later years, by the seeming eagerness 
of schoolmen for the machinery of visual 
education, and discovered that they had 
to turn their available funds from pro- 
duction, which had been the original in- 
tent, into increased sales effort. The 
treasury became alarmingly empty. Rigid 
economies were effected while Lincoln, 
without having satisfied the backers of 
the profits which they had anticipated, set 
out to raise more money. Titles and dis- 
tinctions in jobs became less important, 
and every person concerned performed 
extra duties within the limits only of his 

W. Allen Luey's engineering back- 
groimd had been kept in mind and, after 
he had profited from his sales experience 
in the field for approximately a year, he 
was summoned from Detroit and placed 
in charge of the projector factory at 
Worcester. His principal assignment 
there was to work out and perfect devices 
for fireproof projection. In those days, 
of course, the only practicable film for 
serious purposes was 35 millimeters in 
width, and fire hazards were grave con- 
siderations. One of the interesting de- 
velopments made by Luey and his as- 
sociates was a water-cell which cooled 
the concentrated light from the lamp- 
hoi;se before it reached the film, the water 
circulating through an accompanying 

At about this point Thomas A. Edison 
came into the story. His educational film 
endeavors after the disastrous studio fire 
ill December, 1914, which had discouraged 
the further manufactuie of his Home 
Kineloscopes, had been mainly in pub- 
lished statements and not in practical 
production. An educational department 
had bten maintained longer, but its ac- 
tivities had dwindled steadily until, about 
1919. had come the last, dying gasp of 
the once-powerful Motion Picture 
Patents Company. Then the Edison 
Studio, and all it contained, were put up 
for sale. 

Fred Lincoln saw in this situation an 
opportunity to strengthen his new stock- 
selling campaign with the Edison name. 
Making a relatively small down pay- 
ment, he "purchased" the Edison Studio, 
assuming a mortgage for the large bal- 
ance and trusting to Providence for 

January, 1940 

Page 17 

future means to meet the interest and 
principal. But his was a forlorn hope. 
The required additional payments could 
not be made ; the studio reverted to the 
Edison Company by foreclosure ; and 
Lincoln and Parker went out of busi- 
ness. Lincoln continued in Boston with a 
small motion picture supply depot ; 
Parker returned to teaching. 

Floyd Ramsdell and Paul Hugon, thus 
taught a salutary lesson about the un- 
profitableness of school production, saw 
a better chance in making industrials. 
Back in the original home town they 
raised some local capital and formed the 
Worcester Film Corporation. W. Allen 
Luey was taken on. Hugon assumed 
charge of production ; Ramsdell became 
treasurer and general manager. Hugon 
remained only a short time however, be- 
ing lured away by apparent opportunities 
in Los Angeles — and, when he left, W. 
Allen Luey succeeded him in production 

The Worcester Film Corporation mem- 
bers became recognized as able producers 
in their line particularly after their mak- 
ing of an exceptionally interesting and 
technically superior reel called "Through 
Life's Windows," the American Optical 
Company being the client. That reel has 
been exhibited successfully for many 
years and, ironically perhaps, has had its 
greatest success in school distribution. 
Paul Hugon directed it, hut Ramsdell is 
entitled to a large share of the credit. 
W. Allen Luey, who remained with Wor- 
cester until July, 1932, has enjoyed a 
highly deserved respect in the field for 
numerous industrial reels which reflect 
his sound engineering knowledge and 
talent for clear presentation. 

He severed his connection with Wor- 
cester Film Corporation only because 
circumstances, incidental to the coming of 
talking pictures and a nationwide eco- 
nomic Depression, made income insuf- 
ficient for a stafiF. Ramsdell has since car- 
ried on the corporation to a slowly mend- 
ing outlook. In 1937 Luey, after a five- 
year interval as an independent producer, 
became director of motion pictures for 
the U. S. Forest Service, at Washing- 
ton, moving into the place vacated by 
Carl Gregory when that interesting 
veteran stepped upward to his position in 
charge of the film section in the National 
Archives Building. 


In New Haven, Connecticut, quite 
close to Worcester, there seems also tc 
have been an atmosphere more cordial 
to non-theatrical producers. At least one 
made a fair living there until about 1933. 
I refer now to Leroy G. Phelps, founder 
and president of Phelpsfilms, Inc. 

He was originally a newspaper proof- 
reader — a very good one, too, according 
to friends "who knew him when." 
Through an acquaintance, who conducted 
a photograph gallery in New Haven, he 
became interested in the making of news 
stills, and then in cranking a motion pic- 
ture camera. When he next found op- 
portunity to sell material to the news- 
reels now and then, he entered the busi- 
ness in earnest, and took a floor in an old 
building on Meadow Street, where he 
could have a title shop and a processing 

laboratory. Modest sums had been put 
up by the other incorporators, and vir- 
tually all were eager to invest more. But 
Phelps was always that sort of con- 
scientious fellow who preferred to take 
all of his own risks. While he hustled for 
business, he studied the technical aspects 
of the camera and its appurtenances ; and 
I doubt that any person in his line of 
work then, possessed a more useful stock 
of pertinent information. 

His newsreel specialty was to photo- 
graph the athletic games at Yale. In that 
way he i)ecame known to the university 
officials and to members of the faculty. 
Before long he was the e-xpert to whom 
they looked for any needed service con- 
nected with -notion pictures. His scrupul- 
ous honesty and respect for confidences 
brought him also the laboratory work on 
experimental films photographed for 

L. G. Phelps emerged from the ordeal 
of being a leading New England non- 
theatrical producer with many 
friends, much experience — and few 
profits. He deserved better treatment. 

various test and record purposes in dif- 
ferent university departments. On the in- 
dustrial side his intelligence, his readiness 
to oblige, the sanctity of his contracts, 
his well-equipped little plant, his work- 
manlike manner and his extremely 
nominal prices made possible by a modest 
overhead, brought him accounts through- 
out New England. His staff consisted of 
an assistant, Mel Preston, who ran the 
laboratory when he wasn't assisting on 
locations, a title artist, a compositor who 
set up and printed type titles, and an 
alert young women, Mrs. Costello, who 
managed the office and cared for the cor- 
respondence and the books. Phelps, him- 
self, wrote the scenarios, directed and 

The coming of sound pictures hit the 
gallant little organization severely. Not 
so very far away, however, at Water- 
bury, was the elderly and distinguished 
William Henry Bristol, inventor of much 
acoustical apparatus including the de- 
cidedly interesting Bristolphone. For this 
speech-making device Dr. Bristol even 
had a fine little studio where he made 
some creditable talking pictures of his 
own. He wanted Phelps to use the place 
and, when Bristol suddenly died, his 
e.xecutors were even more pressing in 

the invitation. So Phelps tried production 
there a couple of times, welcomed en- 
thusiastically by the local press which 
fell into the idea that here might be the 
germ of a new Hollywood. For awhile 
Phelps thought of moving his organiza- 
tion there permanently. He weighed the 
matter very carefully. Then, surveying 
the potential non-theatrical business once 
more, he concluded that he couldn't make 
a go of it. There wasn't much produc- 
tion obtainable for a small concern any- 
where. Somewhat later he confessed to 
me that conditions were critical even in 
New Haven, and he might have to find a 
job as cameraman to tide him over. 

At last, early in 1933, he phoned me to 
say farewell. He was sailing for Singa- 
pore in two or three hours with Frank 
Buck, the "bring-'em-back-alive" wild 
animal collector. During his absence, any 
industrial business for Phelpsfilms 
would be handled by his friendly com- 
petitor, the Worcester Company. A year 
slipped by. Then a bronzed, bright-eyed 
gentleman burst in upon me. It was 
Phelps, abounding in energy and new 
ideas, but now fully persuaded that the 
little business in New Haven was a vexa- 
tion and a waste of time when the world 
was filled with so many more interest- 
ing, vital and profitable things to do. 

But. of course, that wasn't the real 
Roy Phelps. He never "walked out on a 
job" in his life. So he presently buckled 
down and, for the sake of the partners 
and the employees who depended on him 
so completely, he shut off his dreams of 
high adventure and went the dishearten- 
ing, petty rounds once more. 

It was no use. The next time I saw 
him we talked of many things. And then, 
in an inconspicuous lull in the con- 
versation, he told me bravely that Phelps- 
films was no more — the fixtures had been 
sold, the corporation had been ended. The 
final dissolution, however, was not an- 
nounced until May, 1935. A month or so 
thereafter I received a card from him 
mailed at Rutshnrn, Kivu, in the Belgian 
Congo, via Mombasa, where he was 
enthusiastically photographing African 
native life for Armand Denis and Leila 
Roosevelt. But after that again, in 1938, 
a handsome new letterhead attested his 
return to non-theatricals. Yet no. In 
October 1939 came a postcard from 
him mailed to me from a remote moun- 
tain city in India. 

I hear someone suddenly exclaim, 
"Why, this non-theatrical field is little 
more than a graveyard !" But no — it isn't. 
Phelpsfilms may be out of business, and 
so may many another be. What matter? 
There is no intrinsic life in partnerships, 
companies and corporations as such ; it's 
all in the individual men and women 
comprising them. And, when the time is 
ripe, they will serve to build partner- 
ships, corporations and companies anew. 

Philip Davis 

It is characteristic of business life 
and human nature that, when an area is 
covered with struggling little enterprises, 
some person with confidence in his own 
powers of vision and leadership, will arise 
and seek to command it for his own 
profit. The phenomenon may be observed 
over and over again in these pages. It is 

Page 18 

observable now in our survey of the non- 
theatrical field in New England. 

The promoter in this instance was not 
by birth a product of that rock-bound soil, 
having first seen the light at Moteleh, 
Russia, in 1876. He was the son of 
David and Rachel Chemerinsky but, 
upon his arrival in the United States at 
the age of fourteen, he became plain 
Philip Davis. He received his first 
formal education at Hull House, the 
famous Chicago social settlement of 
Jane Addams, remaining there until, at 
twenty-two years of age, he entered 
Lewis Institute. After a year there and 
another at the University of Chicago, he 
moved into the New England atmosphere 
of Cambridge, matriculating at Harvard 
University and emerging about 1903 
with an A.B. degree. He had a natural 
interest in sociology, and Harvard, 
especially then, was an excellent place to 
nurture it. 

Davis continued his bent by becoming 
from 1903 to 1905, a national organizer 
of the Ladies' Garment Workers of 
America. In 1906 he started a half-dozen 
years as supervisor of the Boston News- 
boys' Republic and of the Boston News- 
boys' Court for the Boston public schools. 
For three years more he was director of 
the $50,000 campaign for the Massachu- 
setts Credit Union, and also a head 
worker in the Civic Service House at 
Boston. During the Worid War he was 
superintendent of employment in the wel- 
fare department of the American Inter- 
national Shipbuilding Corporation at 
Hog Island, Pennsylvania, and, when the 
conflict was over, he served as a field 
lecturer for the United Americans of the 
State of Maine. At intervals in all this 
activity, he wrote and edited books and 
magazine articles dealing with social 
problems, all creditably done. Knowing 
these facts, one would say that Philip 
Davis might be a brilliant acquisition for 
the non-theatrical field and, without a 
doubt, he has left a useful impress. 

He did not come into pictures all at 
once. But surely he must have thought 
about them at an early date, for tlie 
social worker, above all, is one to ponder 
on any mfluence which affects life so 
profoundly. Davis's lecture work, too, 
must have brought him into contact with 
films. Then, also, he knew the Fosters. 
In all events, at the close of the ^Yar he 
became New England representative of 
Community Pictures. When Community 
faded, he sought other sources of supply 
for his remaining customers ; and present- 
ly he became agent over the same terri- 
tory for the Pathe non-theatrical depart- 

He then ventured to make non-theatri- 
cal productions on his own account. 
Among these may be named: "Jack 
Spruce ; or. Life in the Northern Woods" ; 
"Forbidden Waters," featuring the work 
of the U. S. Coast Guards; and "From 
Whorls to Cloth," an industrial of the 
usual pattern. Along about 1924 he con- 
ceived the idea of making industrial films 
under the auspices of the Boston Po.sf. 
Three one-reelers were produced: "Your 
Hat and Mine," a tour of the hat in- 
dustry; "Harvesters of the Deep," pre- 
senting the work of the Gloucester fisher- 
men; and "The New England Home," 

With studio activities in New York, 
Chicago, Detroit and Hollywood, 
and customers at points between, 
Norman Wilding's experience as a 
traveling salesman serves him well. 

describing the manufacture of asphalt 
shingles. But, for some reason or other, 
all of the editors apparently did not un- 
derstand that their newspaper was to be 
used as a sort of stalking-horse for in- 
dustrial payments to Davis. When the 
situation became really clear, they re- 
pudiated the scheme, much to Davis's 

Nevertheless, the idea was basically 
sound — to produce films on the industries 
of New England, sponsored by a leading 
New England newspaper and released by 
Davis's National Motion Picture BureaU; 
of Medford, Massachusetts. I have al- 
ready noted that the Argus Company, in 
the Midwest, had tried a similar plan in 
cooperation with the Cleveland Plain 
Dealer. The entire arrangement, financed 
by the manufacturers and operated at 
cost, might have performed an excellent 
.social service, given industrial films a 
foothold in the area, and shown a real 
profit ultimately to all concerned. And. 
despite the setback, Davis was not 
through. We will hear more of him 50on 
again, with still another excellent idea. 

Next Month 

Completing the round of Chi- 
cago's non-theatrical commer- 
cial producers, the survey con- 
tinues westward by the northern 
route to Minneapolis, St. Paul 
and Kansas City, headed for 
the Pacific Coast. After that 
comes a return eastward by 
the southern route, with more 
stops along the way. And still 
this previously untold history is 
only just begun. The entire 
story is available exclusively to 
regular readers of Educational 
Screen. Subscribe now. 

The Educational Screen 


Along with this example of the man 
who came from the level midland area 
to New England's rugged hills, it is in- 
teresting to examine the case of another 
non-theatrical pioneer who went from 
New England to the Lakes. This adven- 
turous soul was Norman E. Wilding, 
salesman on the road for a lighting fix- 
ture concern in Connecticut. 

I did not know Wilding then, but I 
have no doubt that he was as successful 
in that line as anyone could have been 
in similar circumstances. Chipper, world- 
ly-wise, ready with the latest story from 
the road, rapid-fire in speech — and think- 
ing of business advantage every minute 
of every waking hour — he must have 
been popular with customers and other 
members of his traveling fraternity. The 
reason for his giving up that line I can 
only suppose to have been that he tired 
of it, and longed, like the energetic soul 
he was and is, for something more active. 
Anyway, somehow or other he fell in 
with a group of Chicago men who had a 
picture idea. It was not an original idea, 
but that was one of the facts which ap- 
pealed to Wilding because, having been 
tried before, it had proved to a gratifying 
extent that it worked. The proposition 
was to show propaganda pictures — indus- 
trials, chiefly — in the theatres. To carry 
it out the backers had formed a concern 
called the Commonwealth Film Company. 
They had no pictures yet, but they'd find 
those as soon as they had the distribution 
arranged. In fact, there were plenty of 
such films already made, spoiling on the 
shelves just because their owners had no 
worthwhile places to screen them. 

I can close my eyes and hear the rea- 
soning. In such cases it is always the 
same. At all events, it sounded right 
enough to young Wilding and, altliough 
he had no particular theatrical connec- 
tions then, he undertook to organize a 
large portion of such needed distribution 
in a territory with which he was particu- 
larly well acquainted — Michigan. With 
characteristic push, he promptly accom- 
plished his part of the bargain. Then he 
discovered that the required films were 
not as readily obtainable as they had 
seemed to be. Possibly those New Eng- 
land customers, with factory pictures 
spoiling on their shelves, had taken the 
human point of view that they would not 
now send good money after bad, for they, 
of course, were the ones expected to pay 
for the service. 

Wilding waited and waited, and still the 
promised pictures did not arrive. All the 
while his active mind was busy with the 
pros and cons. In his general line of 
salesmanship, signed contracts were de- 
finitely valuable properties. These in his 
possession were depreciating with time 
even more rapidly than the unmoved 
factory pictures. Why not, he reflected, 
turn them to his own account? So he 
abandoned Commonwealth to its seem- 
ingly undependable devices and decided 
that, if the films were not otherwise to be 
had, he would produce them himself. 
Which was the start of the Norman E. 
Wilding Enterprises of Detroit. 

(To be continued) 

January, 1940 

Page 19 

^fiE ^itszatuzs in ^ l/i±uaL Un^txiiation 

A Monthly Digest 

Conducted by Etta Schneider 

Techniques and Materials 

Visual Aids in a Social Studies Unit — 
Lois Lowe, Kindergarten Teacher, 
North Bend — Xebrasica Educational 
Journal, 18:337 December, 1939 

An interesting nnit of work around 
the home and family was developed as 
follows : Colored pictures of different 
rooms of a house attractively furnished, 
and pictures of members of the family 
engaged in various activities around the 
home were placed around the room. Tlie 
children decided to build a house in the 
classroom. The kinder-screen was re- 
built and repainted, placed in one corner 
of the room, and some furniture arranged 
in it. From time to time, as the chil- 
dren felt the need, additions were made 
to the screen, such as a roof, wallpaper, 
partitions, curtains, a porch, window 
boxes, and a mail box. 

A film of "Noontime at the Nursery 
School' was shown and the children be- 
came interested in cooking real food. 
The teacher chose a tea party which was 
part of the scene in an operetta written 
by her. Other activities in which the 
children engaged were the building of 
furniture, art work, rhythmic activities, 
dramatizations, and the like. 

Techniques of Visual-Sensory Aids — • 

Bulletin 509, Department of Public 

Instruction, Harrisburg, Penn. — 1939. 


This is a printed edition of the 

mimeographed course of study distributed 

in 1935 to instructors in visual education 

after the regulation was made that all 

teachers were required to take such a 

course for certification. Little has been 

changed in the content of the course as 

it now stands. 

The Teacher in the Visualization 
Movement — Mary .Ann Dale, Instruc- 
tor and Chairman, Visual Instruction 
Committee, Kearney — Nebraska Edu- 
cational Journal, 19 :332 December, 

Visualization is a commonplace maid- 
of-all-work and has been a servant of the 
resourceful teacher of all times; but 
what a "glamor-girl" she is now ! Em- 
bodied in an array of lanterns and sound 
projection equipment, she bears little 
resemblance to her ancestors. Before the 
potentialities of these new media can 
become realities, however, teachers must 
become aware of their unique function 
in promoting effective practices in visual 
instruction. It is not a matter of ma- 
chines and labor-saving devices. The 
whole thing is, rather, what teaching in 
any guise must ever be — a personal mat- 
ter between the teacher and the pupil, 
aided by the intelligent usage of selected, 
purposeful materials. The teacher must 
still emerge above her equipment as 

Visual Aid No. 1 if anything important 
is to come of it. If anything can defeat 
the dreams of leaders and workers in 
this field, it will be the class room 
teacher ; and if visual instruction is ever 
to become the dynamic force within the 
schools that it is outside its precincts, 
it will be because the classroom teacher 
brought it about. 

Assuming then that the teacher is the 
medium between the theory and the prac- 
tice of a new idea, what specific things 
can she do? In visual instruction what 
will her function be? 

1. She can set herself the task of sub- 
stituting actual experience for the 
customary discussion of it. Instead 
of 'constructing strange surfacfe 
features on a sand table, she will 
study the works of nature in their 
native setting in connection with 
her geography work. She will not 
talk about the history of the com- 
munity when the marks of history 
lie all about her unvlsited. 

2. She will see in such ancient visual 
aids as the blackboard, a medium 
for child expression ; in a map the 
picture of a people's resources ; in 
the museum a changing mode of 

3. If the older and less glamorous aids 
are used well, then the more ex- 
pensive equipment and tools will be 
safe in the teacher's hands. 

4. Courses for the home training of 
teachers are needed, much as was 
done in the practice of penmanship 
in years gone by. 

To the teacher who must tackle the 
problems of establishing her own meth- 
ods as best she can, the following simple 
principles are recommended : 1 ) Invest 
no school time, money or teaching effort 
in the use of materials which do not 
serve a purpose that is plain to pupil and 
teacher alike; 2) Make the film showing 
or the visual experience an aid to learn- 
ing and not an end in itself; 3) Make 
the visual activity a "springboard" to 
project pupil interest into further study. 

Using Visual Aids in Teaching Physics 

— Dr. G. A. VanLear, University of 
Oklahoma — Proceedings of Conference 
on Visual Education, University of 
Oklahoma, July, 1959 
Lantern slides have been found of 
great value in physics, to supplement 
laboratory experiments and blackboard 
drawings. A home-made cabinet in the 
room makes it possible to use the lantern 
at a moment's notice. Short-range pro- 
jectors are recommended to give a larger 
image, and the room need not be totally 
dark. With the help of NYA students, 
photographic slides have been made. 
Films are also used effectively in the 
teaching of physics. 

Motion Pictures in Education— D. L. 

Kruzner, Fife Schooh—lVashington 
Educational Journal, 19:15 October, 
Description of the service which mo- 
tion pictures render to the curriculum 
from kindergarten through the high 
school. A film on the life of the German 
people helped to acquaint the boys and 
girls with the common needs and prob- 
lems of those people, thereby offsetting 
somewhat any hatred which current hap- 
penings might inject. Of the films used 
in the schools of this system, 25% deal 
with science; 20% with geography and 
travel ; 20% with commerce and industry ; 
10% with history ; and 25% with social 
studies, health and other subjects. A 
continuing program of evaluation is 
helping to eliminate from use those films 
which are unsuitable. The cost of this 
film program does not exceed $150, which 
includes rental and postage. Free films 
are used quite extenstively. 

Administration of Visual Aids 

Rural School Progress in Oklahoma — 

Panel Discussion — Proceedings of 
Conference on Visual Education, Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma, July, 1939 

a) B. D. Gambel, Superintendent, 
Blaine County. 

In Blaine County, the teachers and 
the superintendent made a study of unit 
planning. They listed suitable reference 
books for the various units, and then 
proceeded to find appropriate films. One 
of the difficulties involved was the lack 
of electricity; another was lack of dark- 
ening facilities ; and the inadequate library 
materials. A generator was set up in a 
car to operate the projector, and the 
films were used. The films are used to 
supplement readings in social science. 
Silent films are accompanied by teacher 
comments, and it is planned to use them 
with a microphone. It is found that the 
films are of great interest to the children, 
and also help to educate the teachers. 

b) Jim Ragland, Hughes County 
Also with the aid of a generator, sound 

films have been introduced to schools with- 
out electricity. Parents have become in- 
terested in the educational program 
through invitations to film showings. An 
effective means of teacher education has 
been used with school-made films, where- 
in the practices of other teachers were 
pointed out. For example, clean-up day 
and the results in the appearance of the 
school and the grounds. The advent of 
electricity through the program of the 
REA holds much promise for the use of 

c) Cleddie Vanderveer, teacher of gen- 
eral science. Mountain Park : 

In the textbook on United States His- 
tory, there is a poem by Henry Van 
Dyke, "America for Me." The children 

Page 20 

The Educational Screen 

did not seem interested in memorizing 
the poem, which was an important part 
in the appreciation of their history study. 
The class was divided into groups of 3, 
and each was held responsible for part 
of the poem. They were to bring in pic- 
tures describing the scene. A search 
through National Geographic Magazines 
and others resulted in a collection of pic- 
tures, from which a selection was made 
and photographic slides prepared. The 
effectiveness of this method for instilling 
an emotional reaction to the poem was 
demonstrated by a showing of the slides 
while the poem was read aloud. 

d) Harvey C. Hansen, visiting teacher 
of visual education. 

In the course of his visits to schools, 
the speaker saw evidences of many crea- 
tive and varied ways in which teachers 
are vitalizing their work by visual aids. 
In many schools the film showing of the 
visitor was the first such experience. 

e) Lowell C. Brown, Director of ex- 
tension classes, University of Oklahoma. 

Work in visual instruction has been of- 
fered in about 36 centers in the state, 
most of which were made up of rural 
and semi-rural areas. Some of the meth- 
ods used by the instructors were : 

1. After a discussion on the technique 
of school journeys, the instructor 
would take his group out and make 
an actual excursion. 

2. Several instructors were carrying 
out a curriculum revision program, 
along with visual aids classes and 
in these groups as each unit of 
work was arranged, visual aids were 
classified and set up for each unit. 

3. Another method used was to actu- 
ally carry on experiments in the 
classrooms of the teadhers with 
various visual aids. These experi- 
ments were planned in the group 
sessions and the results were re- 
ported back. 

Rural teachers are particularly urged 
to experiment in the use of materials 
other than films. Visual aids are a god- 
send to rural teachers. Rural children 
more than any other group lack that 
necessary experience — the building of 
knowledge. Many of them have never 
been out of their own county. 

Selecting a Projector — Nation's Schools, 
24:31 December, 1939 

Six points to be considered before 
purchasing projection equipment, as sug- 
gested by the State Visual Instruction 
Exchange of Ohio : 

1. Write to the leading manufacturers 
for information and arrange dem- 

2. All demonstrations should, if pos- 
sible, be held the same day. 

3. Use the same screen for all demon- 

4. Use the same trial film, either silent 
or sound, for all makes of machines. 

5. Require all agents to make their 
first demonstration in the presence 
of one another. This will ensure 
against sales tricks. 

6. Use the same room and the same 
number of people in it for sound 
projector demonstrations. 

Organizing for Visual Education — 

Weldon Brown, Roosevelt Junior High 
School, Oklahoma City. Proceedings of 
Conference on Visual Education, Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma, July, 1939 
The program of the Roosevelt Junior 
High School is practically impossible of 
achievement in many of the programs 
previously described. The 35mni. pro- 
jector is used for entertainment only. 
During the noon hour pupils are per- 
mitted to go into the auditorium to see 
brief film showings. The 16mm. projector 
is used strictly for educational purposes. 
The instructor in charge has a group of 
students who operate the machine dur- 
ing their study periods. There are seven 
student operators, part of whom are girls. 
Films are ordered well in advance, by 
the teacher in charge, at the request of 
the teacher and department heads. Most 
films are used for review. A charge of 
50c a semester is made to all students 
for the use of textbooks and reference 
materials. The total cost per student for 
294 reels of films was 12c. When the 
film arrives at the school, it is used 
about four times. Filmslides and film- 
strips are also used in the school. 

School-Made Visual Aids 

Pupil-Made Lantern Slides in the 
Social Studies — Leland S. March, 
Melrose, Mass. — Social Education, 
3:609-11, December, 1939 
An interesting technique for vitaliz- 
ing American history has been worked 
out through the use of hand-made slides 
depicting cartoons on pertinent topics. 
Procedure : 1. Make clear to the class 
that they are not merely copying pic- 
tures from textbooks, but creating ori- 
ginal cartoons telling the story of the 
unit they are studying. 

2. Present a brief overview of the 
unit, to give ideas for illustrative work, 
but do not draw any cartoons for them 

3. Now go back to the beginning of 
the unit and select the titles of, let us 
say, ten topics to be cartooned. Suggest 
the first topic to the class and call for 
suggestions on how to express it in a 
cartoon. Draw on the board a rough 
sketch (stick figures), of the best ones. 
The class is now ready to draw their own 
cartoons, on an area no larger than 
3-2^ inches. Students may work in- 
dividually or in groups. 

4. Go through the entire list of topics 
in the same way, and then collect the 
finished cartoons. There may be many 
cartoons, of maps, graphs, charts, or 
human figures for each of the topics. 

5. Select the cartoons to be placed on 
slides, using student committees to help 
make the choice. 

6. Make the slides, of plain glass, 
cellophane, silhouette, combined mater- 
ials, or etched glass. 

Helpful instructions for making hand- 
made slides are then given. 
Using the slides in class, a) Lecture 
method, wherein the students prepare an 
oral discussion based on the slides : b) 
Discussion method, using the slide for 
airing many sides of the question ; c) 
'talkie stills,' in which students act as 
figures appearing on the slide; d) Drama- 
tization, using the slide as model for 

staging a short scene; and e) Explanation 
I)y the pupil who drew the cartoon. 

To supplement the use of cartoons 
shown on slides, there is much value in 
using photographic slides, snapshots, and 
films. Type and sources of materials for 
slide-making given. 

Use Lantern Slides: A Home-Made 
Lantern Slide Was the Answer — 
Clifford E. Boswell, Instructor of 
metal, Taft Union High School and 
Junior College — Sierra Educational 
News. 35 :34 December, 1939 

A detailed description of the making 
of slides, with hints about appropriate, 
inexpensive materials and techniques. 

Source Materials 

Utilizing Local and Regional Resources 
for Visual Education — Sam B. Zis- 
man„ Te.xas A. and M. College — • 
Proceedings of Conference on Visual 
Education, University of Oklahoma, 
Extension Division, Norman, July, 
Two important trends in the curricu- 
lum today make it important that the im- 
mediate environment and the regional 
environment be used for educational re- 
sources. These are the growth of gen- 
eral education and the development of the 
community school. 

The use of the school journey in edu- 
cation involves three important steps : 
Survey, the plan, and action. Some of the 
ways in which useful action was taken 
after a survey had been made of the 
community are illustrated in the follow- 
ing school situations : 

In a large city in Colorado all of the 
high schools collaborated in making a 
survey of the parks and recreational 
facilities. They mapped these areas and 
compared this map with another showing 
the frequency of juvenile delinquency. 
.'\s might be expected, they found the 
greatest delinquency where no play- 
grounds were available. This interested 
not only the students but the women's 
clubs who questioned the park commis- 
sioner and received his promise that play 
grounds would be provided where the 
high school survey indicated they were 

In a neighboring town in a rural area 
a high school has carried on some 13 
surveys of the local community, over a 
third of which were asked for by the 
community itself. In one of these sur- 
veys on bicycle traffic, the result was a 
change in traffic to afford maximum pro- 
tection at the dangerous intersections re- 
vealed by the survey. 

In a city in California, students under- 
took investigatiton of provisions for 
busses to and from school, and their 
finding resulted in the addition of a new 
bus route to aid students from out-lying 
district. Eventually the bus route proved 
to be of more general value. Again in 
California, school children have assisted 
in making surveys of county roads and 
county traffic and their findings were 
utilized in the preparation of the county 
and highway plan. 

In Michigan, the members of a class 
in a small city were studying local gov- 

{Concluded on page 29) 

January, 1940 

Page 21 

cz^y-mona (DuzieLvei 

ICj \:^LiZ±E.L(JE± From and by the 

Department of Visual Instruction of the National Education Association. 


Department of Visual Instruction 
National Education Association 

The Marquette Room, Marquette Hotel 
St. Louis, February 27 and 28, 1940 

All sessions 7vi[! brgii' promptly on the hour specified. 
Tuesday, February 27 
9 :00 Opening Remarks by the President 
9:15 Problems in the Production of Educational 
Motion Pictures — W. H. Maddock, Teaching 
Films Division, Eastman Kodak Company 
9:55 The Tca-cliing Film as a Classroom Aid — 
Mrs. Alma B. Rogers, Director of Visual Edu- 
cation, St. Louis County Schools 
10:35 Producing the Educational Sound Film — V. C. 

Arnspiger, Erpi Classroom Films Inc. 
11:15 Hozi.' to Use the Sound Film in the Classroom 
— Miss Ruth Livermon, Principal, Meadow- 
brook School, Norfolk, Virginia 
12:15 Luncheon Meetings 

Local Production of Motion Pictures to Sup- 
plement Professional Production — William 
F. Kruse, Bell and Howell 
Progress Report on the Department of Visual 
Instruction Yearbook — F. Dean McClusky, 
Director, Scarborough School, Scarborough- 
2:00 Panel Discussion: Where Are We Headed 
in P'isual Instruction 

Edgar Dale, Ohio State University. Discus- 
sion Leader 
Mrs. Camilla Best, Director of Visual Instruc- 
tion, New Orleans 
Miss Ella C. Clark, State Teachers College, 

Winona, Minnesota 
Godfrey M. Elliott. Public Schools, Oakvale, 

West Virginia 
William G. Hart. Director of Visual Edu- 
cation, Dearborn, Michigan 
Charles F. Hoban, American Council on Edu- 
cation, Washington, D. C. 
W. Gayle Starnes, University of Kentucky 

Wednesday, February 28 
9:15 Standards in Visual Instruction 

The Cost of Visual Instruction — William M. 
Gregory, Educational Museum. Cleveland 
Public Schools 

Classroom Facilities — S. B. Zisman, Professor 
of Architecture. Agriculture and Mechani- 
cal College of Texas 

Materials of Instruction — Herbert Jensen, 
Department of Visual Instruction, Univer- 
sity of Minnesota 

Teacher Training — C. D. Jayne. Teachers Col- 
lege, Stevens Point. Wisconsin ' 

12:15 Luncheon Meeting: 

The Status and Future of School-Made Public 
Relations Films — William G. Hart and 
- - Godfrey Elliott 

2:00 Directing the Visual Instruction Program 

The Statewide Program — J. W. Brouillette, 
Louisiana, State Dej^artment of Education 

The City Program — Alex Jardine, Director 
of Visual Instruction, Evansville, Indiana 

The Individual School Program — R. B. 
Woodworth, Principal Roosevelt Junior 
High School, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin 

Visual Education Program for Louisiana 

In an address given at the Louisiana State Teach- 
ers meeting, Mr. J. W. Brouillette, Director of 
Audio-Visual Education, State Department of Edu- 
cation stated that, in keeping with the general pro- 
gram for the improvement of instruction, a serious 
efifort has been made to bring into classroom use 
visual aids of all types. During 1936-37, a State- 
wide program in the use of visual aids was or- 
ganized, and a special committee, composed of mem- 
bers from every school system in the State, ap- 
pointed. During the summers of 1937-38-39, classes 
in the use of visual aids were organized in the State 
University and other teacher-training institutions 
in Louisiana. Many schools throughout the State 
have been equipped with projectors and other equip- 
ment for visual education. 

The Louisiana State University, through the Gen- 
eral Extension Division, has for several years made 
library films, slides, and other material available 
to the schools of the State. In October, 1939, the 
State Board of Education made a modest appropria- 
tion in order to establish visual education libraries 
in the State Department of Education, Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana ; the Louisiana State Normal Col- 
lege, Natchitoches, Louisiana ; Louisiana Polytech- 
nic Institute, Ruston, Louisiana ; Southeastern Col- 
lege, Hammond, Louisiana ; Southwestern Louisi- 
ana Institute, Lafayette, Louisiana ; and at South- 
ern University, a college for negroes. A committee 
is now at work developing plans so that the visual 
education libraries will serve the needs of the 
schools effectively. 

It has been proposed that all institutions of 
higher learning in Louisiana include traning in the 
use of visual aids as part of their teacher-training 
courses. The institutions in which the visual edu- 
cation libraries are located will also serve as demon- 
stration centers for the public and private schools 
of the regions served. Camilla Best. 

Page 22 

The Educational Screen 

^fiE "^JzcLExai ^iLm 

New Accessions to the National Archives 

Every educator in America interested in seeing the 
story of our times told in motion picture film should 
be interested in the progress now being made by the 
National Archives in acquiring footage for preservation 
and for the use of students of research. 

During the year ending June 30, 1939 The National 
Archives added 1,175,978 feet of motion picture film 
to its collection. This film was obtained from 16 dif- 
ferent Government agencies and nine private sources. 
Government contributions totalled 952 units, which in- 
cluded a story of the U. S. Coast Guard from the 
Treasury; a syphilis control film from Public Health 
Service; "Last Rites of the Maine" from the War 
Department ; convoy of President Wilson to France, 
victory celebration of U. S. soldiers with the Allies 
in London and Paris, second inauguration of President 
Wilson, Navy relief expedition of 1923, surrender of 
German U-boat, and other films all from the Navy De- 
partment; early construction scenes of Grand Coulee 
from Interior; construction work on the new depart- 
mental building from the Post Office Department ; film 
recording cabinet fire test from The National Archives ; 
film on the aerial flights of Col. Lindbergh. 

Private sources contributed 671 units, including 
polar explorations of the Byrd Arctic and Antarctic 
expeditions from Admiral Byrd; Lincoln Ellsworth's 
Antarctic expedition, scenes of Hawaii, Mt. Katmai, 
and ruins of American Indian villages from the Na- 
tional Geographic Society ; "The New York Hat" from 
Mary Pickford ; army activities during the World War 
from the University of Colorado, and numerous news- 
reel scenes of the past year from the various motion 
picture companies. 

Many other accessions have been made during the 
past year in addition to those indicated above. The 
National Archives does not distribute film and none 
of its accessions is available for shipment to borrowers 
at the present time. Screenings of this material are 
made at The National Archives auditorium for ac- 
credited scholars, officials and others upon recommen- 
dation of the Division of Reference of The National 

Federal Housing Revamps Film Policy 

While the Federal Housing Administration's film 
program has never been focussed primarily on the 
school or institutional outlets, educators may be inter- 
ested in knowing of a new policy which is being adopted 
by the FHA. The films were produced primarily to 
encourage an interest in housing on the part of the 
public and to familiarize the public with the provisions 
of the National Housing Act. 

In 1940 the FHA will shift its emphasis from one of 
direct production on its own part and under its im- 

Edited by Arch A. Mercey 

Assistant Director, U. S. Film Service, 
Washington, D. C. 

mediate sponsorship to one of encouraging production 
by finance, building and allied industries. This means 
that the FHA will encourage private agencies to handle 
certain phases of the housing program through private 
production which will be designed to have public in- 
terest. The FHA expects to lend encouragement and 
cooperation to private and institutional ventures which 
may be designed to stimulate interest and support of 
the housing program. 

"The City" and "Land of Liberty" 
Not Government Films 

Government Departments have been receiving nu- 
merous inquiries about the two films "The City" and 
"Land of Liberty", neither of which is a Government 

"The City" was made by Civic Films, Inc.. under 
the sponsorship of the American Institute of Planners 
with a grant from the Carnegie Corporation for use 
in the Science and Education building at the New 
York World's Fair. The picture was exhibited at the 
Fair and is now being given a commercial release by 
World Pictures Corporation, 729 Seventh Avenue, 
New York. The film will probably be released educa- 
tionally after it has had a commercial run. Please do 
not write to any Government agency for this film. 

"Land of Liberty" was the motion picture industry's 
contribution to the World's Fair. This film is a com- 
posite of numerous films made by Hollywood into a 
pictorial cavalcade of American history. The film was 
produced under the auspices of the Motion Picture 
Producers and Distributors of America (Hays Office) 
28 West 44th Street, New York. It was made pri- 
marily for the two World's Fairs and has not been 
made available for educational release. Whether it will 
or not can be determined by the Hays office. Do not 
write to any Government department for this film. 

No 8 mm Government Films 

A number of Federal film agencies have been re- 
ceiving requests for 8mm educational films for school 
and educational group use. The Federal Government 
has no Sunn films. According to the inquiries received, 
a number of persons have purchased 8mm projectors 
because it is cheaper and have expected to be able to 
obtain 8mm prints from the Government. It should be 
stressed that educators contemplating the purchase of 
projection equipment should be certain that they will 
be able to service that projector with an adequate num- 
ber of films. All Federal agencies have films in 16mm 
prints, and hence schools should be encouraged to 
acquire a 16mm rather than an 8nim machine. The 
8mm film is designed primarily for home movie making. 

January, 1940 




llERE'S the RCA Victrola for your 
schoolroom or auditorium! It's not 
an ordinary Victrola. It's an instru- 
ment designed for school use. An in- 
strument that RCA Victor engineers 
have created in response to the ex- 
pressed wishes of school principals, 
supervisors and teachers! 

It has the volume you need for a 
large classroom or average audito- 
rium — amplifier provides 10 watts 
output. It's amazingly simple to op- 
erate — for it has a newly developed 
automatic on-and-off switch which 
starts the turntable when the tone 
arm is moved toward the record. And 
its price is easily within the scope of 
even the most modest school budget. 

Study this RCAVictrola's features. 
Visit your RCA Victor dealer for a 
demonstration. Notice the warmth, 
the true fidelity of reproduction it 
provides. You'll say — "It's just what 
we need at the school ! " 

Modern school* stay modem with RCA Radio 
Tubes in their sottnil equipment. 

School use is the principal use for which 
this outstanding new instrument has been 
built. Its volume ... its ease of operation . . . 
its fidelity of reproduction ... and its price, 
all meet school requirements. 


The Features Tell the Story! 

RCA Victrola Model R-98 illustrated offers you these features: 

Plays 10" and 12" records • Has governed induction motor with new 
automatic on-and-off switch • Top loading tone arm and automatic 
needle cup • 5-tube amplifier — 10-watt output • 8" electro-dynamic 
speaker • New and improved pick-up • Handsome walnut cabinet 

RCA Victor has many other fine Victrolas — with or without radio — 
which are especially desirable for school use. See them at your local RCA 
Victor Dealer's or mail the coupon for a two-color dcscripti re folder. 


"KCA Victor," ■Victrola" Reg. V.^. 

Pat. Off. by KCA Mf^. Co., In 



EducQtional Department— RCA Mfg. Co., Inc., Camden, N. J. 
A Service of the Radio Corporation of America 

Page 24 

The Educational Screen 



No matter what the subject 
taught . . . the mind receives 
fullest significance, understands 
with greatest clarity — if the les- 
son has been conveyed by the eyes! 






Jackie Cooper, Freddie Bartholomew 

W. C. Fields, Edgar Bergen, Charlie McCarthy 

Hugh Herbert, Joy Hodges 
THAT CERTAIN AGE— Deanna Durbin 
EX-CHAMP— Victor McLaglen 

Doug. Fairbanks, Jr., Basil Rathbone 

"Sandy", Mischa Auer, Dennis O'Keefe 

Irene Dunne, Charles Boyer 

Kenny Balcer, Jean Colin, Martin Green 
(and many others) 

Write to Universal's Non-Theatrical 

Department for further information 

regarding short and feature-length 

pictures, travelogues, cartoons 

and other motion pictures. 



Rockefeller Center New York. N. Y. 

CIRCLE 7-7100 

Visual Aids to Correlate 
First Grade Subject 

{Continued from page 13) 

— how we must be on the lookout for danger — 
safety first. Squirrels' enemies — our enemies. 

5. Make-fp of squirrels — complete discussion of all 
information listed. 

6. Compare care of squirrel to care of baby birds — 
life and growth — connect up with former unit 
on birds. 

7. Who are squirrels' relatives ? Have you ever 
seen them ? 

8. Picture discussion of Piper and Nutcrackers by 
Landseer — also other squirrel pictures. 

(b) Health 

Exercise, sleep, play out of doors, fresh water, eat 
good food, hard food for good strong teeth — how 
squirrel cares for his teeth (by eating hard food). 
Neatness (squirrel combs his tail and fur, squirrel 
keeps home clean. We should keep our homes, cup- 
boards and rooms clean). 

(c) Safety 

Dangers to squirrel and children. 

(d) Numbers 

Counting squirrels. 

Carfare for excursion — money to buy peanuts. 

(e) Art and Handwork 

Making a feeding shelf for the squirrel. 

Making large pictures depicting the life of the 

Making lantern slides. 

A lantern slide is projected on the board and chil- 
dren draw around the image. 

Modeling a clay squirrel. 

The making of individual squirrel book — the chil- 
dren's own movie of the squirrel. 

V. Creative Expression 

Creative e.xpression in poems, songs, rhythms, and stories. 

Making a frieze. 

Making a cylinder of cardboard with a hole in it to rep- 
resent a tree — a nest of dry leaves at the bottom of the 
tree — clay squirrels and nuts in the nest. 

VI. Integration -with other Visual Aids 

Stereopticon slides both ready-made and home-made. 
Stereoscopes — pictures of the squirrel and the squirrel's 

A stuffed squirrel brought to school. 
Picture books. 
Magazine books. 
Magazine pictures. 

National Geographic and Nature magazines. 
Exhibits of art and handwork results. 
Excursions to the park to feed the squirrels and to the zoo. 

Information gleaned from pictures, stories, discus- 
sions, and films. — Appearance of squirrels: Legs are 
short because he is a climber and a good jumper. 
Slender toes, with sharp claws curved at tip. 4 toes on 
front, 5 on back. Uses his front paws as hands. Can 
open nuts with his teeth, 4 teeth. Gray Squirrels have 
no cheek pouches — carry nuts, etc. with their teeth 
but often fill their mouths so full that their cheeks 
bulge. That is the reason we think they have pouches. 
Have erect pointed ears — good hearing — alert to danger. 
Eyes are bright and large and can see in all directions — 
eyes are at sides of head. Has a long tail which he uses 
to balance when jumping and to keep warm. Fore paws 
are claws and are used as fingers — uses them to wash 
face and clean fur. When eating sits on haunches and 
holds nut with forepaws — gnaws off hard shell and 
often peels kernel before eating it. Squirrels are gnaw- 
ing animals or rodents — other rodents are beavers, rats, 
mice, rabbits. 

January, 1940 

Page 2 5 

There are several kinds of squirrels. 

1. True squirrels — (tree, rock, and ground squirrels). 
Tree squirrels live in tree tops. Rock squirrels live 
among rocks, under fences, among roots o£ big trees 
(chipmunks). Ground squirrels live in prairie regions 

and burrow deeply ; they have short tails and large cheek 

2. Flying squirrels live in holes in trees, are active at 
night, have thin fold of skin along legs which allows 
them to take long gliding leaps from tree to tree. Tails 
help too. 

3. Marmots — prairie dogs and woodchucks — larger than 
squirrel. Live in colonies of forty to one thousand, are 
sociable, spend most of time above ground, if danger 
comes they give shrill cry of alarm and go into burrows. 

The gray squirrel is most graceful and beautiful. 

Very clean, can be tamed, about 18 inches long, body 

9^4 and tail 8^. Upper part of legs is gray, on back 

the fur is brown, tmderneatii is white. In winter fur 

is thick and long and very fine. Have broad bushy flat 

tails which they are very careful to keep clean and dry. 

They lick, clean, shake and fluflf them out every few 

minutes and comb them several times a day. Legs are 

strong, heavy and muscular, especially the rear ones. 

Movements — Climbs tree and peeps out on other side. Stands 

on hind feet when he wants to see. Goes head first up or 

down a tree. Legs are spread when he goes up or down 

a tree. 

Jumps from one tree to another. Fills cheeks with nuts 
and hides them for winter. Likes to run around all 
winter--stays in only when it is very cold. 

Mother grasps baby by hind leg close up to its body 
when they are ready to move or when she wants to 
carry it. Then she lifts him. Baby coils around her 
neck like a close fitting fur collar — she can climb and 
jump with him on her this way. Sometimes mother 
carries them as the cats do — by the neck. 

Are frolicsome — run through the tree branches. When 
danger is near signal to others with a chatter. 

When burying nut, hops around hunting a good place, 
then digs hole about two inches deep. Pushes nut down, 
covers with dirt and stamps it down well, then covers 
with leaves and branches. 
Food — In spring they eat leaf buds — pry off bark with claws 
and eat grubs beneath. Also strip maples and elms of 
bark and get sap and soft white part between bark and 
wood. In summer eat berries and vegetables like straw- 
berries and raspberries, lettuce and corn. In winter eat 
seeds and dig up nuts — have keen sense of smell and 
this helps them to find the buried nuts. Drink two times 
a day — usually from running water — seldom from pond. 
In Winter — Fur thins out in summer but in winter gets 
thick and warm. When winter comes they gather warm 
bedding, leaves, grasses, moss, etc., as weather get colder 
they add more bed clothes. Father squirrel is not al- 
lowed to come near the nest or the babies. Babies arc 
hairless and helpless. Eyes are closed, usually three to 
five days. 
Homes — Winter : Enlarges hollow in tree by digging out 
soft wood until it is large enough for comfort. Lines 
it with leafy twigs and makes it soft with leaves, bark 

I and cotton. Uses it even after they go to summer home 

if there is any danger. 
Summer : Is near winter home — usually in same tree — 
intertwine twigs with leaves. Pushes doorway through 
side and shapes and lines inside with leaves and hair. 
(The unit is concluded with a Bibliography of 58 titles, 
ecessarily omitted here, listing books, reading stories, poems 
nd music, for both pupil and teacher use). 


The article "Sound-Film Experiment with Handicapped and 
Retarded Pupils." which appeared in our December issue failed 
to give proper credit for the illustrations used. These are from 
the Erpi Classroom Film "The Development of Transportation" 
which was used in the experiment. 

16 mm FILMS 


Film must be properly protected 
and preserved or it will soon be- 
come brittle, dried out, full of dirt, 
dust, oil and grime. Keep your 
valuable educational films clean 
and fresh in a Neumade cabinet, 
readj? for instant use at a mo- 
mentB notice — today, tomorrow or 
next year. 


Humidified All-Steel Dustproof 

Tamperproof Indexed Fireproof 


Holds 100-400 ft. reels com- 
pletely indexed and humidi- 
fied. Large utility space ia 
base for visual equipment. 
Doors have key locks. 


For 800, 1200 or 1600 ft. 
reels ; holds 50, each with in- 
dex card ; humidified ; double 

doors with key lock. 


Ideal for the 
growing library 
— they stack like 
sectional book- 
cases. Each sec- 
tion complete 
cabinet for 20 
reels ; indexed ; 
hximidified. Add 
units when 



Only with clean film can perfect sound and pictures 
result. In one motor driven operation your film is 


CL-4 <400 ft.) C L-16 (1600 ft.) 

Complete Film Equipment For: — 


Every visual department needs a copy of our Catalog No. 16. 

Send for Tours Todayl 



427 WEST 42-STREET . 



Page 26 

The Educational Screen 

"P* OR classroom or auditorium, 
*■ Selectroslide, automatic 
slide changer, projects your 
35mm natural color or black- 
and-white film slides up to 
any size. Changes slides auto- 
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No assistant is necessary. 
Error in projection is impos- 
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^no splicing of film slides as 
in film strips. Selectroslide is 
excellent for lecturing and for 
study talks. 

Wrife for descriptive catalogue 


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handsome brown crackled 
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exciting a surprise as the 
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% Forced Draft Cooling 

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threaded adjustment for sharp, quick • Brilliant futl-view pilot light for 


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! Send me illustrated booklet which 
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City .- State.. 

Address ._ - 




Case of The Motion Picture in Speech Training 

Under this caption, tlie 24th Annual Convention of 
the National Association of Teachers of Speech, meeting 
in Chicago, December 27-29, conducted a sympathetic 
and thorough panel inquiry into the contributions that 
the motion picture and other audio-visual aids make 
to speech education. The chairman, Orville C. Miller, 
of Vanderbilt University, directed the two sessions with 
admirable wit and vigor, and drew many practical 
suggestions from the rich experience background of 
the various members of his panel. Prominent among 
members of the large panel were J. E. Hansen (Presi- 
dent of the N.E.A. Department of Visual Instruction), 
William B. Whitaker (Committee on Motion Pictures, 
N. E. A. Department of Secondary Education), V. C. 
Arnspiger (Erpi), and G. Oscar Russell (Chief, Speech 
Clinic, Ohio State University). 

A noteworthy innovation at this meeting was 
the direct contact established between the august group 
of outside "counsellors" on the one hand, and the actual 
makers of motion pictures for speech training purposes 
on the other. These pictures included examples of 
35mm. sound-on-film. 16mm. sound-on-film, and of 
16nim. silent, with collateral disc recordings. The 
first, presented by Josephine Allensworth, of the 
Alemphis City Schools, gave part of the second act of 
Dear Brutus, made from the original Hollywood shoot- 
ing script. The second, presented by Mr. Sailstad of 
the University of Minnesota's Motion Picture unit, as 
well as a parallel presentation by Paul Kozelka, of 
Rosar)^ College, showed the great need for a j^hoto- 
graphic situation that would not destroy the natural- 
ness of students as they were being photographed. The 
third, which aroused perhaps the greatest amount of 
helpful discussion of practical picttire media and 
methods, was presented by Vernon A. Utzinger, of 
Carroll College. The findings of the conference held 
that in this specialized educational field, the motion 
picture served three teaching ends: (a) As an aid to 
mass cultivation of better speech, incidental to motion 
picture appreciation work; (b) As a direct teaching 
medium, giving correct pronunciation and delivery, 
recording dialect and other speech patterns, and aiding 
in the vitalization of drama teaching; (c) As a record- 
ing instrument for the research worker. 

All three were extensively discussed, and subse- 
quently illustrated by school-made films. The problems 
involved in making motion picture records, preferably 
in sound, and under conditions that would not "choke 
up" the student models, were probed, and many answers 
worked out on the basis of the actual experience of the 
conferees. Dr. Russell told of his long struggle for 
"natural" recordings, orginally with 33-1/3 r.p.m. disc 
recorders interlocked first mechanically and then 
electrically with camera and projector, finally followed 
by sound-on-film recording. Mr. Utzinger told of 
overcoming artificiality by holding his classes in a 
brightly skylighted room, with the camera and disc- 
recorder concealed in sound-proof booth. Mrs. Aliens- 

January, 1940 

Page 27 


worth reported that her EngHsh and drama students 
were much more interested in any story or play that had 
been produced as a motion picture, and in the case of 
Dear Brutus, she was able to have them make direct 
comparison between literary, dramatic and motion 
picture forms of expressing the same materials, plus 
the creation by the class itself, of the story in the 
latest of art forms. The high value of the motion 
picture, as a means of illustrating correct dialog ren- 
dition, and possibly of isolating the incorrect, v/as 
brought out in the discussion. In answer to the ques- 
tion of whether it would be necessary to have school 
access to the entire film in a desirable case such as 
Pygmalion, it was held that it would be much more 
desirable than to have only excerpts. 

Self-criticism was the keynote of participants show- 
ing their own films. Mr. Sailstad promised that future 
film records would be made under a less artificial situa- 
tion, and that the conversational approach would be 
used. Mr. Utzinger hoped for the mounting of a second 
camera so that he could photograph audience reaction 
while a speech was being delivered. There was much 
helpful and practical discussion on the cutting of costs, 
inter-change of record films, and possible future uses. 
Aside from two whole sessions devoted to special 
applications of motion pictures to this field, an inter- 
esting presentation and demonstration on micro-photo- 
graphy, as a means of increasing access to rhetorical 
source material was made by commercial representa- 
tives displaying various models of micro-cameras and 
projectors. (Contributed by William F. Kruse.) 
Annual Radio Conierence 

The School Broadcast Conference conducted its 
Third Annual meeting at the Congress Hotel in Chica- 
go, December 6-8, 1939. This conference is a meeting 
place for educators and broadcasters, and for all those 
interested in the use of radio in education. Actual 
broadcasts were put on, showing network and local 
types of presentation of education material with further 
delineation of the supervisory and supplementary phi- 
losophies in such programs. Classes of students and 
teachers demonstrated their utilization of radio pro- 
grams as nearly as possible under classroom conditions. 
Among those appearing on the program were the 
following: William D. Boutwell of the United States 
Office of Education, Leonard Power of the Federal 
Radio Education Committee, Paul Reed of the 
Rochester public schools, Kathleen Lardie of Detroit 
schools, Blanche Young of the Indianapolis schools, 
I, Keith Tyler of Ohio State, Bruce E. Mahan of the 
State University of Iowa, John DeBoer of Chicago 
Teachers College, Clarence M. Morgan of Indiana State 
Teachers College, James D. Finn of Colorado State 
College, Carleton Wheeler of Tufts, William B. Leven- 
son of Cleveland schools. Noble PutTer of Cook County 
schools, W. W. Whittinghill of Detroit schools, Sterling 
Fisher of CBS and Franklin Dunham of NBC, Harold 
W. Kent, Director of the Radio Council of the Chicago 
Board of Education, was chairman of the conference. 


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Page 28 

The Educational Screen 



News Parade of 1939 1 ree 
Louis Pasteur, the Benetactor 2 ree s 
The Star Spangled Banner 1 ree 
Cover to Cover 2 ree s 
Life of Roosevelt I'/z ree « 
Sea of Strife (Cavalcade of the Mediterranean] 2 reels 
Football Thrills, 1939 1 r"! 
War in Europe 1 reel 

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Visual Education Courses Bring Results 

Miss Lelia Trolinger, secretary of the Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, University of Colorado in Boulder 
has submitted an unusual project which some 135 
Colorado teachers developed last summer at that in- 
stitution. There were junior and senior high school 
teachers, intermediate grade teachers, and primary 
teachers about equally distributed. On the basis of 
textbooks most commonly used by the teachers in Colo- 
rado, these students have mimeographed a Hsting of 
suitable films which the University distributes, either 
through its own library or in its cooperative arrange- 
ment with the University of Kansas. Those schools 
which do not follow a prescribed textbook will also 
find much assistance in these listings because the titles 
have been suggested by topic or unit. All the titles 
listed represent films which are recommended for use. 
It is most encouraging to note how many titles there 
are for the many educational levels. Copies of some 
of the lists may be secured, in a limited number, from 
Miss Trolinger if you will state the subject area and 
grade level in which you are interested. 

YMCA Film Distribution Increases 

Some interesting figures have been reported by 
Mr. George Zehrung of the Y. M. C. A. Motion 
Picture Bureau. From December 1, 1938 to Novem- 
ber 1, 1939 the number of requests for their sound 
films totaled 8683, representing an increase of more 
than lOO^fc. 59 2/3% of the users were educational 
groups — colleges, high schools, grade schools, 
PTA's — the remaining 40 1/3% consisting of 
churches, clubs, industries, Y.M.C.A.'s, etc. While 
silent users number 11,000, the sound exhibitors 
used more reels per showing. 

Visual Sessions 

The Audio-Visual Aids Association of Southern 
California held its fall meeting Saturday, December 
9, at Los Angeles City College with Bruce A. Find- 
lay, President, and Director of the Los Angeles 
Visual Division, presiding. Vierling Kersey, Sup't 
Los Angeles City Schools, was the guest speaker, 
choosing for his subject "Aids Vitalize Education." 

The annual convention of the Texas State Teach- 
ers Association, which took place last month in San 
Antonio, included a session on Visual Education, 
presided over by W. L. Dodson of Kilgore. Feat- 
ured on the program was a talk by B. A. Aughin- 
baugh, Director of Visual Education for Ohio De- 
partment of Education, entitled "Developing and 
Administering a State Program of Visual Educa- 
tion." Mr. Aughinbaugh reports that his Visual Ex- 
change is averaging 500 shipments daily with a peak 
of 800 in one day. 

The Arizona Education Association met in No- 
vember at Phoenix. Chairman of the Visual Edu- 
cation Department program was A. W. Bork, Ex- 
tension Department, University of Arizona. Dis- 
cussion of "Sectional Glass Slide Collections for 
Arizona" was led by Darcy A. Skaggs of Mesa, 
while T. E. Nichols, in charge University of Arizona 
Film Libraries, spoke on "Film Rental Rates and 
the Block Booking System." 

January, 1940 

Among the Magazines 

(Concluded from page 20) 

ernment. They invited the mayor to talk 
to them on their city government. He dis- 
cussed this with them. He invited the 
class to attend a meeting of the common 
council. This they did, and became in- 
terested in studying the problem of park- 
ing space in the business district, and the 
demolition of certain old buildings. Their 
recommendations were taken up by the 
mayor and the council. 

In a Chicago high school, the com- 
munity study was carried on by classes 
in several subjects, and the integrated ef- 
fort of all resulted in a book which they 
published themselves. 

This kind of education brings the stu- 
dent face to face with the society that is, 
not the society that we pretend is. Visual 
education takes on its truer meaning as 
education itself by making use of con- 
crete materials presented as totalities in 
real life situations. We must use planning 
problems and techniques as the frame- 
work for learning and for utilizing the 
resources of regional and local communi- 

Photoplay Appreciation 

Our Motion Picture Enjoyment Club — 
Grant W. Rasmussen, Provo High 
School, Utah— School Activities, 11:163 
December, 1939 

Each English class in the Provo 
High School includes motion picture ap- 
preciation as part of its course of study, 
but because of the already crowded Eng- 
lish curriculum, too much time cannot 
be devoted to the movie study. A Motion 
Picture Enjoyment Club has been or- 
ganized to continue discussions and stand- 
ards outlined in regular class discussion. 
Representative members are organized 
into a club whose function is to guide 
and mould the motion picture tastes of 
an entire school and community. The 
club, under the guidance of a competent 
teacher, studies the comparative merits 
of every film production before they are 
shown in the city. 

An instrument so powerful as the mo- 
tion picture should be a tool used primar- 
ily for social and moral betterment. A 
motion picture appreciation club organ- 
ized in every school throughout the na- 
tion could correct some of this deplor- 
able situation and bring reform into an 
industry that lias ignored all criticism. 


Museums in a Changing World — by 
Francis Henry Taylor, Director, Wor- 
cester Art Museum — Atlantic, 164: 
795-92 December, 1939. From an ad- 
dress before the American Association 
of Museums. San Francisco, June 26, 

A history of the museum movement 
in Europe and in the U. S., and a strong 
appeal for a popularization of this edu- 
cational force, rather than emphasis upon 
the highly specialized and technical as- 
pects of art and science. The reader is 
referred to the article in its entirety, for 
it is of great importance to teachers. 

Page 29 



INSTEAD OF SILENT. Of course, you'd rather have sound instead of 
silent films if they're not too costly. Here's a simple plan that offers 
you all the advantages of Sound-On-Film at moderate cost. Like other 
cinematographers you may be surprised to learn that Sound-On-Film 
often costs no more than a good job of professional titling. 

INSTEAD OF SOUND-ON-DISC. if the cost is moderate enough, 
these are several reasons why you'd prefer to use Sound-On-Film 
instead of sound-on-disc. You know it's easier to get perfect syn- 
chronization. You know that projection is simpler and more pleasant. 
You know that Sound-0«-F«Vw doesn't deteriorate with use. What 
you may not know is that the expense is frequently no more than the 
total of your costs for a satisfactory sound-on-disc recording. To 
get professional sound on your films, follow these two simple steps 

TWO SIMPLE (and economical) STEPS 
To Professional Sound-On-Film 

Select one of these professional Sound-On-Film laboratories to 
score the sound and music on films you take. All of them are 
^___ equipped with B-M apparatus and are thoroughly qualified to 
STEP record professional sound. They can produce results that are 
either quite simple or very elaborate according to your specifica- 
tions. The laboratory you select will be glad to tell how your material should be 
sent to them. If you describe your film, they will also provide an estimate of cost. 

New York, N. Y. 
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The Calvin Company 
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327 East Green Street 

If your camera isn't already 
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All you need for a Cine Kodak 
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synchronous motor available for it, too. 

Take these two simple steps and begin to enjoy the benefits of sound on all 
your future films. Write today to one of the four Sound-On-Film laboratories 
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Page 30 

The Educational Screen 


n an 


Conducted by Wilber Emmert 

Director Visual Education, State Teachers College, Indiana, Pa. 

Art Activities Developed Through 
Geography Unit on Mexico 

THE year's work in seventh grade art in most schools 
includes: drawing, design, advanced color theory, 

Display of articles made by pupils. 

Boys making various types of paper openers. 

Girls working on lanterns. 

lettering, and the development of skills and techniques, 
along with the enjoyment and appreciation of many 
forms of art. 

Since all these can be taught through art activities, 
the following unit of work was planned in conjunction 
with a geography unit on Mexico for the seventh grade 
in the campus laboratory schools of the State Teachers 
College, Indiana, Pennsylvania, 1938-1939. It was ex- 
pected at inost that this work would consume about 
three months time. Since the enthusiasm of the class 
never abated, this initial study of Mexico was used to 
motivate the entire year's work in art for the grade. 
This could be permitted, in as much as all the art ob- 
jectives could be more pleasantly achieved through art 
activities than through formal classroom teaching. 

From time to time pictures were taken of the children 
at work to show progressive stages in the development 
of the problem. Later, lantern slides were made of 
many of these pictures. 

As a culminating activity, the children set up a Mexi- 
can display in the art classroom to show how these 
things had inspired them in their year's work. A replica 
of a middle class Mexican dwelling was built to house 
the work of the class. An assembly program was given 
for the Junior High School, and the college classes in 
Art and Geography. This consisted of a short talk by 
one child to give an overview of the year's work, the 
showing and explaining of the lantern slides by two 
other children, and conducting the classmates and guests 
through the exhibit in the Mexican house. 

The following is an outline and description of this 
work in Art for the year. 

Art Unit on Mexico 


A. The ability to recognize and choose objects used in daily 
life having artistic as well as utilitarian values. 

B. To release the creative abilities of the children through the 
development of handicraft skills. 

A. Foundation for lesson 

1. Building a background. 

a. Foundation of facts learned in geography formed 
the background for the understanding and enjoyment 
of Mexican Art. 

2. Activities to stimulate interest on part of children. 

a. Following two weeks of study in geography, the 
ieacher of Art staged an exhibition of Me.xican 
handicrafts from materials secured on trips to 

b. The exhibit included beautiful examples of leather 
work, metal work, weaving, pottery dishes, lacquered 
and painted wooden bowls and boxes, together with 
painted furniture. 

3. Class discussion revealed that : 

a. The people of Mexico had made the objects in the 
exhibit for their own use. 

b. The women had woven the belts, aprons, rugs, purses, 
and tapestries for daily use by themselves and their 

c. The siber studded belts, tin framed mirrors, sconces, 

January, 1940 

Page 31 








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Page 32 

The Educational Screen 




IltTf is a flhn vividly portraying the hislory of the 
Meditciiitnean Sea from the dawn of civilization to tiie 
present struggle for supremacy of this vital waterway. 
The Cretans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians and the 
Romans have all warred for control of this cradle of 
human liistory. Today the nations of ICurope are in 
continuous conflict over this important seaway. 


and other metal objects had been made by the men 
for themselves and their families. 
d. These exquisite handicraft objects were all cheap 
enough for the humblest home to own. 
4. Activities planned : 

a. It was decided that American children could make 
and decorate personal belongings ; have household 
furniture and utensils arranged in a manner suitable 
for use in America; and that these things could be 
just as beautiful as Mexican things, if the design 
was carefully made. 

b. It was further agreed that each person in the class 
should make something that would be fun to make, 
and u.seful for that person to own. 

B. Resulting activities : 

1. Girls made metal bracelets, and woven belts, -or pocket- 
books, -or table covers in color and design suitable for 


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2. Boys made leather belts, decorating them with metal 
eyelets and paper clips to resemble Mexican metal 
studded belts. 

3. Porch lanterns were made from discarded tin cans, 
decorated with nail hole designs. 

4. Letter openers of aluminum, and tin or aluminum ash 
trays were made by both boys and girls. 

5. Each pupil made at least one piece of pottery decorated 
with his design, and later fired it in the kiln. 

6. Optional activities engaged in by part of the class in- 
cluded the painting of furniture, painting wooden bowls 
and plates (secured from the ten-cent store), wood 
carving, and modeling. 


A. Development of tastes through the realization that good 
design rather than cost makes one's daily surroundings 

B. The development of new skills and techniques. 

The acquisition of permanent hobbies on the part of some 


Greater joy in creative endeavors and self-expression. 
The accompanying pictures indicate the progressive 
steps involved in making some of the articles, as well 
as showing some of the finished products. The steps in 
making the metal articles consist of making and draw- 
ing a design, cutting it from paper, pasting the paper 
pattern on the metal, then sawing, filing, cutting or 
hammering it into the proper shape as required by the 

No attempt has been made in this discussion to give 
specific directions for making any of the articles men- 
tioned, since standard works on weaving, leather craft, 
metal crafts, and elementary handicrafts are available 
in many school libraries. The writer stands ready to 
furnish the names of reliable supply companies from 
whom materials may be purchased for work of this 
nature. It is suggested that teachers contemplating 
silimar activities inquire into the matter of "scrap ma- 
terial" listed by many companies at unusually low prices. 
By using such materials the various art craft projects 
can be carried through very inexpensively. 


State Teachers College, 
Indiana, Penna. 

A Laboratory in Visual Education 

(Continued from page 15) 

hear those of experience relate their experiences in the 
use of visual aids, to contact visual education directors 
and experts in the field, to see motion pictures produced 
by individuals, during each summer session a series 
of six weekly conferences varying in length from two 
to three hours and known as the Visual Education 
Conference, has been held. Although purposely estab- 
lished to supplement the visual education seminar and 
the visual aids laboratory, so great has been the general 
interest that the conferences have been opened to the 
general student body and teachers of the district. 
Planned to cover pertinent topics in the field of visual 
education, discussions of which would prove of value 
to teachers, subjects of general interest have been 
selected for discussion by qualified speakers. Motion 
picture appreciation, philosophy of the motion picture, 
psychology of visual education, visual education in 
guidance, in character education, in the social studies, 
mathematics, in short, visual education in its applica- 
tion to the whole curriculum have been topics for dis- 
cussion. Unustially fine motion pictures, slides, new 

January, 1940 

types of visual aids, and accomplishments in the field 
by individuals, have admirably illustrated these subjects. 

An important and specific function of the laboratory 
has been to render instruction in mounting flat pictures, 
of choosing suitable mounting cards, of preserving and 
filing print pictures and photographs for classroom 
use. This has resulted in many hundreds of pictures 
being made available for classroom use, which other- 
wise would have been carelessly tossed aside disre- 
garded because, unmounted, they could not be efficiently 
used. Opportunity has been given to leain the tech- 
niques involved in operating various types of motion 
picture projectors, and plans are underway for making 
possible a laboratory for the making of slides and 
motion pictures. 

A unique service of the office has been the issuance 
of the Visual Aids Bulletin periodically listing current 
visuals aids, particularly those relatively inexpensive, 
which individual teachers, school libraries, and visual 
education centers might be interested in obtaining. As 
a result of the continual building of resources for the 
laboratory, the office has automatically become a clear- 
ing house of information regarding visual aids and the 
current listings with descriptions have been made pos- 
sible for the Bulletin. This has been a service which 
teachers in the field have particularly welcomed to 
keep them up-to-date. 

At no time has it been the purpose of this office or 
laboratory to discourage independence of research on 
the part of teachers in locating visual aid materials. 
At all times those contacting the laboratory are en- 
couraged to look for new materials and assistance is 
rendered by this office in making available means of 
research. However, as time goes on, it is continually 
impressed upon us that the teachers do not have time 
to locate new materials, any more that the carpenter 
has time to make his own tools. If the teacher per- 
forms the important duties of teaching with the tools, 
he does not have time also to spend in looking for them, 
and the more adequate the supply available and the 
better the quality, the better his teaching is going to be. 

This laboratory, as long as it effectively functions, 
will continually be building resources, and it welcomes 
at all time suggestions for new sources of materials. 
Because of the immensity of the task its resources can 
probably never be complete with every type of visual 
aid for every subject. Yet, if in striving toward the 
ultimate goal of making types of visual aids available 
for specific subjects in the elementary and secondary 
fields, if in combining the practical with the theory, if 
in individually guiding and stimulating student teachers 
to more effectively use the visual aid as a tool a con- 
tribution to education is thus made possible, the efforts 
of this laboratory will not be in vain. 

In the summer of 1938 the visual education seminar 
was organized for the first time, and opportunity was 
given to actually ob.serve the seminar, the laboratory, 
and the conference functioning together^. The value 
of the three together surpassed even the greatest hopes, 
and the results thus achieved definitely ])r(jvcd the 
value of such a laboratory, and indicated the possi- 
bilities which such a combination will have in the 
future in tiiis field. 

^Tlie visual education seminar was under the direction of 
Charles T. Fitts, Professor of Education. Pomona College, 
and Clarcmcnt Colleges, Claremont, California. 

Page 3 3 




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Page 34 

The Educational Screen 

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Films for Teaching 
Current History 

Major wars have ra\aged the face of 
the earth many times in the past. Diplo- 
matic maneuvers of tremendous import 
have evolved pacts, peaces and treaty 
agreements throughout all civilized time. 
But, in the past, one's study of such world 
events has been confined to the printed 
word and the static photograph, first in 
perishable periodicals and later in book 
form, often published years after the in- 
cidents they report. Most of us learned 
our history in that way and, if we learned 
it well, it is all to the credit of historians 
and teachers who compiled and interpret- 
ed those chronicles of national affairs. 

The student of today and tomorrow 
also will continue to learn of the doings 
of nations from the printed word in 
the text books, magazines and news- 
papers. But they now have also the 
added advantage of authentic, motion- 
picture chronicles that visualize, in action 
and sound, the actual occurrences about 
which they are studying. Such an ad- 
vantage never existed before during the 
course of a momentous, major war ! 
Through easily available 16mm films, both 
silent and in sound, hundreds of schools 
are finding it easy to trace, vividly and 
accurately, the forces and trends that 
resulted in the present European con- 

The significant motion-pictures being 
produced by Castle Films are living 
chronicles of history-in-the-making. They 
"fill an important classroom need," say 
the educators. That these films are 
proving invaluable to classroom discus- 
sions of current history is attested by 
thousands of teachers. Aside from their 
professional, news-reel authenticity, they 
are of permanent value. .-Xfter the 
original showings, the films can be laid 
aside, and when the progress of the war 
links up again with previous events, the 
films are screened again as often as 
needed to tie together all incidents of the 
struggle. Headlines in the papers are 
confusing enough even to adult readers, 
when international events happen with 
such lightning-like rapidity. It is much 
more so for the less mature minds of 
boys and girls. But, under the guidance 
of their teachers, no generation of stu- 
dents ever has been in so fortunate a 
position to know the meaning of what 
is going on around tliem. to acquire a 
greater all-over comprehension of world 
developments through films. 

A new Castle Film, The Nezt's Parade 
of the Year 1939, compresses into one reel 
the most important occurrences in the 
world in a year that was packed with 
globe-shaking events. In it, a big year 
has been reeled. Speaking of this movie. 
Mr. Eugene Castle says: "We leave out 
all sordid 'horror' scenes. They are all 
easy but, in our opinion, a poor way to 
grip attention." He adds: "We review 
every newsreel released to theatres. In 
four months, six members of our staff 

have managed to look at 100,000 feet of 
film. From forty to fifty million feet of 
film pass through out offices in a year. 
The resultant reels gi\e an honest pictor- 
ial record, in action and sound, not only 
of immediate interest today but of tre- 
mendous value in the years to come." 
The Nnvs Parade of the Year 1939 is a 
twelve-months cross-section of the world. 
It includes such epic events as the sub- 
marine "Squalus" rescue ; Franco's vic- 
torious march into Madrid ; inauguration 
of Clipper service across the Atlantic ; 
riots and floods in war-torn China ; 
Britain and France declaring war on 
Germany ; Tommies arriving again on 
French soil ; the King and Queen of 
England returning to London after their 
North American visit ; celebration of tlie 
ISOth anniversary x)f Bastille Day in Paris 
only weeks before war descended again 
on that land ; earthquakes in Chile ; spec- 
tacular granary fire in Chicago ; Ameri- 
can destroyers fighting a hurricane as they 
round Cape Horn on a good-will cruise, 
and other subjects. 

Many teachers are achieving a com- 
plete sequence of events from 1937 on 
to today by grouping previously released 
films into a coherent, logical succession 
of historical events, and thereby tracing 
down to date the causes and factors in 
various lands that made the war inevit- 
able. Some of the films so used are the 
Castle Films The News Parade of 1937; 
Germany Invades Austria: The News 
Parade of 1938,- War in Europe and an- 
other just getting out of the laboratory. 
Battleship Graf Spec Scuttled. With a 
library of these films at hand, many a 
teacher is giving more effectively to his 
students an honest, impartial and clear 
understanding of what is going on and 

Ideal Pictures Corporation, 28 East 8th 
Street, Chicago, have published a new 
catalog of Religious Motion Pictures, 
available for rental from their Religious 
Audio- Visual Service Department. The 
catalog offers a wide selection of fea- 
tures and short subjects in 16mm sound 
and silent, including the religious films 
produced by the Harmon Foundation, 
among them : Africa Joins the World. 
I Am the Way Series. Primitive Re- 
ligions. Song after Sorroiv. Semi-re- 
ligious features, such as The Wander- 
ing Jexv and Servant of the House, are 
also listed. 
The Teaching Aids Exchange, Modesto, 
California, announces that their busi- 
ness-training films have been turned 
over for distribution to the Y.M.C.A. 
Motion Picture Bureau. 347 Madison 
Avenue, New York; 19 S. LaSalle 
Street. Chicago; and 351 Turk St., 
San Francisco. Titles of the films 

Championship Typing, Business Ma- 
chines, and Can You Read Gregg — all 
in 16nnn silent. Members of the Teach- 
ing Aids Exchange are given a 50 per 
cent discount on the rental. 


How you can have the same dcliuce 16 f 
tnra titles and trailers that rUmaek sv^ : 
plies to thousands of theatres. Sniari , 
professional work either silent or > 

sound, rilmaek's nation-wide ^^ 
service includes titling, editing, w^ '\ 
developing £ scoring. Send ^-pljiL 
your trial order today and be f\j>^ A 
oonvinced. Write for catalog ' 


848 S. Wabash Cliloago 






Eastin 16mm Pictures Co., Davenport, 
Iowa, have just released the following 
16mm sound feature picture: 

Songs and Saddles — 7 reels — starring 
Gene Austin. This musical western is 
the only such production ever made by 
this famous personality, and includes in 
its cast a number of prominent players. 
It is the story of a young westerner who 
has become a famous radio star, and 
returns to the rancli for a vacation arriv- 
ing just in time to save the life of his 
foster father and tlie ranch. 

Prints are availile from both the 
Davenport office and the Eastin library 
located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. 

Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc., 35 W. 45th 
Street, New York City, report that 
L'lle d'Orleans has won the Hiram 
Percy Maxim Memorial Award for 
1939, issued by the .Amateur Cinema 
League, with Apple a Day receiving 
Honorable Mention. 
These two 16mm color films are from 
the Gutlohn library and were made by 
Judith and F. Radford Crawley of 
Ottawa. Canada. Vile d'Orleans spins a 
tale of yesterday in the land of Arcady 
and An Apple a Day is the story of a 
Canadian apple orchard. These films 
were described in our December issue. 
From this library, two important fea- 
ture pictures are now available in 16mm 
sound : 

Make A Wish — 8 reels — a musical drama 
featuring Bobby Breen. Much of the 
action in the film takes place in a boys 
summer camp in Maine with a back- 
ground of tuneful songs by the noted 
Viennese composer, Oscar Straus. Bobby 
Breen is supported by a strong cast con- 
sisting of Basil Rathbone. Marion Claire, 
Henry Armetta, Ralph Forbes, Leon 
Errol, Donald Meek and others. 

Streets of New York — 8 reels — an in- 
spirational drama starring Jackie Cooper 
with Martin Spellman. Marjorie Rey- 
nolds and Dick Purcell. This Monogram 
feature portrays the tense, realistic story 
of an ambitious, idealistic youngster 
known as the "Abe Lincoln of 10th 
Avenue." The film exemplifies American 
traditions and the opportunities that are 
open to everyone, regardless of position 
in life. 

Pictorial Film Libraries, 1650 Broad- 
way, New York City, ask that wo in- 
form our readers they are producers 
of the new 2-reel film. Louis Pasteur, 
the Benefactor, announced in our De- 
cember issue as being available from 
them on a sale basis. 

January, 1940 

We Are Noi^ oi Age! 

IDEAL PICTURES Has Entered Its 21st Year of 
Service to tlie Non-Theatrical Notion Picture Field 


Our Gigantic Library 

now consists of some 4,000 subjects 

16 mm sound -16 mm silent -8 mm silent 

A few of our new releases especially suitable for school use in 16 mm sound 


Make a Wish (Bobby Breen) 

King of the Sierras . 
African Holiday 
Dark Sands 
Movie Crazy (Haroid tioyd) 


North Sea 

Gypsy Melody 

Conquest of the Alps 

The Spy Menace 

Football of 1939 

Championship Basketball 

Exotic Egypt 


Men of the Alps 

Four Barriers 

Land of the Aztecs 

A Few New 16 mm Silent 
Films on Health 

A.B.C. of Food 
Sniffles and Snuffles 
Singing and Stinging 
Bending the Twig 

Dealers in Death (Fine peace subject) 

Invitation to a Waltz 
Rangle River 

Lucky Corrigan (Lumber-camp drama) 


Land of the Navajos 
Story of the Silver Hordes 
Story of Our Flag 
Wild Flowers 

(in beautiful colors) 

Eskimo Walrus Hunt 
Hunting Musk-Ox with Eskimos 
Rural Quebec Folkways 
Congo Curiosities 
Elephant God or Devil 

We have added many fine 
subjects to our Religious Films 

library, and offer a special 
separate catalog listing and 
describing these. 

Send for complete catalogs. 





Page 3 6 

The Educational Screen 

czrfmoncj iks iJ^%oduaE%± 

Where the commercial 
±irms announce new products and developments of interest to the field. 

New Spencer Projectors for 
2"x2" SUdes 

Additions to its line of moderately 
priced projectors for 2"x2" black-and- 
white or color films have been announced 
by the Spencer Lens Company of Buflfalo, 
N. Y. Known as Model MK Delinea- 
scopes the group now includes a 100-watt, 
a 200-watt and a 300-watt instrument. 
These ratings, however, do not reveal the 
actual brilliance of projection of which 
the instruments are capable, due to ex- 
ceptional optical efficiency, according to 
the company's statements. 

All three models have been designed 
with special provision for protecting the 

film from damage by heat. In the 100- 
watt model, the ventilation system is ade- 
quate. In the 200-watt model a heat 
absorbing glass is included, while in the 
300-watt instrument a fan cooling attach- 
ment is used in addition to the heat ab- 
sorbing glass. 
The instruments are constructed sturdily 
and of the finest materials. The lamp 
house cover is hinged, permitting easy 
access to the bulb or condensing lenses. 
The condensing lenses are mounted in 
such a manner that they are easily re- 
moved for cleaning. Being equipped 
with the same optical system as the 300- 
watt model, the 200-watt instrument can 
readily be converted into a 300-watt 
model by mounting it on the cooling unit 
and changing the bulb. 

The 200-watt and 300-watt Delinea- 
scopes may be equipped with the Spencer 
Vertical Feeding Unit which facilitates 
the changing of slides. Because each 
slide may be snapped quickly into 
position, better "showmanship" in the 
screening of pictures is effected. Also 
available is a Film Viewing Device for 
viewing strips of films preparatory to 
making up individual slides. 

Sharp definition is secured by means 
of the well corrected Spencer projection 
lens of S" focal length with a speed of 
F:3.6. The 100-watt Delineascope pro- 

vides brilliant projection for all ordinary 
home use, while the 200-watt and 300- 
watt models serve capably in small audi- 
toriums and class rooms. 

Information Booklets 
on Sound Films 

Three helpful educational booklets 
on 16 mm motion pictures are avail- 
able from the Berndt-Maurer Corpora- 
tion, 117 East 24th St., New York City, 
to any individual seriouslv interested. 
The title of the booklet, "How to Bene- 
fit from Sound Films and How to 
Obtain Them at Lowest Cost," indi- 
cates its contents. The reasons why it 
is now possible and desirable to em- 
ploy the sound motion picture on a 
broader scale than heretofore are 
pointed out, and some of the problems 
which can be effectively solved by 
movies are outlined. The other two 
booklets are technical in nature and 
show why sound recording directly in 
16 mm. film produces higher quality 
results than the method of recording 
on 35 mm. film and reducing to 16 mm. 
for the final print. One of these book- 
lets, "16 mm. Sound Films by Direct 
Recording," is a reprint of an address 
delivered by J. A. Maurer to the 
Rochester Technical Section of the 
Photographic Society of America in 
January, 1939. The other, "The Pres- 
ent Technical Status of 16 mm. Sound- 
Film," is a reprint of a paper presented 
by Mr. Maurer at the Spring Conven- 
tion of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers in Hollywood, April, 1939. 

The Selectroslide Junior 

Spindler and Sauppe, Inc., manufactur- 
ers of the remote-controlled Selectroslide, 
automatic slide projection equipment, are 
now working on a model known as the 
Selectroslide Junior. This useful new 
equipment has been designed to answer 
the demand for a Selectroslide of smaller 
capacity and low cost for display pur- 
poses primarily. In this model, the pro- 
jector and the mechanism are housed in 
a single unit, both compact in size, and 
light in weight. The slide changer, or 
drum, holds sixteen 2x2" glass slides 
which are easily and quickly inserted or 
removed. Any specific slide may im- 
mediately be referred to if required by 
simply turning the drum by hand. 

While the mechanism will be operated 
by a 110-volt 60 cycle A. C. Motor as 
regular equipment, a Universal Motor 
for use on both A.C. and D. C. will be 
supplied without additional cost on special 
order. The Junior Selectroslide differs 
also from the Standard model in being 
used by automatic control only and fills 
the demand for inexpensive means of 

projecting color or black and white 2x2" 

Those interested in such display equip- 
ment should write to Spindler and 
Sauppe, Inc., 86 Third St., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

Film Storage Device 

Efficient Film Separator Racks, de- 
signed specially for the filing and stor- 
age of 16mm films, are now available 
from the Neumade Products Corpora- 
tion. They are assembled on order for 
any number of reels of any size and are 
complete with closed end uprights, cen- 
ter supports and with the cross braces on 
the back drilled for mounting to a wall 
or another unit. Each reel has its own 
division and is held erect in its place by 
heavy, rigid, curved, wire-rod separa- 
tors. This feature permits the removal 
of one reel or as many as desired with- 
out the others falling or sliding out of 
position. Every reel division is provided 
with its own individual inde.x card holder 
and removable card. 

These racks are the latest addition to 
the complete line of film filing and stor- 
age cabinets manufactured by the Neu- 
made Products Corporation who have 
been supplying the motion picture indus- 
try with equipment of this nature for 
more than twenty-four years. In addition 
to the all-steel cabinets, Neumade manu- 
factures and distributes everything needed 
for the handling, shipping, cleaning, edit- 
ing and storage of film. 

A copy of their 16mm equipment cata- 
logue No. 16 and further information on 

equipment problems will be furnished 
gladly on request to the Neumade Prod- 
ucts Corporation, 429 W. 42nd Street, 
New York City. 

January, 1940 Page 37 


Increase 35% in 1939 

The Keystone Daylight Lantern Being Used with the Keystone Flashtneter 

The STANDARD LANTERN-SLIDE PROJECTOR is the best projection equipment in 
which a school or teacher can invest, because it CAN BE USED — 

(1) In the classroom or in the auditorium. 

(2) To project many carefully selected and edited units of 
photographic lantern slides. 

(3) To project handmade lantern slides, which cannot be made 
on any smaller scale. 

(4) With a microprojection attachment, which has many 
practical uses. 

(5) With the Keystone Flashmeter, which has been shown to 
have many diagnostic and developmental possibilities in the 
teaching of reading. 

(6) To project third-dimension Polaroid slides. 

When you purchase a Keystone Lantern-Slide Projector, 

Keystone View Company 


Page 38 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 
(A) Discriminating Adults (Y) Youth (C) Children 

Date of mailing on weekly service is shown on each film. 

Amazing Mr. Williams, The (Melvyn Douglas. 
Joan Blondell) (Columbia) Fast, amusing farce. 
Ingenious detective hero's work interferes with 
romance. Disgruntled heroine rebels, breaks en- 
gagement, but relents to aid hero clear innocent 
man of murder. Made a deputy, she leaves hero 
on wedding night to answer call to duty. 1-3-40 
(A) and (Y) Amusing (C) If it interests 

Another Thin Man (Powell. Loy) (MGM) An- 
other hilarious, smoothly sophisticated, mur- 
der-mystery farce-comedy, deftly played by 
fine cast, but over-complex and rather long. 
Same engaging dog. Baby son of hero and 
heroine is new feature. Hardly equal to 
same stars' previous efforts. 12-27-39 

(A) Good of kind (Y) Sophisticated (C) No 
Barricade (Winninger, Baxter, Faye) (Fox) Two 
refugees from life, each with a "past." are 
marooned in war-torn China at obscure American 
consulate. Baxter convincing as dissolute news- 
paper correspondent. Fine characterization of 
American consul, "forgotten" for forty years, 
by Winninger. Lively, tense, artificial. 12-27-39 
(A) Depends on taste (Y) Doubtful (C) No 
Brother Rat and a Baby (Wayne Morris, Pris- 
cilia Lane) (Warner) Ridiculous, topsy-turvy 
farce-comedy. Terrifically complicated, hopelessly 
crazy situations caused by nauseating smart-aleck, 
involving two girls, an unsophisticated married 
couple, and a comparatively sane young man. 
Hilarious but strained effort at humor. 1-9-40 
(A) Hectic (Y) & (C) Doubtful value 

Cafe Hostess (Preston Foster, Ann Dvorak) (Co- 
lumbia) Rather interesting, consistently handled 
little melodrama. I'undam^ntally decent cafe hos- 
tess falls in love with likeable, forthright sailor. 
Complications when she tries to leave cafe and 
crooked owner. Emphasis on personality relation- 
ships rather than gangster crookedness. 1-9-40 
(A) & (Y) Fairly interesting (C) No 

Charlie McCarthy, Detective (Edgar. Charlie, 
Mortimer) (Univ ) Bergen's cle . er radio and 
vaudeville stuff, with some Keystone-cop comedy, 
fused into complex, slapstick murder mystery. 
Charlie's lack of automobility puts most of de- 
tective work on Bergen. Labored and weak in 
spots, but full of surefire laughs. 1-3-40 

(A) Ordinary (Y) and (C) Mostly amusing 

Daytime Wife (Linda Darnell, Power) (Fox) 
Sophisticated farce-comedy about tangled matri- 
monial web. Stay-at-home wife takes unusual 
steps when dashing husband is snared by sec- 
retary's wiles. Ridiculous and stupid situations 
handled with little finesse. Power ineffective 
in comedy role. 1 2-1 9-39 

(A) Fair (Y) Not the best (C) No 

Destry Rides Again (Stewart, Dietrich) (Univ) 
Hilarious, glorified "western." Easy-going depu- 
ty sheriff, without gun, turns trick on out- 
laws and cleans up frontier town's toughest 
dive. Dietrich vivid as "Frenchie." husky-voiced 
songbird and accomplice to toughs. Fast action, 
clever burlesque touches, fine cast, 12-19-39 
(A) & (Y) Good of kind (C) Hardly 

Eternally Yours (L. Young. Niven) (UA) Suave, 
amusing, improbable comedy drama. Young so- 
cialite, really wanting home and babies, elopes 
with charming young magician as stage-lady and 
wife. Ardent love-making. Novelty pales, compli- 
cations ensue, arbitrary happy ending. Frothy 
situations, witty dialog, good acting. 12-12-39 

(A) Very good of kind (Y) and (C) No 

Everything's on Ice (Irene Dare, Karns)(RKO) 
Grace and ability of precocious child skater in 
clever acts, chief feature of weak story. Karns 
as uncle exploiting niece and squandering her 
money is stupid and disgusting. Edgar Kennedy 
as sensible, unpretentious father adds some 
value. 12-12-39 

(A) Poor (Y) and (C) Fair 

Four Wives (Lanesisters. G.Page) (Warner) Easy 
tempo in human, graceful, frequently humor- 
ous story of marital problems of girls, centered 
around sister engaged to marry man she loves 
but about to have baby by dead husband. Ac- 
cent on psychological problems. Situations nat- 
urally handled in wholesome atmosphere. 12-27-39 
(A) Good of kind (Y) Mature (C) No 

Fugitive at Large (Patricia Ellis, Jack Holt) (Co- 
lumbia) Interesting dual role. Bank robber and 
gambler pins crime on innocent double, an engi- 
neer, who is sentenced to road gang. He escapes 
IS caught by police, but finally aids in catching 
criminal. Plot details cleverly handled, direc- 
tion consistent. 1-9-40 
(A) and (Y) Fair of kind (C) Perhaps 

Generals Without Buttons ( Fren.-Eng. titles) 
Absurd feud between two villages inspires boy 
gangs to combat. Offers fine cinema but hardly 
model child conduct. Boys' pranks and battles de- 
lightfully handled. Story has diverting freshness 
and amusing conclusion. Fine photography, beau- 
tiful scenery. Acting of boys excellent. 12-12-39 
'A) Delightful (Y) Prob. good (C) Doubtful 
Gentleman From Arizona (Ruth Reece. J. F. Mac- 
Donald) (Monogram) Trite tale of chronic gam- 
bler's last fling when home and ranch depend on 
horse race. Usual horse breaking, racing scenes. 
Acting amateurish, continuity and action poor. 
Featured child actress unnatural. Good cinecol- 
or. Intentional glorification of Arizona. 1-9-40 
(A) Poor (Y) Fair (C) Fairly good 

Golden Key, The (Russian-Eng. titles) Utterly 
charming and absorbing bit of fantasy based on 
story of Pinocchio. Adventures of Buratino, 
mischievious. pert little puppet, carved out of 
wood by Papa Carlo. Imaginative conception, 
delightful setting, deft direction, story book 
atmosphere. No propaganda. 12-27-39 

(A) (Y) and (C) Delightful 
Great Victor Herbert. The (Connolly. Mary Mar- 
tin, Allan Jones) (Para) Skillful, elaborat- spec- 
tacle, giving a frt-e and sentimental biography of 
the composer and greatly enriched by countless 
selections from his works. Finely acted, sung and 
directed. Mary Martin does outstanding role. Mu- 
sically delightful, visually pleasing. 1-3-40 
(A) and (Yi Excellent (C) Good 
Gulliver's Travels (Fleischer animation) (Para I 
Turns a few cues from Swift into hilarious fun- 
film of clever caricature, wild grotesque, dizzy 
speed, dazzling Technicolor, and long-tested sound 
devices. One-reel color cartoon technique expand- 
ed to seven. More thrill excitement, laughs than 
subtlety, fascination, charm. 12-27-39 
(A) (Y) and (C) Excellent of kind 
Gypsies (Soviet Russia - Eng. titles) Soviet 
Russia's attempts to settle gypsy bands on 
soil. Conflict between gypsy who joins 
Soviet villagers and hard, independent leader 
of band who will not give up wanderings. 
Interesting picture of nomadic life and 
customs. 12-19-39 
(A) Rather interesting (Y) Perhaps (C) No 
Heart of Paris (Fren.-Eng. titles) Juror in- 
fluences jury to acquit innocent girl tried for 
murder. Later takes her into his shop an' home, 
concealing her background. Complications en- 
sue. Interesting, realistic picture of middle 
class family life. Fine acting by juror 
and wife. 12-12-39 
(A) Interesting (Y) Little interest (C) No 
Housekeepers Daughter. The (Joan Bennett, 
Menjou. Gargan, Meek) (U. A.) Very dizzy mix- 
ture of farce and melodrama, with murder, gang- 
sterism, newsreporting, slapstick and romance as 
ingredients. Some asuming situations, but pair 
of liquor-guzzling reporters to provide chief 
humor, are not very funny. 1-3-40 
(A) Depends on taste (Y) Not the best (C) No 
Hunchback of Notre Dame (Laughton. Maureen 
O'Hara) (RKO) Stupendous filming of Hugo 
classic. Imposing sets, vivid atmosphere, splendid 
performances, suspensef ul action. Technically fine 
but sensational, noisy, nerve-shocking and un- 
pleasant. Laughton's make-up too repulsively gro- 
tesque. A "dish" for horror picture fan. 12-27-39 
(A) Dep. on taste (Y) Too horrible (C) No 
Intermezzo (Ingrid Bergman. Howard, Best, 
Halliday) (U.A.) Simple, powerful, superbly pro- 
duced "triangle" story of great violinist drawn 
away from devoted wife and child by his great 
love for a kindred soul. Convincing, beautiful, 
true, expertly and delicately done. Four fine 
roles. Bergman outstanding. 1-3-40 
(A) Excellent (Y) Very mature (C) No 
Katia (Fren.-Eng. titles) (Darrieux, John Loder) 
(Metrops) Strong, human, appealing storv of 
love and marriage between Tsar Alexander II 
and exuberant little French girl. Good histor- 
ical background, costume and spectacle. Dar- 
rteux's notable comedy flare appears in her 
finest characterization to date. 12-27-39 
(A) and (Y) Fine of kind (C) No interest 

Laugh It Off (Johnny Downs, Constance Moore) 
(Univ) Four passe' actresses lose their "actors' 
home" and start to make their own money in 
typically "movie" style — first, by ponies, sec- 
ond, by roulette ! Finally, big success in 
nightclub ! Largely silly, absurd and some- 
times pathetic. 1-3-40 
(A) Feeble (Y) Perhaps (C) Hardly 

The Educational Screen 

Meet Dr. Christian (Hersholt) (RKO) First 
of series based on radio character created by 
Hersholt. Conflict between ambitious mayor 
and human lovable doctor who works toward 
much needed municipal hospital. Routine plot 
and action enlivened only by fine characteri- 
zation by Hersholt. 12-19-39 
lA) Fair (Y) & (C) Good 
Missing Evidence (Preston Foster, Irene Her- 
vey) (Univ) Rather interesting little drama. 
Counterfeit sweepstake ticket racket cleverly 
exposed by secret service agent and girl assist- 
ant. Emphasis on incidents of well-constructed, 
fast-moving plot rather than usual gangster com- 
plications. All roles adequately handled. 12-19-39 
(A) & (Y) Fairly good (C) Perhaps 
On Dress Parade (Dead End Kids) (Warner) 
New York tough kid, tricked into going to 
military school by father's friend, incurs en- 
mity first by uncouth, generally nasty nature, 
then by injuring classmate. Film has un- 
wholesome flavor despite boy's final conversion 
to decency and honor. 12-19-39 
(A) Unpleasant (Y) & (C) Unwholesome 
One Hour to Live (Chas. Bickford, Doris Nolan) 
( Univ) When fighter disobey's gang's orders 
and wins, excitement start.s — three murders, wit- 
nesses intimidated, while gangsters evade trial, 
protected by man "higher up"^police commis- 
sioner ! Persistent cop-hero finally brings ail to 
justice. Stale, melodramatic stuff. 12-19-39 
(A) Ordinary (Y) & (C) No 
Private Detective (Jane Wyman, Dick Foran) 
(First Nat.) Fairly entertaining little murder 
mystery. Clever, rather likable girl detective 
solves complicated murder case single-handed. 
Interest created by amusing incidents and events 
of balanced plot rather than gruesome or overly 
suspenseful situations. 1-9-40 
(A) (Y) and (C) Fairly good 

Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (Davis. 
Flynn) (Warner) Lavishly produced technicolor 
drama of emotional conflict between shrewish but 
tender Elizabeth and her ambitious, hot-headed 
lover wishing to share throne. Fine acting by 
Bc'tte Davis. Flynn unconvincing, likeable. Gor- 
geous Elizabethan pomp and pageantry. 12-12-39 
(A) Very good (Y) Mature (C) No 

Scandal Sheet (Kruger, Ona Munson) (Col) Un- 
scrupulous but engaging muck-raking editor, 
having concealed his paternity from his son, 
tries to train the high-principled boy for ne- 
farious journalism. The plan backfires in lurid 
melodramatic style for supposedly just and 
happy ending. Mostly hokum. 1-3-40 

(A) Mediocre (Y) and (C) No 

Shipyard Sally (Gracie Fields, Sydney Howard) 
(Fox) Hilarious, very English farce-comedy of 
Scotch cabaret singer's hectic struggle to win 
back jobs for Clyde shipbuilders. Despite crazy 
complications in London, due to her crooked 
card-sharp father, she wins. Lame production but 
quite funny and sentimentally patriotic. 1-3-40 
(A) and (Y) Fair of kind (C) Perhaps 

Sued for Libel ( Kent Taylor, Linda Hayes ) 
( RKO) Ordinary mystery melodrama wherein the 
swaggering newspaperman, with usual girl 
friend, defends his paper against libel suit by un- 
earthing murders in record of man suing. Care- 
fully misdirected suspicions, court-room pro- 
cedure, and other standard ingredients. 12-12-39 
(A) Mediocre (Y) Perhaps (C) No 

Swanee River (Ameche, Leeds, Jolson) (Foxl 
Dramatic, skillfully fictionalized version of Ste- 
phen Foster's life, in all Technicolor. Song 
chronology ignored for sake of drama. Beautiful 
work by Hall Johnson Choir, but the lovely 
Foster melodies deserve better than the raucoti-^ 
"singing'* of Jolson as chief soloist. 1-9-Im 

(A) and (Y) Very good of kind (C) Doubtful int. 
20,000 Men a Year (Scott. Foster, Lindsay) (Fox) 
Film to demonstrate reliability of plane in 
emergency and encourage aviation recruiting. Ex- 
perienced aviator in C.A.A. program teachts 
college students to fly. Slight but adequate plot 
and love story. Thrilling and spectacular flying 
and not a single crash! 12-27-39 

(A) Good of kind (Y) Good (C) Exciting 

Three Sons (Edward Ellis, Wm. Gargan) (RKO i 
Hardworking, idealistic father builds successful 
Chicago department store hoping his childrt-n. 
reared in luxury, will carry on, but they prove 
worthless. Time-lapse story, thin, episodic, 
loosely knit. Fine characterization by Ellis, 
other roles negligible. 12-12-39 

(A) O-rdinary (Y) Little interest (C) No 

Tower of London (Rathbone, Karloff) (Univ) 
Super-horror-and-suspense atmosphere pervades 
drama about interesting period of English 
history. Heavy accent on torture chambers 
and murders. Rathbone excellent as ruthless. 
scheming Richard HI. Pageantry of court of 
Edward IV well done. 12-12-39 

(A) Harrowing (Y) and (C) No 

Two Thoroughbreds (Jimmy Lydon. Joan Brn- 
del)(RKO) Unpretentious tale of orphaned lad. 
living with brutal, benighted relatives, who find- 
happiness in caring for stray colt and in finr 
friendship of later-found owners. Dubious ethics 
in boy's belated truth-telling about animal's own- 
ership. Total effect quite good. 1-9-4 o 
(A) Perhaps (Y) Good (C) Mostly good 

Also for the Visual Field — 

(New 15th Edition just out) 

"1000 and ONE" The Blue Book of Non-Theatrical Films, 
published annually is famous in the field of visual instruction 
as the standard film reference source, indispensable to film 
users in the educational field. The new edition lists and de- 
scribes over 5,000 films, classified into 147 different subject 
groups (including large group of entertainment subjects). An 
additional feature this year is a complete alphabetical list of 
every film in the directory. Other information includes designa- 
tion of whether a film is available in 16mm, or 35mm, silent 
or sound, number of reels and sources distributing the films, 
with range of prices charged. 
128 pp. Paper. Price 75c. (25c to E. S. subscribers) 

By Albert E. Osborne. 

A stimulating, wide-range view of the higher potentialities 
of visual instruction in promoting world harmony by a "more 
humanity-centered education." A pertinent reply to H. G. 
Wells' dictum that "the future is a race between education and 

124 pp. Cloth. Price $1.25. 


By C. F. Hoban, C. F. Hoban, Jr., and S. B. Zisman. 

Presents in theory and in practice the basic methodology of 
visual instruction in relation to classroom procedure. Through- 
out the text the theory of visual aids is applied to textbook 
illustration. "Visualizing the Curriculum", itself a splendidly 
"visualized text", provides an abundance of technical guidance 
in the form of illustrative drawings of photographs, reports of 
school journeys, suggestions for tnounting materials, for mak- 
ing slides, film strips, etc. It incorporates up-to-date material, 
provides a fine balance in the treatment of various teaching 
aids, evaluates various types of aids, and defines the functions 
and values of each in the learning process. 

320 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $3.50. 
(20% discount to schools) 

By Ellsworth C. Dent. 

Presents in convenient form, practical information for those 
interested in applying visual and audio-visual aids to instruc- 
tion. The six chapters include discussions on "The Status of 
Visual Instruction," "Types of Visual Aids and Their Use," 
"Types of Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction," "Types of Sound 
Aids for Schools," "Organizing the Audio-Visual Service,' 
"Source List of Materials and Equipment." 

212 pp. Illus. Cloth. Price $1.50. 

By Joseph J. Weber, Ph. D. 

An important contribution to the literature of the visual field. 

Presents in unusually interesting form the results of extended 

investigations on the teaching values of the lantern slide and 

stereograph. 156 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $1.00 

(67c to E. S. subscril^ers) 

By Joseph J. Weber, Ph. D. 

The first published work of authoritative research in the 
visual field, foundational to all research work following it. Not 
only valuable to research workers, but an essential reference 
work for all libraries. 
131 pp. Cloth. Price $1.00 (67c to subscribers of E. S.) 

Full Proceedings of the Midwestern Forum on Visual 
Aids (Held in Chicago, May 1939) 

The most complete record ever printed and on one of the 
livest visual meetings ever held. Numerous addresses by leading 
figures in the visual field, a notable Directors' Round Table 
and three complete recordings of classes taught by sound films 
are among the rich contents of the 80-page booklet. 

80 ])ages. Paper. Price 50c. 
(25c to subscribers of Educational Screen) 

By G. E. Hamilton. 

Simple directions for making this economical and increas- 
ingly popular teaching aid. 24 pp. Paper. Price 10c. 

INSTRUCTIONAL USE. By Lelia Trolinger 

A full presentation of the latest piece of research on de- 
termination nf teaching values of pictures. Development of 
the Score Card and elaborate experiment in use of same. Full 
documentation, tabulation of results, and appendices. The 
latest, most complete and scholarly investigation of a problem 
in the visual teaching field that has long needed such a 
solution. 48 pp. Paper. Illus. Price 50c. 

By Frederick L. Devereux. 

Presenting preliminary solutions of some of the more im- 
portant problems encountered in adapting the talking picture 
to the service of education. The first six chapters deal with 
the development of fundamental bases of production, with the 
experimentation which has been conducted, and with suggested 
problems for future research. The remaining chapters discuss 
the effective use of the sound film in teaching. 
220 pp. Clotlr. Illus. Price $2.00. (20% discount to schools) 

By M. R. Brunstetter, Ph. D. 

Discusses the utilization of the educational sound film, and 
lists and illustrates techniques for placing the film into effective 
service in the classroom. The procedures suggested are based 
upon extended experience in studying teachers' use of sound 
films and in helping to organize programs of audio visual in- 
struction in school systems. Two valuable Appendices and 
a full index. 
175 pp. Cloth, Illus. Price $2.00. (20% discount to schools) 


A report of the instructional use and indirect educational in- 
fluence of motion pictures in this country, divided into nine 
units. Treats the motion picture (1) as an educational influence; 
(2) in service of Health and social hygiene; (3) in governmental 
service and patriotism: (4) in vocational guidance; (5) in in- 
ternational understanding; (6) Motion picture legislation; (7) 
technique of production and distribution ; (8) systematic intro- 
duction of films in teaching; (9) general educational problems 
of films in teaching. 

106 pp. Paper. Price $1.00 (20% discount to schools) 

IN EDUCATION. By G. E. Hamilton. 

The most comprehensive discussion yet published. 

47 pp. Paper. Price 15c. 

TO ORDER, Check Material Desired and Fill in Blank Below 

To Bubscribers 

Priro nfE. S. 

"1000 and One" Film Directory $ .76 $ .25 

An Alternative for Revolution and War 1.25 1.26 O 

Visualizing the Curriculum 3.50 O 3.50 O 

(To Schools) 2.80 O 2.80 

The Audio-Visual Handbook 1.50 O 1.60 D 

Picture Values in Education 1.00 O .67 O 
Comparative Effectiveness of 

Some Visual Aids 1.00 O -67 

Proceedings of Mid-West Forum on 

Visual Aids .50 .25 Q 

Evaluation of Still Pictures .60 .50 

The Educational Talking Picture 2.00 2.00 C 

(To Schools) 1.60 n 1.60 D 

How to Use Educational Sound Film O 2.00 O 

(To Schools) 1.60 D 1.60 D 

Motion Pictures in Education in 

The United States 1.00 D 1.00 D 

(To Schools) 80 O .80 

Stereograph and Lantern Slide in Education .16 O .16 O 


U. S. 1 year, $2.00 □ 2 years, $3.00 D 
Foreign 1 year, $3.00 D 2 years, $5.00 D 
Canada 1 year, $2.25 D 2 years, $3.50 D 

Educational Screen 

64 E. Lake St.. Chicago 

I have indicated items desired and enclose check for $ 


School or Street 

Citv State 

Page 40 

The Educational Screen 

TJIT'IDT T'TJP^^ S T31C^ ^ Trade Directory 

XIUXVU X XlJCl JL X^XXU for the Visual Field 


Akin and Bagshaw, Inc. (3) 

1425 Williams St., Denver, Colo, 

Audio-Film Libraries (2) 

661 Bloomfield Ave., Bloomfield, N. J. 

(See advertisement on page 28) 

Bailey Film Service (3, 4) 

1651 Cosmo St., Hollywood, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 28) 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Bray Pictures Corporation (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
Castle Films (3) 

RCA Bldg-., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 1) 

College Film Center (3, 5) 

59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago. 

DeVry Corporation (3, 4) 

1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Dudley Visual Education Service (1) 
736 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 
4th Fl., Coughlan Bldg. 
Mankato, Minn. 

Eastin 16 mm. Pictures (3) 

707 Putnam Bldg., Davenport, la. 
Burns Bldg., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 
356 Madison Ave., New York City 

Eastman Kodak Storees, Inc. (3) 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Edited Pictures System, Inc. (3) 

330 W. 42nd St., New York City 
Erpi Classroom Films, Inc. (2, 5) 

35-11 3Sth Ave., Long Island City, 

N. Y. 

Films, Inc. (3) 

330 W. 42nd St., New York City 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

314 S. W. Ninth, Ave., Portland, Ore. 
Frith Films (1) 

P. O. Box 565, Hollywood, Calif. 
Garrison Films (3, 6) 

1600 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 33) 

General Films, Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

156 King St., W. Toronto 
Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc. (3) 

35 W. 45th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 31) 

Harvard Film Service (3, 6) 

Biological Laboratories, 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Guy D. Haselton, Travelettes (1, 2, 4) 

7936 Santa Monica Blvd., 

Hollywood, Calif. 
J. H. Hoffberg Co., Inc. (2, S) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 35) 

International Film Bureau (3, 5) 

59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago 

Lewis Film Service (3) 

105 E. 1st St., Wichita, Kan. 

(See advertisement on page 28) 

The Manse Library (3) 

1521 Dana Ave., Cincinnati. O. 

(See advertisement on page 33) 
Nu-Art Films, Inc. (3) 

145 W. 4Sth St., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 33) 

Pictorial Films (2) 

1650 Broadway, New York City 

(Soe advertisement on page 32) 

Conflnuous Insertions under one h 

United Educator Films Co. (2) 

State Theatre Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

107 South Court, Sq., Memphis, Tenn. 
United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Universal Pictures Co., Inc. (5) 

Rockefeller Center, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 24) 

Visual Education Service (3) 

131 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 

Wholesome Films Service, Inc. (1, 6) 
48 Melrose St., Boston, Mass. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau (3, 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago 
351 Turk St.. San Francisco, Cal. 



The Ampro Corporation (3) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 4) 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

The Berndt-Maurer Corp. 

117 K. 24th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 29) 

DeVry Corporation (3, 6) 

1111 Armitage St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave., New York City 
Eastman Kodak Stores. Inc. (3) 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
General Films, Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

156 King St., W. Toronto 
Hirsch & Kaye (3) 

239 Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. 
Holmes Projector Co. (3, 6) 

1813 Orchard St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 32) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 35) 

Neumade Products Corp. 

427 W 42nd St.. New York City 
(See advertisement on page 25) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc. (2) 

Camden, N. J. 

S. O. S. Corporation (3, 6) 

636 Eleventh Ave., New York City 
United Educator Films Co. (2) 

State Theatre Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

107 South Court, Sq., Memphis, Tenn. 
United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Universal Camera Corp. 

Dept. P-16, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 26) 

Universal Sound Projector (2) 

1917 Oxford St. Philadelphia, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 33) 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (3) 

Davenport, Iowa 

(See advertisement on page 31) 

Visual Education Service (3) 

131 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Da Lite Screen Co. 
2717 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 27) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Eastman Educational Slides 

Johnson Co. Bank Bldg., 

Iowa City, la. 
Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

330 W. 42nd St., New York City 
Ideal Pictures Corp. 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 35) 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 37) 

Radio-Mat Slide Co., Inc. 
1819 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 28) 

Society for Visual Education 
100 E. Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Spindler & Sauppe, Inc. 

86 Third St., San Francisco, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 26) 

Visual Education Service 
131 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 

Visual Sciences 
Suffern, New York 

(See advertisement on page 33) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 37) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 2) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Armitage Ave.. Chicago 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave., New York City 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
General Films Ltd. 

1924 Rose St.. Regina, Sask. 

156 King St., W. Toronto 
Hirsch & Kaye 

239 Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. 
Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 5) 

Williams, Brown and Earl, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Colonial Art Co. 

1336 N.W. 1st St., Oklahoma City, Okla. 

leading, $1.50 per issue; additional listings 


(1) indicates firm supplies 16 mm. 

(2) indicates firm supplies 16 mm. 

(3) indicates firm supplies 16 mm. 
sound and silent. 

(4) indicates firm supplies 35 mm. 

(5) indicates firm supplies 33 mm, 

(6) indicates firm supplies 35 mm. 
sound and silent. 

under other headings, 75c each. 



r-uoiic Library 
K-^r,3;'sCity, Mo. 

lie .Snow, Mt. Rainier X;ition:il Pjtrk 

(Courtesy U.S. Dkpartmkxt f>y tin: 

25(^ A COPY S2.00 PER YEAR 


ifo IV(mcU LoAjcie^l: cuidnmit LUia 


Below — The famous 
DeVry Portable 35 
m.m. sound projector. 
Basically the Original 
DeVry creation — com- 
pletely redesigned with 
every worthwhile 
and modern 
sound improve- 

Below right — The De 
Vry semi-portable 35 
m.m. sound projector. 
Heavy duty mechanism 
and advanced optical 
system. This equipment 
is ideal for 
small theatres 
and most audi- 

ve — Super DeVry 35 
1. theatre projector — 
amlined — exclusively 
lern in desiga and 

\w /e//--The new DeVry 16 m.m. arc sound pro- 
or — Built to professional standards. Unequalled 
onstruction and performance. 


Lejt middle — The DeVry Deluxe 
16 m.m. sound projector. Peer 
of all portable units 1600 ft. 

Lejt {at bottom) — The new DeVry 
model "Q". Single case con- 
struction. Projector, Amplifier, 
and Speaker in one unit. 


— manufacturers of precision mo- 
tion picture equipment for 26 
years. DeVry 35 m.m. cameras 
and projectors have been the 
choice of Hollywood studios and 
theatres throughout the world; 
and the DeVry line of 16 m.m. 
equipment is already the choice 
of those who have taken the 
time to investigate. 

Write for circular on any par- 
ticular product listed here, which 
does not include DeVry printers, 
silent projectors and film stereo 


Above — DeVry 16 m.m. 
sound camera — built 
to professional stand- 
ards. 400 ft. capacity. 

Below — The DeVry auto- 
matic 35 m.m. camera — 
choice of newsreel 
cameramen and explor- 
ers throughout the world. 

Above — The DeVry \t 
m.m. separate sound re 
corder 40p ft. capacity. 

Ce/ow— The DeVry l6 
m.m. all purpose camera, 
Built for heavy duty and 
dependable use. 100 ft. 
capacity — black and 
white or color film. 



VRY CORPORATION ^^ 1111 Armita<ro 4«o ruirAcn 

February, 1940 

Faze 41 

7A« X^^eii^UhiiIiZ^r^Jl6*^^^li^ PuU„/utiM Uui VJaM 

330 W. 42 ST.^^'lV^NEW YORK 



Complete descriptions available at 
Booth 1-11 at the St. Louis Con- 
vention o( the 

Ml Eim 

If you do not plan to attend, per- 
mit us to mail you a fully illustrated 
folder describing it in great detail. 
Mention ES-140, please, when 


A New Type of Educational Documentary 

with voice narration and musical accompaniment 

40 minutes Five reels 

A comprehensive study of not only o great major industry of our country but also 
tf>e most momentous scientific development of our age. How man flies and how he 
learned to fly. Every significant trial and device in balloons and heavier-than-air 
machines since Leonardo daVinci's first designs in the fifteenth century. 

The principles of aerial flight . . . types of current planes and control equipment . . . 
current instruction plans and methods — the whole of aviation today and in the past. 
A genuine contribution to educational aids, we are informed by leading educators 
who have previewed it^ 


Th« most distinguished gothering of aeronautical engineers and scientists 
ever assembled witnessed the first showing of CONQUEST OF THE AIR 
on Jan. 86, 1940 on the occasion of the annual meeting of the Institute of 
the Aeronautical Sciences, at the Hotel Biltmore in New Yorlc. Among 
the 600 viewers were Major James Doolittle. President, Major Lester D. 
Gardner, Executive Director, Major General Arnold, Chief of the Air 
Corps., U. S. Army, Rear Admiral Towers, Chief of the Bureau of Aero- 
nautics, U. S. Navy, and the winners of honors presented annually by the 
Institute for distinguished achievement in the field of aviation. 

— Press Release, 


e School List 

Every school having 16mm sound projectors should have the latest infor- 
mation on this important educational developrhent. Sixty of the greatest 
major feature productions — such as WELLS FARGO, HIGH, WIDE 
MEN AND A GIRL — unabridged — available now to approved schools 
with Study Guides for curriculum integration. 




To FILMS INCORPORATED, 3.W W. 4«nd St., New York 
Send me please, without 

obllKatlon, rhe Outline of ^^ .- 




Page 42 

The Educational Screen 






provides apparatus 

for many departments 

and uses 

Central Radio System 

Wi+h the new Vic+or Animato- 
phone Sound Motion Picture 
Projector, teaching reaches a 
new high in simplification and 
effectiveness. Victor's exclu- 
sive Multiple-Use features 
offer utility, flexibility and 
economy never before at- 
tained in Visual Education. 
Yet the cost is surprisingly 
low! Investigate this remark- 
able New Sound Projector 

Check These Victor 

Each projector is the basis for serv- 
ing 30 or 3000 students with silent 
and sound nnovles, public address 
facilities, central radio, phono record 
reproduction and complete record- 
ing facilities. 

New-type shutter and intermittent 
movement eliminates all "flicker." 

Exclusive Victor Film Trip absolutely 
prevents mutilation of film. 

Full, ndfural 1'one quality Is assured 
by Victor sound equipment. 

For Catalog No. 40, 



Distributors throughout the World 

the VICTOR Exhibit and see 
the latest in Visual Education 
Equipment. Space KIO, Lll, 
and LI 2 at N. E. A. — A. A. 
S. A. Convention in St Louis 
from February 24-29. 




Nelson L. Greene - - - Editor-in-Chief 
Evelyn J. Baker - Advertising Manager 
Josephine Hoffman - Office Manager 

Camilla Best - - - 
WiLBER Emmert - - 
Hardy R. Finch - - 
Ann Gale - - - - 
Charles F. Hoban, Jr., 
Josephine Hoffman - 
F. Dean McClusky - 
Arch A. Mercey - - 
Etta Schneider - - 

New Orleans, La. 
- - Indiana, Pa. 
Greenwich, Conn. 

- - Chicago, 111. 
Washington, D, C. 

- - Chicago, III. 
Scarborough, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 

New York, N. Y. 

Editorial Advisory Board 

Ward C. Bowen, Chief, Bureau of Radio 
and Visual .'Vids, State Education De- 
partment, Albany, N. Y. 

Marian Evans, Director, Visual Instruction 
Center, Public Schools, San Diego, 

W. M. Gregory, Director, Educational Mu- 
seum, Public Schools, Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

J. A. Hollinger, Director, Department 
of Science and Visualization, Public 
Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Boyd B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director, 
Extension Division, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

Paul C. Reed, Director, Department of Ra- 
dio and Visual Education, Board of 
Education, Rochester, N. Y. 

W. Gayle Starnes, in charge of Audio- 
Visual Aids, Department of University 
Extension, University of Kentucky, 
Lexington, Ky. 

Lelia Trounger, Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

W. W. Whittinghill, Director, Depart- 
ment of Visual and Radio Education, 
Board of Education, Detroit, Mich. 





Diversi+orials 47 

Ediforial Advisory Board. 48 

Perceptual Learning John A. Hollinger 49 

School-Made Motion Pictures for Public Relations 

in Ohio (II) William S. Wagner 50 

An Undeveloped Mine of Materials for 

Visual Education John Paul Givler 53 

A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Three Methods 

of Using Motion Pictures in Teaching (1). John Elmore hiansen 55 

Motion Pictures — Not for Theatres Arthur Edwin Krows 58 

In and for the Classroom. Conducted by Wilber Emmert 62 

Among Ourselves — Notes from and by The Department 

of Visual Instruction Conducted by Charles F. Hoban, Jr. 64 

A Clearing House for School-Made Public 

Relations Films William G. Hart 65 

School-Made Motion Pictures Conducted by Hardy R. Finch 66 

The Federal Film Edited by Arch A. Mercey 68 

The Literature in Visual Instruction — 

A Monthly Digest Conducted by Etta Schneider 70 

News and Notes Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 78 

Current Film News 80 

Among the Producers 84 

Film Estimates -- 86 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 88 


Domestic $2.00 

Canada $2.25 

Foreign $3.00 

Single Copies .25 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published nnonthly except July and August by The 
Educational Screen, Inc. Publication Office, Pontiac, Illinois; Executive Office, 64 
East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontiac, Illinois, as 
Second Class Matter. 
Address communications to The Educational Screen, 64 East Lake St.. Chicago, 111. 

Page 44 

The 'Educational Screen 


Before buying any movie proieaor, first learn 
about Filmosound and Filmo Silent Projectors. 
They are made by Bell & Howell, makers of 
Hollywood's professional equipment, in mod- 
els for every school need. Each is precision- 
built for lasting, dependable service. The near- 
est Bell & Howell Visual Education Specialist 
will counsel you ably in choice of model. Mail 
coupon for details. 

WHEREVER your school is located, 
chances are you're closest to Bell 
& Howell service. For B&H maintains 
125 Visual Education Specialists in 
strategic points throughout the nation. 
When you want aid on any visual edu- 
cation problem, a specialist can be at 
your door within a few hours! 

These 125 men are fully informed 
about school motion picture equip- 
ment, about films for school use, and 
about the way other schools have suc- 
cessfully applied motion pictures to 
teaching needs similar to yours. Their 
knowledge and their services are yours 
for the asking. 

And behind these specialists is the 
Bell & Howell Company, supplying a 
complete school service — (1) 
the finest projectors in such 
diversity that there's one ex- 

actly suited to your requirements, (2 ) 
a constantly growing library now 
numbering more than 1,400 films, and 
(3 ) competent factory service stations 
inNewYork, Chicago, and Hollywood. 
Should your visual education pro- 
gram be expanded.' Let a B&H special- 
ist help you plan the improvements 
you've been wanting. Mail the coupon 
today— no obligation. Bell & Howell 
Company, Chicago; New York; Holly- 
wood; London. Established 1907. 

At the convention in St, Louis, February 24 
fo 29, see fhe Bell & Howell exhibit of the 
newest in visual aids. Booths A-40, 42, 44. 


1817 Larchmont Ave.. Chicago, IIL 
Withoutobliflation. please have your nearest Visual 
Education Specialist help me with this problem: 

( ) Include details on ( > Filmosound School Pro- 
jectors; ( ) Filmo Silent Projectors. 





February, 1940 

We Are Noiat of Age! 

IDEAL PICTURES Has Entered lis 21sl Year of 
Service to the Non-Theatrical Notion Picture Field 


Our Gigantic Library 

now consists of some 4,000 subjects 

16 mm sound -16 mm silent -8 mm silent 

A few of our new releases especially suitable for school use in 16 mm sound 


Make a Wish (Bobby Breen) 

King of the Sierras 
African Holiday 
Dark Sands 

Movie Crazy (HaroW Uoyd) 


North Sea 

Gypsy Melody 

Conquest of the Alps 

The Spy Menace 

Football of 1939 

Championship Basketball 

Exotic Egypt 


Men of the Alps 

Four Barriers 

Land of the Aztecs 

A Few ISetv 16 mm Silent 
Film,s on Health 

A.B.C. of Food 
Sniffles and Snuffles 
Singing and Stinging 
Bending the Twig 

Dealers in Death (Fine peace subject) 

Invitation to a Waltz 
Rangle River 

Lucky Corrigan (Lumber-camp drama) 


Land of the Navajos 
Story of the Silver Hordes 
Story of Our Flag 
Wild Flowers 

(in beautiful colors) 

Eskimo Walrus Hunt 
Hunting Musk-Ox with Eskimos 
Rural Quebec Folkwa/s 
Congo Curiosities 
Elephant God or Devil 

We have added many fine 
subjects to our Religious Films 

library, and offer a special 
separate catalog listing and 
describing these. 

Send for complete catalogs. 





Page 46 

The Educational Screen 


Increase 35% in 1939 


The Keystone Daylight Lantern Being Used with the Keystone Flashmeter 

The STANDARD LANTERN-SLIDE PROJECTOR is the best projection equipment in 
which a school or teacher can invest, because it CAN BE USED — 

(1) In the classroom or in the auditorium. 

(2) To project many carefully selected and edited units of 
photographic lantern slides. 

(3) To project handmade lantern slides, which cannot be made 
on any smaller scale. 

(4) With a microprojection attachment, which has many 
practical uses. 

(5) With the Keystone Flashmeter, which has been shown to 
have many diagnostic and developmental possibilities in the 
teaching of reading. 

(6) To project third-dimension Polaroid slides. 


Keystone View Company 


February, 1940 

Editorial Advisory Board 

ON THE following page appear the ten portraits 
of our Editorial Advisory Board, selected last 
fall by representative national ballots and functioning 
smoothly and effectively since January 1st, 1940. We 
cannot adequately express our deep appreciation of 
the service rendered to the visual field, as well as to 
the magazine, by this group of leaders, each burdened 
with the heavy responsibilities of his own executive 
position yet willing to make still further contribution 
to the good of our common cause. 

"Perceptual Learning" 

THE Board article this month is by John A. Holl- 
inger. Its very title, "Perceptual Learning," bids 
fair to rouse much profitable discussion. On another 
page, Charles F. Hoban, Jr., now conducting the 
official page of the Department of Visual Instruction, 
"Among Ourselves," emphasizes the significance of 
Hollinger's phrase. It is perhaps the nearest approach 
yet made to a correct name for the visual idea in 

The percept is purely sensory in origin, the con- 
cept intellectual. The percept is the essential raw 
material of all thought. Language is the essential 
medium of all thought, by speaker or thinker. Words 
are therefore an inevitable complement of all learning. 
Words alone can serve to interpret and clarify the 
simple percept, (a clap of thunder merely heard), to 
combine percepts by several senses into one complex 
percept (an orange seen, felt, smelled, and tasted), 
and finally to achieve the gradual assembly, correla- 
tion, coalition, evolution of percepts into concepts of 
unlimited complexity, and to integrate these concepts 
into the mass of concepts already in the mental store- 
house. To carry through this process successfully 
means true education. And "perceptual learning" is 
the foundation of it all. What are we seeking in "visual 
education" but "perceptual learning"? 

(The Board article for March 
will be by William M. Gregory) 

Our Modem Curriculum 

■"PHE other day a 12-year-old boy came home from his 
-L seventh-grade labors in a public school of one of 
our great city systems. He greeted the family with 
"Well, today we've been learning all about syphilis." 
He pronounced the y as in "fly" (probably following 
faithfully "teacher's" pronunciation). Our informa- 
tion does not state whether visual aids were also used 
to strengthen the impact of this savory subject upon 
the young minds. There is an ample stock of slides 
and films available which would certainly add grisly 
vividness if desired. We incline to hope for positive 
neglect of visual aids in this instance. 


Page 47 

We find this an interesting manifestation of ad- 
vanced ideas at work on the school curriculum, all 
aimed, to be sure, at educational progress. We as- 
sume that the school in question teaches only what is 
authorized by the city school administration and that 
hundreds of other schools in that same city are doing 
the same service of enlightenment for thousands of 
seventh-graders. Perhaps all city school systems nowa- 
days are equally advanced. We wonder now whether 
the administration will present "companionate mar- 
riage" and "birth control" to the pupils this spring 
or postpone these subjects to the eighth grade. We 
wouldn't know. There is much that we do not know 
about the modern curriculum. At any rate, when we 
are still turning out college graduates who cannot spell 
their mother tongue, it is real comfort to know that 
the twelve-year-olds are learning "all about syphilis" 

The Film Evaluation Project 

THE Film Evaluation Committee of teachers from 
all parts of the country is steadily growing. We no 
longer know the total number of teachers engaged. 
For an increasing number of Visual Instruction Di- 
rectors are sending in score cards over their own signa- 
tures, made from reports of many different teachers. 
In general, we aim at direct contact with each co- 
operating teacher in order to maintain our credit record 
of score cards returned by each. In many situations, 
however, it is doubtless more practical, and hence quite 
logical, for Directors to do all the scoring from a cen- 
tral point. We therefore issue the following cordial 

All Directors or Teachers in charge of visual 
activities in one school or school-system are invited 
to join the Film Evaluation Project under any one of 
the following plans: 

1. Send us names and schools of your teachers will- 
ing to score at least 10 films a year, in any grade and 
all subjects. Individual judge-numbers will be assigned 
and outfit sent to each, score cards to be returned by 
each direct to us in prepaid envelope furnished. 

2. Tell us how many individually numbered out- 
fits should be sent to you for distribution to teachers 
of your selection, one outfit to each. Cards from all 
teachers returnable by you in prepaid envelope furn- 
ished. Returned cards will identify teacher and judge- 
number for our credit record. 

{Plans 1 and 2 provide ]ree copy of "1001 Films" 
for each judge) 

3. Or you may act as sole judge in your territory, 
with single judge-number, receive the outfit with extra 
score cards as needed, all cards returned to be credited 
to you regardless of what teacher scored the film. 

(Plan 3 provides no copy of "1001 Films" for the 
teachers cooperating) 

Plan 3 is desirable where teachers score less than 
ten Films apiece in the school year. Any teacher scor- 
ing ten or more films should be a regular member of 
the Evaluation Committee with his or her recorded 

Nelson L. Greene 



of the 

Photo by Parry, Pittsburgh 

Above : J. A. Hollinger, Di- 
rector, Department of Science 
and Visualization, Pittsburgh 
Public Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Above: J. E. Hansen, ( 
Bureau of Visual Instr\ 
University of W i s c o 
Madison, Wis. 

Above : W. M. Gregory, Di- 
rector, Educational Museum. 
Cleveland Public Schools, and 
Director, Institute of Visual 
Instruction, Western Reserve 
University, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Photo by Sidney V. Webb, Berkeley 

Above: Boyd B. Rakestraw, 

Assistant Director, University 
Extension, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

Right : Marian Evans, Di- 
rector, Visual Instruction 
Center, San Diego Public 
Schools, San Diego, Calif. 

Above: Ward C. Bowen, < 
Bureau of Radio and \ 
Aids, State Education 
partment, Albany, N. 

Left: Lelia Trolinger, Sei 
tary. Bureau of Visual Insti 
tion and Assistant Professo 
Visual Education, Univer 
of Colorado, Boulder, C 

Left: W. Gayle 
Starnes, Assistant 
Professor, Assist- 
ant Director of 
University Exten- 
sion, in Charge of 
Audio-Visual Aids, 
University of Ken- 
tucky, Lexington. 

Left: Paul C. 


Reed, Director, 

^m' ^^I^^^^^^^^B 

Department of Ra- 

^H, m^^ ^^ 

dio and Visual 

^^K ^^^K- 1 

■education. Board 

^^K^^^K ■ 

of Education, 

^^bI^^F ^ 

Rochester, N. Y. 



*' -* 

> i 

Right: W. W. 

A ■•' J 

Whittinghill, Di- 

A i 

rector, Department 

.^A ^ 

of Visual and Ra- 

^^A i^K 

dio Education, 

^^A ^H 

Board of Educa- 

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tion, Detroit. 

^^^A /%^l 


^^L IH 

February, 1940 

Page 49 

Perceptual Learning 

Placing much needed emphasis on the meaning, place and 
importance of the "percept" in all learning, and suggest- 
ing a new name for the visual movement in education. 


Director of Science and Visualization 
Pittsburgh, Penn., Schools 

HAD Thomas A. Edison lived before Gutenberg ; 
had the camera been invented before the printing 
press ; had pictorial presentation and representation 
preceded the textbook, how different would be school 
procedures! How different might be the accumulated 
records of past and present events! The article in 
Educational Screen, Volume XVIII, Number 9, 
November, 1939, by Wendell Thomas, "The Perceptual 
Stream of Teaching." called attention to some important 
developments in the history of education. In good 
schools everywhere there are evidences of alert senses 
quickening the mental processes. The formal textbook 
assignments and the lectures are giving way to "situa- 

"What is designated by the word 'situation' is not 
a single object or event or set of objects and events. 
For we never experience nor form judgments about 
objects and events in isolation, but only in connection 
with a contextual whole. This latter is what is called 
a 'situation'. I have mentioned the extent in which 
modern philosophy had been concerned with the prob- 
lem of existence as perceptually and conceptually de- 
termined In actual experince, there is never 

any .such isolated singular object or event ; an object 
or event is always a special part, phase, or aspect, of an 

environing experience world — a situation There 

is always a field in which observation of this or that 
object or event occurs. Observation of the latter is 
made for the sake of finding out what that field is 
with reference to some active adaptive response to be 
made in carrying forward a course of behavior. One 
has only to recur to animal perception, occurring by 
means of sense organs, to note that isolation of what 
is perceived from the course of life-behavior would be 
not onlv futile, but obstructive, in many cases fatally 
so."i "All forms of knowledge are based upon and 
derived from perceptions."^ "We may accept as a brief 
definition of perception the statement that is common- 
ly given, '.sensation with meaning attached'. When we 
consider perception as a phase of thinking we may re- 
verse the definition, and say perception as a thinking 
process consists of attaching meaning to any sensa- 
tion. "^ The reader will profit by acquaintance with 
references listed at the end of this article. 

Situations that challenge attention and stimulate 
interest are essential to growtli. In such situations 

attitudes are developed and ideation takes form. Some 
individuals have keener senses than others. The con- 
dition of sense organs and their functioning are deter- 
mined by their structure as well as by practice. 
Children may be given ample opportunities for practice 
in the proper use of their senses. "Through experience 
we come to pay attention to many things which pre- 
viously would have been neglected and also to neglect 
many things which previously would have commanded 
our attention. We are interested in matters to the de- 
gree to which we have formed habits of paying attention 
to them."* 

Sense-data and rational principles are both part and 
parcel of understanding and insight. Nevertheless, in 
a democracy where people are free under law and where 
people have voice and vote in making, amending, and 
repealing laws, understanding and insight based on or objective evidence are vitally im])ortant. 

On account of definite limitations in the past schools 
found difficulty in providing situations and experiences 
with sufficient sense-data. With the advent of new 
devices teachers and pupils find more challenging situa- 
tions. Photographic prints, such as, lantern slides, 
motion pictures and paper prints, may now be used 
by every teacher. Projection equipment is simple and 
adequate. Graphic modes of presenting facts and 
museum materials now generally available may be part 
of every school's equipment. In the laboratory pupils 

'Dewey, John, Logic The Theory of Inquiry, 1938, pp. 66-67. 
'Benson. C. E., Lough, James E., ct al., Psychology for 

Teachers, 1926, P. 88. 
•Stormzand. Martin J., Progressive Methods of Teaching, 

1924. |). 97. 
"Robinson. E. S., Practical Psychology, 1926, p. 187. 

Lantern Slide Library for Pittsburgh Schools 

Film Library available to Pittsburgh Schools 

have experiences that challenge attention and furnish 
objective data. 

The devices mentioned above are not supplementary 
or "extra" but integral and essential in sound educa- 
tional procedures. It is unthinkable that a school sy.stem 
should continue practices of the ox-cart age while the 
rest of the community uses freely such modern devices 
as the automobile, telephone, radio and motion picture. 
Caution must be exercised in selecting proper types of 
materials. The school system is an organzation that 
functions to specific ends. Individuals too readily at- 
tempt to use the schools for selfish purposes. Some 
materials offered to schools for the avowed purpose 
of educating children are worse than worthless. Co- 
operative evaluation schemes such as those of the 

The Educational Screen 

^Motion Picture Project of the American Council on 
Educatitm, the Educational Screen, the Commission 
on Human Relations of the Progressive Education 
Association, and others, should produce notable re- 

Materials are effective aids to learning only when 
they have educational value and are properly used. Plan- 
ning and preparation for use of lantern slides, motion 
pictures, graphs, cartoons, or museum specimens are 
as necessary as with the use of textbook or the lecture 
method. Good architecture provides a utility (prepa- 
ration) room in every school building with electric 
outlet, projection screen, opaque shades and other es- 
sentials where teachers may project lantern slides, 
motion pictures and other photographic prints in prepa- 
ration for the organization and presentation of learn- 
ing situations. In such utility rooms laboratory exercises 
may also be prepared. 

Glibly it is said that in schools children are taught 
to think, but blood cannot be squeezed out of a turnip. 
Accurate and just inferences must be based on objective 
facts. Those individuals with the accumulation 
of sense-data, and experience of various kinds think 
most accurately and infer most justly. 

As a guide to the use of aids to perceptual learning 
some purposes might be briefly stated as follows : 

1. Challenge and stimulate interest 

2. Cultivate observation 

3. Stimulate and control wholesome imagination 

4. Provide bases for right attitudes, for just infer- 
ences, and for reflective thinking. 

{Concluded on fat/f 74") 

School - Made Motion Pictures 
For Public Relations in Ohio (II) 

THE above script (see January issue) of a picture 
used to interpret the work of the schools in the 
teaching of reading, is an example of how the mo- 
tion picture can be used in a specific area. Very eflfec- 
tive pictures can be produced to show the work of the 
school as a whole — the general activities picture. This 
type of picture is a series of shots of the pupils partici- 
pating in their various activities, the results of their 
work when it can be shown, and the school plant. Vari- 
ous techniques are used in this type of picture to relate 
the parts to the whole. For example, the principal is 
showing a parent around the school, or one pupil is fol- 
lowed through a complete day at school. 

When the administrator has outlined his public rela- 
tions program, he is in a position to decide what motion 
pictures should be produced and their relationship to 
the total program. This relationship should be made 
clear in the pictures. A suggestive list of subjects for 

Second article of series, suggesting subjects for 
filming, needed equipment and methods of financing. 


Montpelier, Ohio, Public Schools 

motion pictures is included here. 

A. The curriculum in action — (1) If tlie program is set up 
on a subject basis each subject may be used, either separately 
or in combination. (2) If the program is set up on an activity 
l)asis or on a modified activity basis, tlie unit may be followed 
through by showing the significant points. 

B. Extra-curricular activities — .'\ctivities of the various 
clubs, varsity sports, safety patrol, student council, and other 
activities whicli pupils engage in under school supervision, but 
which are not included in "Tlie curriculum in action." 

C. The supervisor's contril'ution — If the part the supervisor 
plays in the total educational program is important it should 
be interpreted for the public. A picture could be made which 
would show how the supervisor works with the teachers to 
improve instruction. 

D. The administrator's contribution — The administrator's 
main contribulif)n is in having the physical facilities in readi- 
ness so that learning can take place. .\ picture showing this 
corld include sixh activities as schedule making, inspection of 
buildings and classrooms, meetings with the board of education, 
ordering of supplies, and all other important services of the 

February, 1940 

Page 51 

E. The physical property of the school — Buildings, play- 
grounds, and equipment should be shown in relationship to their 
functions. A contrast between an old building and a modern 
one should prove effective. 

F. Tlie janitorial staff — The most important contributions 
of the janitorial staff is in keeping the building in a health- 
ful condition. The picture would show all the activities of the 
janitorial staff. 

G. The school board — The school board is the representa- 
tive of the public. A motion picture could sliow a member 
of the school board being elected, a school board meeting, the 
school or a new' building, inter\'iewing a prospective teacher, 
and inspecting new equipment. Somehow its relationship to the 
school should be shown. 

H. The county and state officers of education — Many of the 
public do not understand the services which are rendered by 
the county and state officers of education. Many times the 
school must turn to the state department for help. While 
there may not be enough material here for a complete picture 
it could be included with another. 

I. The social service 'ci'ork of the school — A picture on this 
phase of the school's work might show the activities of the 
school nurse, the cafeteria in operation, the dental clinic, the 
T. B. clinic, pre-school health check-up, and other related 
activities which are necssary for a smoothly running school. 

J. The community — The school probably uses the communi- 
ty resources as a part of its curriculum. The school journey 
to the different parts of the community for the purpose of col- 
lecting information to solve a problem would make excellent 
material for a motion picture. 

Thi.s is in no sense a complete list of motion picture 
subjects nor is it meant to be a specific The mc 
tion picture production schedule should be a definite 
part of the total public relations program, and what 
motion pictures will be produced during the year will 
depend entirely upon this total program. 

The standards of honesty and dignity apply no less 
to motion pictures than to the other phases of the public 
relations program. In the production of motion pic- 
tures there is great danger that too much emphasis will 
be given to the spectacular activities and those which 



■ — J 



Mm m. 


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, Wff lili. ilLL. ' 


I'-***''- -ih^ ^i\^ m 


:0f^^^:-»,^' ^ — I 

Glenwood Junior High School, Findlay, Ohio 

(The pictures in this article are enlarEements from the school-produced 
film '^A Day at Glenwood") 

are relatively easy to photograph. If the motion pic- 
ture is to be used at all it must be used honestly, or the 
public will soon discover that the school of the screen 
is not the school the children of the community attend. 
The difficulties of using the motion picture in a pub- 
lic relations program are mainly of a technical nature. 
The equipment that is necessary to produce and project 
motion pictures involves significant expenditures. To 
get good motion pictures, there is necessary a thorough 
understanding of the fundamentals of photography, 
of lighting equipment and its use, and much time must 

be spent in careful planning. These difficulties were 
not serious enough to prevent production by the thirty- 
eight schools studied in this thesis, and over half of 
these schools were able to cut down expense by bor- 
rowing the needed equipment. Practically all of the 
schools have their projectors. Most of them had at 
least one member of the staff whose knowledge of pho- 
tography was sufficient to shoot adequate motion pic- 
tures. All took some time to plan and produce their 
motion pictures and the evidence shows they considered 
their time well spent. 

Chapter III 
Introduction to Study 

The remainder of this thesis is a study of what has 
already been done by thirty-eight schools in Ohio who 
are using the school-made motion picture as a public re- 
lations agent. Not all the schools in Ohio doing this 
work have been reached, but there is reason to believe 
that the list secured is more than a majority. 

After securing the names of the persons and schools 
conducting such work (see Appendix^), the next step 
was to send each of them a questionnaire (see Appen- 
dix) which was designed to attempt to discover what 
is being done, how it is being done, and the nature of 
the results. The material for this report is based upon 
the information given in the questionnaire replies. 

This report is meant to serve both those who do and 
those who do not use the school-made motion picture 
as a public relations medium. The former may get 
some knowledge of what others are doing, and perhaps 
secure some useful ideas. The latter may find that 
the results of successful programs are enough to jus- 
tify attempting a program of their own. 

The writer has been unable to discover any previous 
studies which could be termed parallel to this one. 
However, there has been one nation-wide survey study 
which attempted to discover what types of motion pic- 
tures were being made by the .schools (see Appendix) 
and there have been may studies dealing directly with 
publicity films, but limited to the program of a single 
school or school system (see Appendix). 

Chapter IV 
Equipment, Cost and Financing 

The purpose of this chapter is to show what type of 
motion picture equipment is being used, in some in- 
stances its cost, and how it is financed. 

Camera. The camera is one expensive and indis- 
pensable item of equipment. Some say that the cost of 
using the camera is prohibitive, but it may often be 
borrowed or rented. Then, too, cameras need not be 
bought new, as there are many good used cameras on 
the market which can be had for a reasonably low price. 

Of the schools here considered, there are 5 using the 
8mm camera, and of these one school owns, while 4 
do not. There are 35 schools using the 16mm camera 

'Space limitations have naturally compelled abridgement of 
this thesis. The Appendix, containing list of the 38 schools 
and directors, the elaborate questionnaire used, and reference 
tables are part of the complete thesis obtainable only by impli- 
cation to the author. 

Page 52 

The Educational Screen 

of which 17 own, wliile 18 do not. Nine of these 35 
schools using the 16nini camera did not report the cost 
of their cameras. There are 3 schools using both the 
8mm and 16mni camera ; one school owns both, while 
the others own neither. 

The school -owned 8mm camera cost $91.00. 
Schools not owning tlie 8mm camera report a high of 
$45, low of $35, and a mean cost of $42. For the 16mm 
cameras owned by the school the low is $45, high $525. 
and mean cost is $151. For schools not owning the 
camera the low is $35, high $700, and mean cost is 

Sound. Only 4 schools of those reporting made pic- 
tures with sound-on film. There are 16 schools using 
their amplifying systems or some similar device, to 
give sound accompaniment to their pictures. The re- 
maining 17 showed silent pictures, using no mechanical 
sound device. 

Projector. All but four of the schools report that 
the projector is owned by the school. In each of the 
four cases where the school does not own the projec- 
tor, it is owned by a staff member. 

Lighting. In reply to the question "What lighting 
equipment if any, did you use?" 31 schools mentioned 
using some type of lighting equipment. It is very dif- 
ficult to obtain good interior pictures without using 
artificial light ; therefore, it is gratifying to note that 
out of Z7 schools, 31 used this equipment. The prob- 
lem of how to get enough light is far from solved, how- 
ever, as 18 schools mention lighting as their chief dififi- 

Financing. Since most Boards of Education are 
probably unwilling as yet to finance the film program. 

A student announcer at the microphone 

the administrator is usually forced to find some method 
or a combination of methods for raising the money. 

Of the variety of methods used to finance school- 
made films, admissions to noon movies was mentioned 
9 times, admissions to school-made films 8 times, funds 
of schools clubs or general fund 14 times, donations 
from community groups and individuals 2 times, board 
of education 6 times, personal donation of principal 
and teachers 5 times, admissions to school assemblies 
and entertainments 5 times, and candy sales, etc.. 2 

' The question of financing seems to be an individual 
difficulty which must be worked out by the schools 
themselves. It is often serious, however, for some pro- 

Traffic boys escorting students across the street 

grams have been either stopj^ed or curtailed because of 
lack of funds. Finding sufficient time to photograph 
the motion picture was often mentioned as being the 
chief difficulty in film production. This seems to be 
a question of relative values. If the administrator 
after careful evaluation, comes to the conclusion that 
the film program is worthwhile, he will find the time 
for the production of motion pictures. 

Chapter V 
Amount, Cost and Projection Time of Films 

How many feet of film have been produced by these 
Ohio schools? Not including the cost of equipment, 
what did it cost to produce this film? How long would 
it take to project all the film reported? The answers 
to these questions will not only give one an idea of 
the mere quantity of film produced, but will open the 
way for a broader interpretation of the content section 
of this study. 

The 34 schools reporting on this question have pro- 
duced 45,900 feet of film. Since they were asked to re- 
port only on the three of their school-made pictures 
which they had shown most frequently, the 45,900 feet 
of filin represents minimum. The total footage of 
school-made film in Ohio is not .shown. Table I .shows 
the types of film which make up this 45,900 feet and 
also their cost and projection time. 

Table I 

of film 






in Hrs. 

16mm silent 
16mm sound 













31 J^ 

Much more than a majority of the schools are using 
the 16mm silent film. Although this costs three and 
one-half times more a foot to produce it is probably the 
more satisfactory for school use. Most schools own a 
16mm projector and can use it to project the film. If 
8mm film is used it ineans that an 8mm projector must 
either be bought or borrowed. The 16mm film has one 
big advantage over the 8mm film in that it can be 
made to yield a larger image on the screen and, there- 
fore, can be shown to more people at one time. 

(To be continued) 

February, 1940 

Page 53 

jl An Undeveloped Mine of Materials 
for Visual Education 

How pictures from current magazines are used by a science 
teacher, employing the opaque projector to great advantage. 


Head, Department of Biology, The Woman's College 
of the University of North Carolina, Greensboro 

DURING the so-called "dark ages" in Europe the 
illiterate condition of the masses stimulated the 
enterprising Charlemagne to found a system of 
public education which may be considered the parent 
of our present schools. All that the Great Charles had 
to build upon was the scholastic training of the medieval 
church monks. It was a backward-looking sort of 
education, standing in great contrast both to the in- 
tellectual freedom of the Greeks of Pericles' time and 
also to the humanistic revolt which swept Europe after 
the renaissance. 

In spite of all of the liberality which has come into 
our theories of education as a result of Greek influence, 
humanitarian conceptions and science, it must be con- 
fessed that much in our modern schools remains es- 
sentially cloistered and scholastic. This continues true, 
also, in defiance of the work which the psychologists 
have done to capture the formula of "the learning 
process" and make education "scientific." 

The movement for "visual education" seems to be a 
part of the protest against the traditional and the pure- 
^ly scholastic in the world of teacher and student. As 
understand the matter, what is meant by "visual" 
education, is largely, pictorial education — for it is an 
open secret with most teachers that comparatively few 
people are able to read in any true meaning of the 
term. The public glance at the papers and scan the 
headlines but they do not read editorials or closely-knit 
irticles in the better magazines. The stock excuse is 
that they are too busy — also given for not reading 
Fifty years ago the late Frank A. Munsey founded 
fiinscy's Magazine which was the first popular period- 
Bcal to my knowledge to be published on the theory 
that the public could make more out of pictures than 
|ext. for its issues were filled with good illustrations. 
That journal came to an end, as most magazines do 
Sooner or later, and the idea which inspired it seemed 
to lie unappropriated, in this country, except for the 
always splendid National Geographic Magazine which 
occupies so well its own special field. European maga- 
zines which forshadowed our American pictorials are 
The Illustrated London Nezvs and the French paper 
L'llliistration. Then, suddenly, over here, appeared 
Life, followed by Look. Click and some others less 
prominent or less enduring. 

So far as I can observe, the flowering of all of this 
pictorial material has been too hidden to be appreciated 
projierly or utilized in any adequate way by those who 
seek pictures to tell a story. If one were an architect, 
giving a course of popular lectures on housing, one 

could readily find in the picture magazines much di- 
rectly to the point. The same would be true of a his- 
tory professor giving an extension course in current 
events. The applicability of much of this general mate- 
rial to specific and multifarious projects is amazing. 
As though to give still further help the more conserva- 
tive magazines, yielding to competition, have now both 
increased the number of their illustrations and also 
added color to them. 

The teacher having a classroom equipped with a 
good opaque projection lantern now comes to view 
the rotogravure sections of Sunday papers, the picture 
magazines and other similar material in a new light. 
And the enlargement of suitable figures by this device, 
as they appear on the screen in a darkened classroom, 
gives them also a new life, a transformed and en- 
hanced value. A little experience and experimenting 
with trial pictures will give clues as to what is good 
and what is better and, at the same time, sharpen the 
eye and the mental appetite for more of them. Many 
of the oiTerings are reproduced from photographs taken 
with nearly priceless lenses and by the best of photo- 
graphers. The result is rare animals of the zoo. tropi- 
cal plants in their native haunts, or the new 200 inch 
telescope for Mount Palomar. 

The good teacher knows the inestimable value of a 
good picture shown to a class to illustrate a certain 
topic at just the right time. The present author began 
experimenting with this teaching device about twenty- 

Mounting pictures on cards of various sizes, shown in babkgrou 

Page 54 

The Educational Screen 

five years ago with the well-known Perry Pictures and 
then with those found occasionally in the magazines of 
that period. Some of our experience in this connection 
may be of value to others and it is for this reason that 
it is recorded here. 

As an example of the way in which newspaper and 
magazine pictures serve as effective teaching devices 
allow me to describe the following incident. I open my 
copy of the New York Times Magazine and find there 
a well-illustrated article on the cathedral at Chartres, 
France. As I am a biologist you will probably ask. 
"What in the world can that mean to you?" Now it 
does happen that I earn my living teaching biology, 
but I have found that I can do that task best and most 
helpfully by cultivating a sympathetic understanding of 
a thousand other things. Biology, or chemistry, or phy- 
sics, or geography, are subjects of very wide relation- 
ships with all manner of other aspects of human life. 

Regarding the Chartres cathedral I happen to recall 
at once, on seeing the picture, that it displays on a 
panel of stone carvings of its south porch a beautiful 
figure of the plant known as the columbine, a fact re- 
ferred to and illustrated by Charles Singer, the English 
biological historian, in his work entitled "The Story of 
Living Things." That carving, produced about A. D. 
1260, brought back to public eye and notice the fresh- 
ness and beauty of a living thing because the figures 
were copied faithfully by the sculptor from the flowers 
in the French meadows. The smell and feeling of the 
natural plant were his as he drew his outlines and chis- 
eled his leaves and flowers. If you will compare this 
captured natural charm, preserved for us in stone for 
now these seven centuries, with the degraded and 
senseless copyings in herbals of the same period, you 
will see how significant a contribution to biological art 
was this work on this very building. For these reasons ' 
I save this picture but my particular interest in it does 
not preclude the possibilities of its use by a teacher of 
French, of history, architecture or religion, as those in- 
terested in visual education may well understand. We 
not only save the picture but we make it into a perman- 
ent mount, as later to be described, and store it in a 
filing cabinet. 

Many pictures, such as the one referred to, found in 
magazines, newspapers, circulars and other literature, 
are ordinarily glanced at once on Sunday and thrown 
away on Monday morning. Many from the sources 
named are, of course, without value ; but the genius of 
the broadly trained and discriminating teacher, 
Y. M. C. A. secretary, personnel director or librarian 
lies in knowing "gold" when he sees it. The right pic- 
ture shown in a class at just the right time may bring 
interest and clinch realization as well-written words 
may fail to do. Moreover, young people take hold upon 
studies with avidity when they can see that schooling 
is not a thing for the locked exhibition case, but rather, 
that it consists in realizing the meanings and relations 
of apparently unrelated and commonplace things around 

Our picture collection has been dug from just this 
mine. Students and others bring me a few, but for the 
most part, they are caught from out the piles of the ap- 
parently meaningless and irrelevant by keeping my own 
"weather eye" constantly on the lookout for something 

Selecting mounted pictures from the files 

apt. Frequently I buy a magazine just for one picture. 
We harvest the items desired and usually discard the 
rest of the magazine. It is important to record all data at 
once in ink on the margin. The jjictures may be 
mounted at once or laid away in portfolios or Manila 
folders until one has time for the mounting process. 
To mount pictures for direct inspection, projection 
on a screen with the opaque projection lantern, or for 
framing, we use a rather heavy light gray Plain Pro- 
cess Mat Board supplied by the National Card. Mat 
and Board Company, 4318 Carroll Avenue, Chicago. 
The stock we now use is designated as Style No. 934 
Plain Process Board. 18 ply. Size, over all, 18x44 
inches. For mounting our pictures we have it cut 
into four sizes — 5x8 inches, letter size, legal size and 
14x22 inches, on a power paper cutter. This is much 
better than to have no two cards of the same size and 
saves much hard work with knife and ruler. In mount- 
ing the ])ictures we use a good grade of library paste 
but freshly made flour paste, to which about one per 
cent of common alum is added, is really better. We 
use rubber cement also with some pictures. As it con- 
tains no water the rubber product causes no pulling or 
warping of the cards but it probably will deteriorate 
sooner that the starch or dextrin pastes. 

No matter what adhesive you use it is better to paste 
the picture down all over than merely to "tack" 
it by the edges or corners. Very important, also, is 
proper trimming before mounting. This is best done 
with a stiff backed, single-edged, razor-blade and a long 
steel straight-edge, although a good brass-edged ruler 
will serve. Pictures should be cut straight, with proper 
margins, and mounted straight and neatly on the card, 
otherwise the collection will look homemade and ama- 
teurish. Although pictures, sucli as we use. are gath- 
ered from all sources, the collection as it stands ar- 
ranged in a four-section legal-size, letter-file, has a cer- 
tain definite unity. 

For our purposes in a department of biology we give 

February, 1940 

Page 5 5 

each card two numbers, one in Roman, lettered in black- 
ink on the upper right corner, and another in Arabic 
on the lower left. The Arabic numbers run continu- 
ously and correspond to similar ones in the accession 
book where data concerning the source of the entry and 
other facts are recorded. Neither this device, nor the 
book, is absolutely necessary. Nearly indispensable, 
however, is the .system of Roman numeral designations 
corresponding to a scheme of classification which, for 
our collection, comprises fifty heads from I (General 
Biologv) to L (Miscellaneous). Between the two we 
have many titles, corres]3onding roughly to the conven- 
tional systems of jilant and animal classifications, with 
others such as Organic Evolution, Genetics and Paleon- 
tology. In the tills of the files the cards stand separated 
by presslioard guides to])])ed by three-staggered metal 
label holders in which the typed titles are inserted. 

A collection of the kind described is not only a per- 
manent acquisition to the resources of a department for 
visual education. It is also a growing, revisable and 
adaptable thing. There is scarcely any limit to the 
size, scope or character of pictorial material it may be 

made to receive and hold in readiness for instant use. 
There is a definite place in the files for every new pic- 
ture and. after use in the classroom, the Roman nu- 
meral tells at once the place to which it must be re- 

In using the pictures with a projection lantern w-e 
find that some papers and certain processes of illustra- 
tions show up inore effectively than others. To gain 
know-ledge as to pictures, ink or cards, as well as the 
best kinds of screens, one may make many interesting 
experimental studies the results of which .should bring 
out improvements on the methods here outlined. 

We have gone far enough, however, in collecting, 
mounting, classifying, and in the projection of the kinds 
of pictures described, to know that nearly all are good, 
and, if displayed to students at opportune times, will go 
far in helping to clarify a subject and give it vital in- 

It is our concluding hope that this "mine" of nearly 
untouched materials for visual education will pay big 
returns to many teachers and others who should find 
broadening of interests and pleasure in working it. 

A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Three 
Methods of Using Motion Pictures in Teaching (1) 

Chapter I 

I HE .study reported herein is an attempt to deter- 
mine the relative etTectiveness of three different 
methods of using motion pictures, produced as 
liking motion pictures, in the teaching of several spe- 
ific topics ( 1 ) with respect to the factual information 
gained directly from the picture and (2) with respect 
to the ability of the pupils to apply the knowledge thus 
jained to new situations. 

The addition of sound to the motion picture has 
fconfronted educators with new problems. Since nearly 
[ill educational .sound motion pictures are talking pic- 
ires, that is, pictorial continuities accompanied by 
&ral lectures which explain, enlarge upon, and bridge 
be gaps in the pictorial presentation, it is apparent that 
lere may be a conflict between the oral lecture of the 
bicture and the efforts of the classroom teacher to 
present the pictorial elements of the picture as an in- 
tegral part of what is being taught. It may also be 
questioned whether the method of teaching incorpor- 
ated in the talking picture is psychologically sound. 

It is conceivable that the quickest method of trans- 
litting factual information to others is through a com- 

A carefully controlled study of classroom values of 
sound films with results conducive to further research. 


Bureau of Visual Instruction 
University of Wisconsin, Madison 

bination of showing and telling, which is essentially 
the method employed by the talking motion picture. 
Especially would it seem that this might be so for 
purposes of immediate verbal recall. If learning is to 
have much value, however, it must not only have some 
degree of permanence, but it must make provision for 
the transfer of training through the proper development 
of concepts which are rich in content. It seems to be 
the opinion of most educational psychologists that edu- 
cation should concern itself more largely with the 
]3roper development of rich meanings or concepts and 
that if this is done transfer of training will take care 
of itself. Does the talking motion picture promote 
learning on this higher level? Does it promote the 
kind of learning which bestows the power to deal with 
new situations? Is the spoken continuity of the sound 
motion picture a help or a hindrance to learning? The 
determination of the effectiveness of this broken con- 
tinuity, and the determination of the most effective 
class-room methods in the use of talking pictures are 
problems which need additional study. The writer's 
purpose in conducting the study reported herein as 
stated above was to help remove some of the uncertainty 
that exists regarding the effectiveness of the mechan* 
ically recorded verbal continuity of educational talking 

Page 56 

The Educational Screen 

motion pictures both as it affects learning and as it 
affects the transfer of training. 

Chapter II 
Previous Investigations 

Experimental studies in the educational use of mo- 
tion pictures were begun about twenty years ago. In 
1918 one of the first published studies, by David Sum- 
stine,^ appeared in School and Society. Studies by 
Freeman and others^ at Chicago and by Weber' at 
Columbia appeared during the succeeding five or six 
years. The University of Chicago studies under the 
direction of Freeman were intended to show the func- 
tion of motion pictures and to determine their su- 
periority, if any, over other types of visual aids and 
non-visual methods. Thirteen studies were reported in 
this series. Weber's study was devoted largely to dis- 
covering the relative values of the motion picture, lan- 
tern slide, and other types of visual aids. 

These earlier investigations were handicapped by a 
paucity of well planned and well constructed motion 
pictures, and, because of this lack, their results and 
conclusions would hardly be considered valid today. 
However, they were an excellent beginning in the ob- 
jective study of the educational motion picture and set 
the stage for more comprehensive studies that followed. 

In 1929 Wood and Freeman* reported the results of 
an extensive investigation to determine the contribution 
of motion pictures when used as an integral part of 
classroom teaching procedure, in (1) motivating pupil 
activity in relation to the subject studied, (2) effecting 
factual learning, (3) improving descriptive processes, 
and (4) promoting understanding of causes, effects, 
and relationships. 

In the same year Knowlton and Tilton^ reported the 
results of an investigation of the effectiveness of the 
Yale Chronicles of America Photoplays in ( 1 ) motivat- 
ing greater pupil activity and classroom participation ; 
(2) improving knowledge of historical chronology and 
geography and personages, casual relationships, etc. : 
and (3) improving permanency of learning. In 1932 
Knowlton and Tilton^ also made a study of "The Audi- 
torium vs. Classroom Showing of Motion Pictures in 
History Teaching." 

In 1933 the writer'' conducted a study in two Wiscon- 
sin school systems to determine the permanency of 
learning through the aid of motion pictures. 

The motion pictures used in those four last named 
studies differed from those used in the previously men- 
tioned in that they were constructed specifically for 
instructional purposes. 

The first experimental study involving educational 
talking pictures was reported in 1932 by Clark^ of New 
York University. This was followed in 1933 by Studies 
by Arnspiger^ at Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity and by Rulon ^° at Harvard. In 1934 Westfall^^ re- 
ported the results of a study at Teachers College, and 
in 1936 the writer^^ reported a study conducted in 

The purpose of Arnspiger's study was: (1) to deter- 
mine by experimentation the relative effectiveness (a) 
of teaching with the aid of certain educational talking 
pictures in the fields of natural science and music in 
grades 5 and 7 respectively and (b) of the usual meth- 

ods of classroom instruction: (2) to make an analysis 
of the composition elements of certain scenes of the 
talking pictures used in the experiment, this analysis 
being treated in such manner as to serve as an introduc- 
tion to the study of the relative effectiveness of these 
elements of composition. He found that the talking 
pictures used in the experiment made marked and last- 
ing contributions to learning both in natural science 
and in the music units and that these contributions 
were made without the loss of learning the other ele- 
ments of subject matter of the units not included in 
the talking pictures themselves. 

Rulon attempted to evaluate the educational effective- 
ness of the sound motion picture in the teaching of 
ninth grade general science as compared with the text- 
book method of teaching the same subject. He found 
that the teaching technique employing the motion pic- 
ture film was 20.5% more effective from the instruc- 
tional standpoint than was the unaided presentation. 
He found also that the retained gain of the film group 
was 38.5% greater than that of the control group. 
However, the results of Rulon's study must be con- 
sidered in light of the fact that the control group was 
limited to the textbook, all the laboratory aids and 
devices ordinarily used in the teaching of the subject 
apparently being barred, while the experimental group 
enjoyed the benefit of the textbook plus the motion 

The other four talking picture studies listed above 
dealt wholly or in part with a comparison of the ef- 
fectiveness of talking pictures and silent motion pictures 
and with various methods of presenting verbal con- 
tinuities with pictures. 

Clark attempted to determine the effectiveness of 
talking motion pictures as compared with two other 
types of teaching aids, namely, silent motion pictures 
and lecture demonstrations. His investigation was car- 
ried on with college freshmen in the subject of science. 
He studied two phases of the problem of evaluating 
the use of sound motion pictures : the relative values of 
such pictures as a means of (1) conveying concrete 
knowledge or information and (2) stimulating and 
maintaining interests. His conclusions were essentially 
as follows: (1) That realistic and vital sound films 
were as effective as identical lecture demonstrations in 
conveying specific information of a scientific nature to 
mature students, (2) that silent films did not appear 
to be as effective as identical classroom demonstrations 
for developing specific knowledge on the part of junior 
college students, (3) that sound films of the strictly 
lecture type with an offstage voice were not as effective 
as identical silent films with printed captions in con- 
veying specific information, (4) that the three methods 
of presentation were about equally effective in maintain- 
ing interests, and (5) that the sound picture was more 
effective in stimulating a present interest. 

Westfall's study was concerned with an evaluation 
of the relative merits of the following forms of verbal 
accompaniment to educational motion pictures: (1) no 
explanation. (2) average length titles. (3) long titles, 
(4) average length titles plus teacher comment, (5) 
teacher lecture, (6) talking picture, (7) teacher-pre- 
pared explanation. He found in the of films orig- 
inally constructed as .silent films with the usual cap- 
tions that (1) the teacher explanation prepared by the 

February, 1940 

Page 57 










The above illustrations are from the following Erpi films, reading from left to right, "Plant Growth," "Plant Roots," 

"Leaves," "Flowers at Work." 

teacher from materials furnished with the films, (2) a 
lecture furnished with the film and read by the teacher, 
and (3) the usual captions, were about equally effective 
in aiding the pupils to understand the contents of the 
film : and that these three forms of verbal accompani- 
ment were superior to long captions and to the regular 
captions supplemented by teacher explanation : that for 
films constructed originally for use with sound accom- 
paniment a mechanically produced lecture was superior 
to the same materials printed on the film or to an 
explanation prepared by the teacher. He also found 
oral forms of verbal accompaniment very helpful to 
pupils of low ability, that they helped them in keeping 
nearer to the average of the class than when the reading 
of titles was required. 

The writer's purpose in his study. "The Verbal 
Accompaniment of the Educational Film — The Re- 
corded Voice vs. The Voice of the Classroom Teacher" 
was to compare the eflfectiveness of the verbal continuity 
accompanying the talking picture (1) when presented 
mechanically through the medium of the recorded voice 
and the sound motion picture projector and (2) when 
presented by the teacher simultaneously with the picture 
projected through a silent projector. The study was 
conducted in the field of biology, and four motion pic- 
tures in this field were used. The subjects included 
seventh and tenth grade pupils and they were taught 
by their regular classroom teachers. The results of this 
study, contrary to the findings of Westfall, indicated 
that the verbal continuity accompanying an educational 
picture of the talking picture type can be presented as 
effectively by the classroom teacher as through the 
medium of the recorded voice and the sound motion 
picture projector. 

Chapter III 

1. Materials of Instruction 

The talking films used in the first part of the study 
are Plant Grozvth, Plant Roots, Leaves, and Flowers 
at Work, produced by Erpi Classroom Films. Inc. They 
are es,sentially silent films accompanied by a spoken 
verbal continuity. They cover in detail the life cycle 
and the biological processes of a number of typical 
plants. In comparing the efTectiveness of silent mo- 
tion pictures with that of talking pictures it would 
ordinarily be unfair to use as silent films the talking 
pictures with the sound omitted, because a well con- 
structed silent film would employ devices such as cap- 
tions and animated words and arrows as explanatory 
devices instead of the spoken commentary. However, 
the four above pictures make good use of all such ex- 
planatory devices, with the exception of captions, in ad- 
dition to the verbal continuity. Animated words, ar- 

rows, and other devices are used throughout the pic- 
tures to designate parts and to call attention to biological 
processes going on in each scene. All of these films are 
accompanied by well planned study guides which were 
made available to all of the teachers. 

For the second part of the study two silent films, The 
Green Plant and From Flower to Fruit, produced by the 
Teaching Films Division of the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany were used. These films cover approximately the 
same biological processes which are covered by the first 
four films, but employ different plants. This made it 
possible to determine the relative effectiveness of the 
three different instructional methods used with the first 
four films in helping pupils to comprehend similar but 
new situations which were presented in the last two 

All of the sound films are approximately eleven min- 
ute reels and the silent films fifteen minute reels and 
are designed for the junior and senior high school level. 

2. Subjects 

The subjects consisted of 334 pupils in the ten second 
semester biology classes of the tenth grade in the Osh- 
kosh High School. Because of considerable absence 
caused by illness the number of subjects used in the 
first comparisons was much reduced. Much of the sub- 
ject matter covered in the films had been studied dur- 
ing the first semester, which accounts for the relatively 
low gains on some of the final tests. The ten classes 
were divided into three groups A, B, and C and each 
group taught by one of the methods described below. 
They were taught by the five regular teachers of the 
biology department. An effort was made to divide the 
classes taught by each of these five teachers as evenly 
as possible between the three experimental groups. 
The division of the classes into the three groups was 
based on their intelligence quotients, chronological ages, 
and mental ages as given in the table below. 
Number of Subjects, Mean Chronological Ages, 
Mean I. 0-. and Mean Mental Age 
Subject Ave.C.A. Ave.I.Q. Ave.M.A. 

Group A 59 189.2 Mo. 104.1 197 

Group B 68 188.5 Mo. 104.0 196 

Group C 68 187.8 Mo. 102.8 193 

3. Tests 

The tests each consisted of twenty questions of five 
items each. These five individual statements might all 
be correct, all wrong, or some correct and some wrong. 
This made really 100 items for each test and eliminated 
the guessing factor to a considerable extent. A number 
of the questions were based on diagrams contained in 
the tests. The same tests were used for pre-tests as for 
the final tests. Although there might be some element 
of practice in this procedure, the same treatment was 

{Continued on page 74) 

Page 58 

The Educational Screen 



Editor of "The Spur," New York City 

Installment Number Sixteen — devoted 
mainly to the origins of the slide- 
film and the stirring success story 
of Jam Handy of Chicago and Detroit 

THAT Wilding, with due regard for his 
astuteness, picked Detroit hecausc of 
all places in the United States it was 
best for non-theatrical production, is too 
much to suppose of any person not gifted 
with an unearthly sense of prophecy. It 
conforms more with normal human events 
to suppose that Wilding was just lucky. 
Even the juxtaposition of New Eng- 
land and the Detroit area was natural 
enough, for the former was supplying 
most of the machine tools used in the 
heavy manufactrre.s ot the latter; and 
there was a constant flow of materials 
hack and forth and mainly in the direc- 
tion which Wildmg had taken. 

The fact remains that the city Wilding 
had selected for his establishment was, 
in the next few years, to rival New York 
— and in many respects to outrival it — 
as a fruitful ground for industrial film 
production. One thinks of Nevv York as 
the great marketplace but, while a market- 
place may have the experts who dictate 
methods of sales and of sales promotion, 
the manufacturers of the goods lo be sold 
also have influence in such matters, 
especially when the goods are of new 
sorts and the market has not been 
thoroughly plumbed and tested. Manu- 
facturers of this type, exerting such 
power, were astonishingly many in the 
Detroit area. 

But in that area was (Thicago, a city 
seemingly much more important tlian De- 
troit. Why didn't Wilding establish 
himself there? That question I cannot 
answer precisely ; but Wilding still mad" 
the better choice. Chicago was primarily 
a marketplace. Detroit, on the other hand, 
commanded the greatest heavy mani.- 
facturing section in the country. 

In New England the manufacturers 
were much closer grouped but, by habit 
and tradition, they were far more con 
servative than these Midlanders with 
their newer industries and their still 
newer methods of persuading the public 
to buy. In the North Central States, as 
the school geographies sometimes like to 
call the other region, business had not 
yet been fully proved. It was not cut and 
dried. The manufacturers were of neces- 
sity open to novel ideas and untried sys- 
tems and, if their advertising agencies in 
the East advised them against the use of 
motion pictures, the factory men were 
likely to act contrary to that counsel 
sheerly on the ground that the case of 
the non-theatrical movie had not yet been 
proved, either. 

Diaw a circle of two hundred and fifty 
miles from Detroit as a center, and there 
are included Chicago, Milwaukee, South 
Bend, Indianapolis, Dayton, Cincinnati, 
Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Cleveland, Akron, 
Toledo and scores of other factory points. 

Increase the spread to four hundred miles, 
and you have Springfield and Louisville 
• — and the national capital, Washington, 
D. C. Another hundred miles, and St. 
Louis, Nashville, -Philadelphia and New 
York swell the roster. However, what is 
of chief importance lies in the first- 
named ring, including the hearts of the 
tremendous rubber, oil and steel indus- 
tries. For the greater part a level coun- 
try, with straight roads for automobile 
caravans, bee-lines for railroads, broad 
fields everywhere for airports, and a sea- 
way to Europe through the Great Lakes 
and the St. Lawrence. 

I am stressing, of course, the import- 
ance to the non-theatrical producer of 
selling his clients by being close to them. 
Before one may have his stew, as the 
saying goes, he must catch his hare. But, 
looking at some other aspects of Detroit, 
one is obliged to confess drawbacks — 
the Lakf Country sunshine is broken at 
short intervals by driving clouds disturb- 
ing to "ameramen and greatly lengthen- 
ing the costly production period; the land 
itself lacks picturesqueness and variety 
for extended location work which norm- 
ally would save studio expense ; cos- 
tumes and properties of other lands and 
periods are difficult to obtain ; the near- 
est large film processing laboratories arc 
in Chicago, and, above all, there is only 
a meager supply of actors. But in this 
business, one tiling offsets another and, 
if the manufacturers wished primarily to 
see on the screen the raw materials enter- 
ing their machines at one end and the 
completed products emerging from the 
other, there was in Detroit no great need 
of studios, actors and attractive outdoor 

Lo and behold, however, the manufac- 
turers here were obsessed by no such 
thought. Unlike factory men in older 
lines, they had been obliged to organize, 
along with ways of refining materials, 

Author's Note — The manifest 
impracticability of reviewing a 
huge mass of research — accumu- 
lated over many years and re- 
quiring more than 20,000 index 
cards to catalogue it — means 
that the Editors of Educational 
Screen have accepted the manu- 
script of this long history mainly 
on faith. In the circumstances, the 
Author assumes full responsibility 
for all statements of fact and ex- 
pressions of opinion herein, at the 
same time that he invites cor- 
rections and emendations for the 
betterment of the record when it 
is published eventually in book 

creating and assembling their products, 
complete systems of sales and distribu- 
tion ; and they appreciated the values in 
those respects more keenly than did their 
own nominal representatives in the 
marketplace. For the sake of having pic- 
ture production directly under their eyes 
where they could guide and correct it, 
they were easily willing to pay the in- 
creased costs of importing the missing 
factors. So, as the next few years were 
to show, there came from Detroit a 
heavy volume of sales pictures, their 
prices raised to a point where the pro- 
ducer could maintain his self-respect ana 
in technical matters challenge comparison 
with Hollywood. Whether the stabiliza- 
tion of sales systems, involving auto- 
mobiles, radios, automatic refrigerators 
and so forth, will ultimately result in 
swinging Detroit production to New- 
York, remains to be seen. 

With circumstances so immediately 
favorable, so near at hand, the non-tlica- 
trical producers of Chicago naturally en- 
deavored to profit also. It was a Chicago 
enterprise, entrenched in Detroit, which 
was to give Wilding his stiffest competi- 

Jam Handy Picture Service 

This firm was headed by an old ac- 
quaintance — Jam Handy, erstwhile sales- 
man for Bray. In August, 1929, Handy 
was advertising "fourteen years of suc- 
cessful experience in making industrial 
motion pictures and lighted still pictures 
for sales education and service instruc- 
tion" : but how much of the experience 
had been with Bray and how much was 
divided between the industrial motion pic- 
tures and the "lighted still pictures for 
sales education and service instruction" 
was not stated. 

Bray Studios was not incorporated ac- 
cording to notices in the motion picture 
trade papers until December, 1914; so 
Handy, assuming the correctness of this 
quoted account, was dabbling in films a 
year later. Still, one can never be posi- 
tive about these claims of experience, 
even granting their honesty. I recall one 
concern, in business for less than two 
cycles of the seasons, which claimed 
seventy-six years of experience by total- 
ling the time spent individually at film- 
making by five or six persons employed. 
The Bray version is that Handy was in 
charge of the Bray Chicago office and 
that, when he began to promote his 
personal enterprises, the connection was 

It seems to me that I once heard Handy 
remark that he had started in motion pic- 
tures through his interest in animated car- 
toons ; and, of course, in Chicago in 1913 
to 1915, Essanay and Selig had their staff 

February, 1940 

Page 59 

animators vvitli plenty to say about Bray's 
curb on their "free" methods. It would 
have been quite natural for Handy, as a 
newspaper comic strip editor, not only 
to have dabbled then in the local situation 
but to have been well acquainted with 
Bray. But, without further speculation 
on that point, my records show that a 
Kelly-Handy Syndicate was incorporated 
at Chicago in the spring of 1917 by Wil- 
liam Matthew Handy, Jamison Handy 
and Otto C. Bryhlman, to manufacture 
and deal in motion picture film. The 
capitalization was $2,500. 

It was not until almost ten years later 
— about 1926 — that the non-theatrical 
field in general became aware of Handy's 
advertising as denoting something extra- 
ordinary. At that time his concern was 
called the Newpapers Film Corporation ; 
and he was claiming "regional and serv- 
ice representatives at principal points 
throughout the U. S." The Newspapers 
Film Corporation already had budded into 
an enterprise called the Jam Handy Pic- 
ture Service, which leased films and full 
show equipment to its clients ; and thi^ 
grew until, early in 1929, the former 
name was completely superseded and 
dropped from all advertising. 

Nevertheless the discarded name was 
significant, for the Handy family was 
very well known in Chicago journalism. 
As the "Newspapers" title implied, Jami- 
son had been making capital of his con- 
tacts. His father, Moses Purnell Handy, 
had been director of publicity for the 
World's Columbian Exposition ; his elder 
brother, William Matthew Handy, had 
been for many years an editor of the 
Chicago Herald and Examiner and the 
Chicago Tribune, and his younger brother, 
Ray D. Handy, had attained celebrity as 
a cartoonist. Jamison, himself, had be- 
come, as aforesaid, an editor of news- 
paper comic strips, which must have 
taught him a great deal about visualiza- 
tion, simple, direct story-telling, a care- 
ful judgment of public taste, and of what 
references to avoid, invaluable aids in the 
line lie was to follow. .'\s a strip editor, 
incidentally, one of his greatest triumphs 
is said to have been the discovery and 
development of the late Elzie Crisler 
Segar, creator of "Popeye the Sailor." 

Particular interest is engendered by 
Handy's reference to "still pictures for 
sales education and service instruction," 
for this apparently was the real basis of 
the Jam Handy Picture Service. It re- 
marks also, a striking by-product in non- 
theatricals, one, indeed, which was con- 
siderably to help the field as a whole. It 
was an item known more commonly to- 
day as "slide film" — meaning a device to 
project individual frames of motion pic- 
ture film to achieve the same results 
formerly attained by lantern slides — suc- 
cessions of still pictures. With a small 
roll of fifty or sixty different scenes thus 
photographed on a short strip of 35- 
millimeter standard theatrical film (on 
which, in the usual positions, they run 
sixteen to the foot), a lecturer could 
carry in his pocket illustrative material 
for a full hour's talk — provided, of 
course, that he had also a suitable pro- 

Handy had such an instrument, a com- 
pact, inexpensive little affair which could 

The Jam Handy Studio in Detroit, from a photograph made about 1929. A 
remodelled church, with ofSces in front and the stages and workshops in 
the rear. Over and over through the centuries the drama has been 
fostered by the church, but probably never more literally than this. 

be taken out of a desk drawer and 
plugged into a convenient light socket 
for immediate operation. He had in this 
apparatus a useful aid in sales demon- 
stration, employee training classes and 
the like, as he claimed ; and, once similar 
projectors had been purchased by cus- 
tomers who could use them, he might 
hope to supply the operators with a 
regular service of slide films. The plan, 
put into practice, worked out so well 
that in 1929 the Jam Handy Picture 
Service in Chicago employed approxi- 
mately one hundred and fifty persons to 
stage, photograph, market and ship slide 
films, the gross monthly business, it is 
said, running to a return of about $60,000. 

Ancestors of the Slide Film 

Odd devices such as the Handy ma- 
chine usually have long, involved begin- 
nings ; but we do know that the slide 
film was not generally known until about 
1923-5, when several forms of still pro- 
jectors, including that of the Spencer 
Lens Company and the S.V.E. Picturol, 
were placed on the market. About ten 
years earlier, in the spring of 1914, the 
New York optical firm of Herbert & 
Huesgen had advertised a combination 
of camera and projector for this sort of 
exhibition ; but apparently it was ahead 
of its time and then met with little favor. 
The photographing device was called the 
Tourist Multiple Camera; and it was 
said to have a capacity of seven hundred 
and fifty pictures without reloading — 
meaning, in terms of regular 3S-niilli- 
meter film, a roll approximately fifty 
feet long. The separate projector did not 
seem to have enjoyed a distinct name and 
was clearly assigned a subordinate place. 

Of course, from very early days, many 
a regular motion picture projector has 
been made to stop and show a single pic- 
ture on the screen, and the tiny, toy pro- 
jector called the Pathe Baby, or Pathex, 
imported from Paris, had an ingenious 
way of running the motion picture but 
holding the title still on one frame to 

save film. But the earliest slide film pro- 
jector, starting the trend upon which 
Handy was to ride at full tide, that I re- 
call, was the Brayco, manufactured for 
and distributed by, Bray Products. The 
earliest certain date I have for it is 1918 
— a reference in a Government bulletin. 
It was about the size of, and not much 
heavier than, an ordinary desk telephone 
of the period. It was cleverly constructed, 
cheaply made and nominally priced, being 
designed for home use of the rich variety 
of subjects in the Bray film library. 
Street gossip had it that the Brayco was 
what really gave Handy his profitable 
idea in that line. And that may have been 
true, especially because the basic principle 
seems not to have been patentable. But, 
if Bray had made a low-priced device for 
the home field. Handy had a better one 
designed and manufactured for his more 
exacting industrial clients. 

Bray has his own explanation of how 
his own projector started the slide film 
movement. "It is a fact," he wrote me in 
September, 1939, "that I invented and 
developed the first film slide projector 
and made up the first film slide type of 

"The machine was called the 
Brayco. We made up one-half dozen 
projectors l)y hand, and I sent a 
.speaker to the N.E.A. Convention 
In 1923, I believe It was, at San 
Pranci.sco, where we put on a dem- 
onstration before the a.^sembled 
educators. This Brayco film and 
projector made an immediate hit, 
and forthwith the Spencer Lens, 
S.V.E. , and others started in the 
same field. 

"It was impossible foi' lis to get 
basic patents on the projector. We 
could only obtain design patents. 
Of course it "was very easy for any- 
one to make up such a projector 
with a different design, so by the 
time we got well into production, 
we had competition from all sides. 
We made up 150,000 Brayco pro- 
jectors which we sold at S25.00 
each in less than two years time. 

"About this time the 16mm. film 
was brought out by the Eastman 
Kodak Company, and we belns 
essentially motion picture minded. 

Page 60 

The Educational Screen 

and realizing that the 16mm. mo- 
tion picture could now sell for less 
than half of the price of the old 
35inm. film, and that projectors 
that were fool-proof using fire- 
proof film were becoming available, 
decided that "we would go out of 
th§ production of Brayco projectors 
and devote our Interests from then 
on to the development of a 16mm. 
educational film library." 

Much distressed over the appearance 
of the Brayco, and especially so because 
among the subjects listed for projection 
with it appeared an adaptation of "The 
Science of Life," was Dr. Maurice 
Ricker. Here, in turn, is that story in 
Dr. Ricker's own words, taken from a 
letter to me in February, 1939, and be- 
ginning the narrative late in 1914, when 
he was principal of the Des Moines High 
School : 

"T had been malving single frame 
prints from my science pictures 
and projecting them as stills. I 
sent samples to Morton [Morton 
Bassett, owner of the Mcintosh 
Company of Chicago!, and he 
thought that I should make patent 
application. So he furnished the 
money. The cla,ims were not well 
drawn and, after the usual delays, 
some claims, such as a remote con- 
trol, etc.. were allowed. . . . Later 
(in 1921 or '22), I spent some weeks 
at the Spencer T^ens Company in 
Buffalo, helping develop the pro- 
jector. Our patent was taken out 
in '14 or 'l.'> (tho' conceived and 
worked on earlierl while making 
the 'Science of Life' film for the 
rrSPHS, which I wrote and directed 
(12 reels) and on which Bray ob- 
tained the conti'act. 

"I had around Bray's Studio 
(Carpenter & Goldman imit. before 
their independent organization was 
launched), a slide film holder, such 
as Bassett and I used. It was a 
revised slide holder, with spools 
on either end. 

"We played around with it, and 
it "was left lying around for several 
months. Imagine my surprise a 
year later, to see in the show "win- 
dows of camera supply hoxises. a 
lai'ge printed card bearing the ad- 
vertisement, 'Bray's Latest Inven- 
tion' , . . and mv 'Science of T^ife' 
in still frame.s was on the market. 
.... This induced me to join Mr. 
Ott (Spencer I.,ens president) in 
getting out the Spencer and the 
adapter for lanterns. I woiild like 
for you to publish some time the 
patent which I will furnish you." 

Dr. Ricker duly sent me a copy of the 
Patent Office specification, and from it 
are here reproduced his illustrative draw- 
ings. The comnlete specification was filed 
January 8. 1915: it was witnessed Decem- 
ber 24.' 1914. Still, that Herbert & Hues- 
gen advertisement of the Tourist Multiple 
Camera was published in The Outlook 
even earlier — May 23, 1914. Who, then, 
was the actual father of the slide film? 

As far as America is concerned, prob- 
ably Dr. Ricker. And if the inventor of 
the Tourist Multiple Camera antedated 
him, Ricker's fame is still secure as the 
distributor of an exceedingly valuable 
innovation. The appearance of the Brayco, 
following his intimate association with 
Bray Studios, gives weight to his own 
belief that he unwittingly suggested it, 
and it is a fact that he developed the 
slide film projector for the Spencer Lens 
Company. If one accepts then the view 
that Handy's projector was inspired by 
the Brayco, there is indicated Dr. Rick- 
er's part in four distinct slide film de- 
vices, counting his own. He it was who 

introduced slide films to the U. S. De- 
])artment of Agriculture, where they have 
been extensively used ever since, about 
1922. Surely with all this. Dr. Ricker 
deserves an honored place in the temple 
of visual education. 

But why was it that Bray decided that 
there was no money for him in the Brayco 
and discontinued its production, while 
Handy went ahead with another device of 
the same sort and reaped a rich reward ? 
First, perhaps, was the temperamental 
difference in the men ; but a leading rea- 
son also, no doubt, was the contract won 
by Handy to supply dealers of the Chev- 
rolet Motor Company, everywhere, with 
slide films. 

The Handy Circle 

Handy's particular friend at Chevrolet 
was Richard H. Grant, president of the 
company ; and their friendship remained 
steadfast throughout many troublous 
years which followed. 




Patent specifications by Maurice G. 
Ricker and Morton A. Bassett for a 
slide film projector, dated December 
24, 1914. The papers were filed at 
the Patent Office January 8, 1915 

As in all such cases, charges of favori- 
tism were rife. One persistent account 
had it that Handy had married Grant's 
sister. After a time, it was said. Grant 
issued a statement, on Handy's behalf, 
that he never had had a sister. Then the 
story was amended to say that it wasn't 
Grant's sister but the sister of his wife, 
whom Handy had married and, when 
Handy denied being wedded to Grant's 
sister-in-law, rumor replied that the rea- 
son was that Handy had divorced her 
But what matter? As long as Grant re- 
ceived service up to standard in every 
respect — and it appears amply that he did 
— what matter whether the person with 
whom he dealt was a friend, his brother- 
in-law, his uncle or his aunt? 

Whatever the detailed circumstances of 
the friendship may have been. Grant's 
high regard surely opened Handy's way 

to success in the film field. Grant was 
destined to become director of sales and 
one of the most powerful vice-presidents 
in General Motors Corporation, which 
comprised some eighty allied companies 
— manufacturing not only automobiles 
but a variety of by-products ranging from 
golf bags to airplanes. To all of these 
affiliates Handy would have entree with 
exceptionally favorable credentials, and, 
naturally, he did not hesitate to use them. 
His own concern thus expanded rapidly. 
Elaborate offices were opened and regional 
sales and service representatives were 
appointed in other cities — New York, 
Cleveland, Dayton and Detroit — and, of 
course, it was an easy matter to step 
from slide film manufacture into regular 
motion picture production. 

To understand the non-theatrical im- 
portance of being endorsed by R. H. 
Grant, one must turn the clock back- 
ward briefly to the first decade of the 
century. Then Grant was one of the 
fabulous circle dominated by John H. 
Patterson, in the National Cash Register 
Company at Dayton. Others in that de- 
voted, remarkable group, were C. F. Ket- 
tering, present head of the General 
Motors Research Laboratories ; Charles 
Lee, today chief engineer for Chrysler 
Motors ; Edward A. Deeds, now chair- 
man of the executive committee of the 
United Aircraft and Transport Corpora- 
tion, and Hugh Chalmers, later director 
of the Chrysler Corporation of Detroit. 

Even in that pioneer period John Pat- 
terson had been a great believer in the 
non-theatrical uses of motion pictures 
and, as was habitual with him, he had 
put his beliefs into practice. Those of 
Patterson's company who arose later to 
command other great concerns, would 
naturally be receptive to the approach of 
a film man endorsed by one of tlieir own 
number, especially if that associate bad 
a business judgment which they particu- 
larly respected. It was even more signi- 
ficant that Handy had made films in 1920 
— studies in wasted motions — for Pat- 
terson himself. It is easy to see from 
this how largely John Patterson was 
responsible for the happy non-theatrical 
circumstances througliout the whole De- 
troit area, and why, indeed, Detroit was, 
from that standpoint, so much ahead of 
New York. 

In developing movie production. Handy, 
of course, did not relinquish his lucrative 
slide film business in Chicago ; but, while 
he continued that, he decided upon De- 
troit as the logical center for his new 
work. Accordingly he rented a suite of 
offices in the fine new General Motors 
Building in Detroit, and installed there 
a small projection room. The room was 
for the convenience of General Motors 
officials who might not wish to travel 
over the half-dozen blocks to the con- 
verted church, further along East Grand 
Boulevard, which was now the Jam 
Handy Detroit studio. At the same time 
the studio became, as Handy surely knew 
it would, a fascinating exhibit to show 
prospective clients who had "always won- 
dered how they do it in the movies." 

It was Jam Handy's idea from the be- 
ginning to supply a complete motion pic- 
ture service; so his workers not only 
variously' wrote scenarios and produced 

February, 1940 

Page 61 



pictures, but tlicy negotiated print sales, 
inspected and repaired reels in use, and 
actually put on the shows. They sold 
projectors, too. The resident manager 
in charge of production at the studio was 
Oliver Horn, a vice-president of the 
company, brought over from Chicago. 
Horn was something of a swimming star 
— a strong point with Handy, for he, him- 
self, had hung up several laurels for 
amateur performances in the water. An- 
other vice-president stationed at Detroit 
was Ben Turbett, old-time Edison direc- 
tor. Handy's brother-in-law, John Strick- 
Icr, was treasurer ; hut he remained most 
of the time in Chicago, where he was in 
charge of the slide films. To care for the 
exhibition phase, Perry Warren, who had 
had a small but thriving business in sup- 
plying film shows from Dayton, was 
taken on. The sales manager was George 
Haig. He is said previously to have 
resigned a $25,000 a year job as executive 
in a large industrial concern, merely be- 
cause he did not approve its operating 
policy — a form of resignation repeated 
about 1933 when he abandoned Handy. 

But probably the most intriguing figure 
of all, next to Handy himself, was the 
Reverend Ralph Lee, formerly an official 
in the Frigidaire plant at Dayton. He 
was a brother of Charles Lee, chief tech- 
nical expert at the Chrysler factory, and 
himself the inventor of some important 
automotive devices. He it was, they say, 
who designed the particular slide film 
projector exploited hjr Handy — probably 
at his home workshop which he mis- 
chievously called the Domestic Engineer- 
ing Company of Dayton. Being a wealthy 
nan. Ralph Lee bought a heavy inter- 
est in Handy's enterprise. He participated 
actively in it as far as Handy would per- 
mit. But he also kept up his activity 
as a minister in the little church at Day- 
ton, to conduct the services of which he 
frequently flew over from Detroit in his 
own airplane. His title in the Handy 
company was sales promotion manager, 
although this seems not to have interfered 
in the least with the ceaseless activity 
of the admirable George Haig. 

Handy's principal business was with 
General Motors. Among his other, more 
casual clients for silent pictures were : 
The Cur'i'c PnblisViing Company, Johns- 
Mansville, the Bankers Trust Company 
of New York, tlie General Electric Com- 
pany, the Celotex Company, the Ameri- 
can Surety Company, the General Out- 
door Advertising Company, the Elgin 
Corporation, makers of street-cleaning 
equipment ; the Coca-Cola Company and 

I.Cantrell & Cochrane, Ltd, As one goes 
!over the list it is interesting to note the 
absence of automotive accounts other than 
! General Motors ; and here is the key to 
;the success of Handy's competitors in the 
area. The man who held the General 
Motors business could not hope to have 
also the patronage of rivals of General 
Motors. Even Chrysler, with Charles Lee 
in a position to refer business to his 
brother Ralph, did not noticeably appear, 
therefore, in 'the Handy roll-call. 
Wilding was the luckv man to find 

Picture of the Brayco, from an 
advertisement ot the Chicago dis- 
tributor, the Brayco Company of 
Illinois. The accompanying text 
describes it as the "latest invention 
of J. R. Bray, originator of the 
animated drawing" 

client. He also found Studebaker, Dodge 
and the Graham Brothers — also the pub- 
lic utility companies and the oil people. 
So he was not so badly off. He found, 
too, an old church, not so well situated, 
perhaps — down on Mullet Street, in the 
older part of the city near the Michigan 
Central Railroad station — but ample for 
his purpose, which was to serve his 
clients as completely as might be done 
by anyone else. In accordance with that 
policy he also began a slide film busi- 
ness on the side. And his enterprises, 
all together, waxed deservedly strong. 

With the jealousies and suspicions of 
one client toward another, there was even 
enough business on the margins for a few 
lesser industrial producers. Chief among 
these was Morris J. Caplan, president and 
general manager of the Metropolitan 
Motion Picture Company, over on Cass 
Avenue, Detroit representatives of the 
International Newsreel. Arthur Caplan, 
a younger brother, was his vice-presi- 
dent. They claimed a start in 1919, when 
Morris had been joined by another bro- 
ther, Sam, who retired in 1931 because of 
ill health. Then, in the Penobscott Build- 
ing, there were two other brothers, the 
McConvilles, calling their concern Pro- 
fessional Films, Inc. 

In the handsome city of Cleveland, on 
Euclid Avenue, was William Scott, with 
his Art Films Studio, which had 21,000 

Next Month 

The serial adds to the roster of 
the commercial producers ot 
America, preparatory to taking 
up the specialized interests !n 
non-theatrical production and 
distribution. Less than one- 
third of the story has appeared 
in consecutive issues of The 
Educational Screen since publi- 
cation began in September, 
1938, and continuation will be 
exclusively in these columns. 
Subscribe now. 

square f-.-et of laboratory a nd studio 
space. Cleveland had been the scene of 
much motion picture activity in the early 
days ; but the companies virtually all had 
been ambitious for theatrical honors. The 
.'Krgus Company, which in 1917 had pro- 
duced a history of the city in association 
with the Cleveland Plain Dealer, was so 
inclined despite its avowed interest in 
educationals and industrials ; and the Re- 
serve Photo Plays Company, arising to 
public view in August, 1916, with an- 
nouncements of a film for the General 
Electric Company entitled, "Flame Eter- 
nal, a Drama of Light and Love," fairly 
showered the press, before the month was 
out. with promises of theatrical activity, 
including one that it might merge with 
the Sclig and also with Essanay. 

R. H. McLaughlin was head of Re- 
serve ; but he now took on in addition the 
presidency of the Success Film Company 
of Cleveland, which was "conservatively' 
described as a $7,500,000 corporation to 
produce motion pictures and to present 
them in its own theatres — the first soon 
to be erected in New York City. "Flame 
Eternal," by the way, was "probably" 
to be produced in Los Angeles. Even 
Watterson Rothacker was impressed. He 
traipsed over from Chicago one day for 
a chat with Johnny Ray, the general 
manager of Reserve — and, experienced in 
publicity methods as he was. he must 
have been surprised to see even that 
casual fact blazoned promptly forth by 
the Reserve press department. 

So Jam Handy and Norman Wilding 
remained the bright particular stars of 
industrial motion picture production in 
(he Great Lakes area. When we reach 
the story of the development of talking 
pictures, they will appear again. 


DETRorr is so clearly the key city of 
this great manufacturing region, that its 
name denotes manifestations of giant in- 
dustry everywhere in it. In Europe. 
as in .America, "Detroitism" means the 
unprecedented, twentieth century manu- 
facturing operations there to be seen. 
Chicago is the railroad center of the 
modern phases of industrv — on the whole, 
quite distinct. There the interests include 
transportation, too : but it is the railroad, 
onposed to the automobile of Detroit. 
Chicago is the railroad center of the 
world. It is also the world's greatest 
meat-packing, grain and agricultural 
region of those States which are drained 
bv the northern tributaries of the Missis- 

The non-theatrical producer situated in 
Chicago consequently was unfitted 
through sheer environment to break im- 
portantly into the Detroit area, as the 
Detroit producer necessarily had a cast 
of, mind unsuiting him to more than an 
occasional foray into the Chicago area. 
Jam Handy would seem to be a contra- 
diction here ; but bear in mind that in 
his best years he kept his motion picture 
business wholly — save laboratory work — 
in Detroit, and bis slide film manufactur- 
ing business altogether in Chicago. 

(Te be continued) 

Page 62 

The Educational Screen 

On and vox tfiE C^La±±xoom 

Conducted by Wilber Emmert 

Director Visual Education, State Teachers College, Indiana, Pa. 

Safety Education 

— In Hand Made Lantern Slides 


Art Department, State Teachers College, 
Indiana, Penna. 

INTRODUCING safety into the classroom 
through the medium of the hand made lan- 
tern slide is not only an interesting method of 
presenting safety, but is an inexpensive and 
effective one. 

The following slides afford a fine oppor- 
tunity for the instructor to give a discussion 
for the purpose of promoting safety within the 
class. After projecting the slides onto the 
screen, the title should be read, then followed 
with a discussion of facts, information, and 
incidents on the subject. 

The teacher will experience little difficulty 
in drawing the following safety pictures, which 
are reproduced in proper size for slide making. 
It will be still more effective to let the chil- 
dren trace the slides, not only for the expe- 

rience of making slides, but for the opportunity to par- 
ticipate in a safety program where they will gain more 
lasting impressions of the practices presented by drawing 
and discussing safety measures with the instructor. 
While showing the slides, the teacher can lead the dis- 
cussion on the slide theme with class participation. 

Never Play with Matches. Throughout the country 
each year there are many cases of physical impairment, 
and even death, attributed to the misuse of matches. In 
the first place, the instructor can point out the danger 
of damage to property by throwing the lighted matches 
about. Secondly, there is always the possibility of 
catching one's clothes on fire or endangering the safety 
of a playmate. With these thoughts in mind the in- 
structor can localize his discussion to the two figures on 
the slide. The boy playing with the matches may not 
suffer any mishap, yet his innocent playmate may be the 
victim of a carelessly thrown match. After explaining 
the danger of such actions, it can be pointed out that in 
any case where a child accidentallv catclies his clothes 
on fire, he should put it out by rolling in a blanket, rug, 
or something which will smother the flame. In the mean- 
time the children should be encouraged to ask questions 
concerning fire alarms, fire drills, and fire prevention. 
At this point several factors can be brought out in 
regard to fire drills. First, the children should file out 
of the building orderly when the signal is given. Sec- 
ondly, an older student or the teacher should assume the 
responsibility of closing all the windows and turning the 
lights on before leaving. After a discussion of these 
points, it is well to go back to the key message of the 
slide ; then amplify the importance of the statement by 
asking the children to always observe this rule and to 
influence their playmates to do the same thing. 

Pick Up All Dangerous Objects. During the course 
of a school day, the student may find himself in a posi- 
tion to exercise this suggestion. The instructor should 
encourage the pupils to pick up pencils, or other small 
objects which have accidentally fallen on the floor. Even 
the smallest objects, such as pencils, pebbles, marbles, 
lolly-pop sticks, and the like, may prove dangerous. It 
is not uncommon to read that someone has fallen down 
a flight of stairs and seriously injured himself as a 
result of skidding on some small toy, or even a match 
stick. This slide shows a boy picking up broken pieces 
of glass and boards with protruding nails. It will be 
noted that he is wearing gloves to protect his hands 
while doing this work. It should be even better if he 
swept the objects into a pan, then deposited them in the 
receptacle provided for such things. One should be sure 
to protect himself from injury while doing the "^good 
deeds" of this sort. If this lesson of picking up all dan- 
gerous objects is encouraged in the classroom and at 
school, the student will undoubtedly carry the practice 
into the home. 

February, 1940 

Never Hop Rides. We will venture the assertion that 
no youngster ever hopped rides for the purpose of ob- 
jective travel, ]:)nt rather for the thrill of "swiping-" a 
ride. This assertion is based on the contention that 
he generally does not know where the auto or truck is 
bound ; therefore, he hopped on for the thrill of getting 
a free ride. Hopping rides occur continually in every 
community, but this practice is extremely dangerous for 
several reasons. First, one may fall while climbing onto 
the truck. Second, he may injure himself while jump- 
ing oft' the vehicle at the end of the ride. And finally, 
there is the possibility of jumping into oncoming traffic. 
This discussion can be directed to the dangers as illus- 
trated on the slide. If possible one should try to point 
out similar incidents which may have occurred within 
the community ; and also tell of the disastrous results 
of such unnecessary practices. 

Do Not Play In the Streets. This particular subject 
is a difficult one in the sense that often the children have 
no other place to play but in the street. We might 
suggest that this argument should be regarded lightly, 
since in the larger cities there are playgrounds, and in 
the smaller comnnmities vacant lots customarily used 
for play purposes. Any child can find places to play 
other than on the dangerous street. In this slide two 
boys are playing in the street. One youngster darts 
after a Isall, while the other warns him of an oncoming 
automobile. The result is inevitably an accident from 
the approaching vehicle. It is true that the driver has 
had time to see the child, but it should be stressed to 
the children that this is not always the case, and that 
they should refrain from playing in the streets. This 
slide affords a splendid opportunity to show the smaller 
children the importance of staying on the walks at all 
times, and never stepping off the curb unless told to do 
so by some older person. Playing in the streets has 
caused numerous accidents, and thus the children should 
know the street is a danger zone which must be avoided 
except in the event of crossing at street corners and 
other designated crossings. 

Obey Your Patrol Leader. In the past few years the 
school boy patrol has become a vital spoke in the wheel 
of safety promotion. These patrol leaders find that they 
are in a better position to talk to the youngsters under- 
standingly, and that the children in turn can speak with 
the patrol leaders more easily than they can with an 
older person. This is a vantage point for safety educa- 
tion, since the patrol leader speaks the language of the 
youngsters. The children should be taught to respect 
the position of the patrol leader and obey them to their 
own advantage. Disobeying a patrol leader may result 
in an injury to the child. The children are forming fine 
habits when they wait on the curb and are instructed 
as to how and when to cross the street. The patrol 
leader can readily explain to the children the importance 
of the traffic policeman, who is in reality their friend 
and helper. The children should be taught never to fear 
the policeman, but rather to look forward to his as- 
sistance in safeguarding their lives. Likewise the patrol 
leaders should recognize their responsibility and the im- 
portance of their position in the promotion of safety 
education in the school. 

Ride on the Right Side— Observe Traffic Rules. With 
the increasing popvdarity of the bicycle, we find our 

(Concluded on pane 77) 



Page 64 

The Educational Screen 


CZ^mOnq ^^UZ±EL(JE± Notes from and by the 

Department of Visual Instruction of the National Education Association. 

Now comes Dr. John A. Hollinger, Director of 
Science and Visualization of the Pittsburgh Pub- 
lic Schools, with a new title for the catalog of his 
division which holds promise of being the neat turn 
of phrase that has been sought for two decades. The 
November-December, 1939, number of Pittsburgh Pub- 
lic Schools has appeared as the "Catalogue of Aids to 
Perceptual Learning." Apart from its title, this is an 
extraordinary document. It appears not as a catalog 
but as a complete issue of the regularly published pro- 
fessional magazine of the Pittsburgh Schools, reaching 
the desk of every teacher as a matter of course, and 
appearing in a series devoted to important developments 
in all matters educational as these matters affect all 
the Pittsburgh schools. 

The title of the volume is bound to stir a good deal 
of discussion, comment, and constructive criticism. 
Drop a note to this column before March 15, in care of 
Charles R. Hoban, 1013 18th Street, N. W., Wash- 
ington, D. C, indicating whether you like or dislike the 
term and why. and offering miscellaneous suggestions. 
The correspondence on the subject will be reviewed in 
the April issue of the Screen — barring wind and high 

WHILE we're on the subject of Pittsburgh, be sure 
to attend the meeting on "Evaluation and Use of 
Audio-Visual Materials in the Classroom," scheduled 
at the Webster Hall and Foster Memorial Hall (Pitts- 
burgh), April 19 and 20. There are several things 
about this conference that indicate the direction in 
which leaders of the field are leading the field. In the 
first place, the committee in charge of the conference 
consists of the superintendent of schools of Allegheny 
County, the director of science and visualization of the 
Pittsburgh schools, the head of the department of edu- 
cation and the film library at Pennsylvania College for 
Women, and a professor of education of the University 
of Pittsburgh. These are in turn, Dr. Charles Dickey, 
Dr. Hollinger, Dr. C. E. Manwiller, Dr. James S. 
Kinder, and Dr. Herbert Olander. Dr. Kinder is chair- 
man of the committee. Only lately have committees 
planning conferences on "visual" materials drawn per- 
sonnel from administrative, curriculum, and related 

Another valuable feature of the conference is that 
it is organized around curriculum problems and sub- 
jects, rather than around visual aids. There will be 
conferences on reading, English, science, and consumer 
education, in which contributions of visual materials 
and methods will be discussed in relation to objectives 
which have been set up in these curricular areas. 

An evening session will be devoted to new films and 
the social studies. Following a general discussion of 
the documentary film, and the screening of The City 

Conducted by Charles F. Hoban, Jr. 

American Council on Education, Washington, D. C. 

and two housing authority films, there will be a panel 
discussion of the importance of these films to the social 
studies curriculum, and the place, if any, that these 
films have in the classroom. Those school authorities 
who have experienced the pressure for and against the 
school showing of films related to the work of local 
housing authorities will recognize the importance of 
this topic on the general program. This discussion will 
be led by Dr. E. A. Dimmick, Associate Superintendent, 
Pittsburgh Public Schools. 

Other features of the conference program include 
discussion of slides in the teaching of geographic rela- 
tions and concepts, a review of developments in scien- 
tific aids to teaching English, and a review of develop- 
ments in the release of theatrical shorts and edited 
feature films for classroom use. Speakers on these sub- 
jects will be Dr. Zoe Thralls, University of Pittsburgh ; 
Dr. Walter Ginsberg, Teachers College, Columbia 
University; and Dr. Carl W. Milliken, Motion Pic- 
ture Producers and Distributors of America. 

The conference will conclude with a joint luncheon 
meeting with Phi Delta Kappa devoted to the theme. 
"Some Contributions to Human Relations." Speakers 
will include Mr. James Stokley, director of the Buhl 
Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science, and Dr. 
Milliken. There will follow a panel discussion led 
by Mr. George W. Culbertson, of the Herron Hill 
Junior High School. 

DON'T fail to attend the sessions of the Department 
of Visual Instruction at St. Louis. Added to the 
program printed in the January issue of the Screen 
is a joint dinner meeting with the Association of 
School Film Libraries, February 28. 

ANOTHER St. Louis meeting of interest to mem- 
bers of the department is being arranged by Pres. 
John A. Bartky and Dr. William W. Wattenberg, Chi- 
cago Teachers College, 6800 Stewart Avenue, Chicago. 
The meeting will be held under the auspices of the 
Society for Curriculum Study for the purpose of pro- 
viding channels for communication among teachers 
especially interested in the use of .school excursions 
and other direct utilization of community resources. 
Replies from letters sent out by a group of Chicago 
teachers who developed the idea of a national planning 
committee indicate that "there is a need for a group 
which would engage in such activities as : publishing 
a bulletin containing information on the successful use 
of various types of school excursions ; helping to ar- 
range long-distance excursions ; stimulating and co- 
ordinating efforts for the improvement and evaluation 
of school excusions" (Curriculum Journal, II, 1:4-5). 
If interested, write in advance to either President 
Bartky or Dr. Wattenberg. 

February, 1940 

SPEAKING of school journeys, Arnold Beichman, 
formerly of the editorial staff of The New York 
Times, is making a systematic study of school journeys 
in the United States for the Progressive Education 
System, under a grant from the Sloan Foundation. 
\ Lincoln School, you remember, experimented with 
I school journeys a year or so ago, under a grant from 
the Sloan Foundation, and the educational aspects of 

Page 65 

the journeys were evaluated by Dr. Louis E. Raths, 
Bureau of Educational Research, Ohio State Univer- 
sity, and published in the Bureau's Educational Re- 
search Bulletin. If you have any data on school ex- 
cursions, Mr. Beichman would be glad to hear from 
you, in care of the Progressive Education Association, 
New York City. 

A Clearing House for School-Made 
Public Relations Films 






AT LEAST ninety motion pictures have been pro- 
duced for the purpose of interpreting the schools 
to the public. This fact will be of significance to 
every administrator who has been confronted with a 
public apathy to speeches and school visitation and 
largely uninterested in the school columns of the news- 

There can be little question that the number of 
school-made films will continue to grow. Interest in 
motion picture production on the part of educators has 
mounted rapidly. But will the quality of these films 
keep pace with the increasing production? The answer 
to this question hinges in part on the extent to which 
we make available to schoolmen information as to 
techniques and possible areas in the field of film pro- 

It was with a view to bringing about such an ex- 
ange that a nation-wide survey of public relations 
'films has been carried out by the writer during the 
past year. This project is a direct outgrowth of the 
meeting on publicity films at the 1939 A.A.S.A. Con- 
vention. Administrators attending this meeting ex- 
pressed the need for a loose organization through 
which they could exchange ideas, scenarios and films. 
In line with this expression, a questionnaire was pre- 
red to gather essential film information. Oppor- 
kinity was provided for recording title, length, width, 
whether silent or sound, film content in detail, availabil- 
ity for loan, and the name of the individual to whom 
correspondence should be directed. This form, together 
with a letter explanatory of the purpose of the survey, 
was mailed to a gradually expanding list of edu- 
cators interested in the field. In all, 214 questionnaires 
were sent to schoolmen from a list compiled with the 
help of the various state Education Associations, The 
National Council of Teachers of English, The National 
Education Association, The Bureau of Educational Re- 
learch of Ohio State University, The Department of 
isual Instruction of the Oakvale (W. Va.) Schools, 
:he movie publications, and the suggestions secured 
from educators previously responding. 

Data on 90 films was assembled in the first Public 

elations Film Bulletin distributed to all those teachers 

d administrators who contributed to or expressed 

interest in the project. Certain facts are outstanding in 

the information thus far : 


Harvey H. Lowrey School, Dearborn, Mich. 

1 — The large majority of educators who replied 
were definitely interested in an exchange organization 
such as that proposed and were willing to loan their 
own films to other schoolmen. 

2 — The "Newsreel" type of film (usually a group of 
school highlights, often unrelated) continues to con- 
stitute the great majority of the films produced by 
schools for public relations purposes. Many of these 
films have a running time of well over an hour (as high 
as 2,14 hours!) and are sometimes literally, as described 
by the administrators concerned, "all the activities of 
the school" and "everything from the opening of school 
in the fall to graduation in the spring." 

3 — There is a discernible trend, however, toward a 
more highly "specialized" film whose purpose is to 
present in carefully-planned detail some single aspect 
of school life. Films such as Cactus Courageous (an 
eighth grade class studies cacti), Early Denver, T. B. 
Testing Program, Nursery School, Busy Hands, Intro- 
ducing Your Library, and Our Children Learn To 
Read are typical of this trend. 

A — All films (with the exception of one 8mm. sub- 
ject) were of the 16mm. type. Approximately one film 
in five made some use of natural color film. 

5 — Sound films are being used experimentally by a 
few schools. (Four such products were reported in the 
survey.) Notable examples of sound films are the 
1600-foot Bay City (Mich.) picture, on which a com- 
mentator's voice was recorded after the film had been 
edited, and the 400-foot Croton-On-Hudson (N. Y.) 
film School, with sound recorded on the spot. 

While the survey has undoubtedly provided a certain 
amount of information of value in itself to the educator 
interested in film production, the primary purpose of 
the project remains that of encouraging the exchange 
of films and related data. And unless through this ex- 
change there comes about, however slowly, a greater 
enthusiasm for and understanding of school film pro- 
duction, together with a product of increasingly good 
quality, the project will have failed in its mission. 

{Editor's Note — The interesting data on the 90 
school-made films assembled by the questionnaire will 
be given in our succeeding issues, probably as a por- 
tion of the new Department of "School Made Motion 
Pictures" which begins in this number.) 

Page 66 

The Educational Screen 


WHAT schools and colleges are making and have 
made films? What kinds of films are they mak- 
ing ? What do the films contain ? What are some 
of the unusual developments in this field? How do the 
schools produce their films? These questions and many 
others have been sent to me since the beginning of a 
survey of school-made films in 1938. 

This column will endeavor to answer some of these 
questions, but first of all, it will serve as a record of 
films made by schools. While information on new films 
is being compiled, films already reported to me will 
be mentioned. The data given for each film has been 
checked for accuracy ; however, in spite of this, an occa- 
sional error may be noted. Readers of the column 
will be of great assistance if they will notify the editor 
regarding any necessary changes in text or any addi- 
tional films for future listings. 

The "newsreel" and activity films comprise the ma- 
jority of the films produced in schools at the present 
time. Many of them are used by schools for public 
relations purposes. Most of these films have been 
made on 16mm film and. unless otherwise specified, 

1 Reel 16mm. S. O. F. 

The Publi€ Life of 


Opening with the Debate between Lincoln and 
Douglas, it brings in rapid succession Civil war 
episodes and finishes with Lincoln's untimely 
Death, forcefully revealing his true character 
and greatness. 

Available only to 

Price, $45.00 Net 

Distributed exclusively by 


145 West 45th Street - New York. N. Y. 

ALSO OTHER 1 6mm - 8mm FILMS 

Conducted by HARDY R. FINCH 

Head of English 

High School, Greenwich, Conn. 

Member Committee on Standards for Motion Pictures and 
Newspaperr of the National Council of Teachers of English 

films mentioned in the following paragraphs are of that 
width. Also, it may be understood that all films 
are black-and-white and silent, unless "color" and 
"sound" are expressly mentioned. 

California — Color films of a school fiesta have been 
produced by the Woodrow Wilson High School Moving 
Picture Club at Long Beach. With some shots of foot- 
ball games, the club's shooting results total almost 
900 feet. 

Connecticut — Edward F. Wheeler, chairman of vis- 
ual education at Bristol High School, describes his 
activity film, "School Activities," as consisting "merely 
of glimpses of classroom work, club activity, and some 
athletics." (400 feet) 

One of "Hillhouse High-lites," New Haven, 
a newsreel of school events (1000 feet) shows how the 
school's newspaper is produced. Donald Eldridge, di- 
rector of visual education, is advisor of the production 

A "sportsreel" containing shots of track meets and 
football games (400 feet) has been produced by the 
Cinema Club of Staples High School, Westport. 

Florida— "A Day at Sealy Memorial School" (100 
feet), and "The Tallahassee May Party" (200 feet) 
were produced at Sealy Memorial School, Tallahassee. 
Robert C. Moon is the principal. 

Georgia — The O'Keefe Junior High School Camera 
Club, Atlanta, has made 400 feet showing the school's 
cafeteria, inauguration of the school's president, and 
tree planting. H. M. Williams is the club's advisor. 

A film which paid for itself is "My Diary," an activ- 
ity film produced at Jordan Vocational High School. 
Columbus. F. P. Bradford, principal, writes, "We paid 
for the film by selling advertisements and using them 
in the film." (1200 feet) 

lozva — "Ames High on Parade" is the subject of a 
1500-foot film produced by the Science Club of Senior 
High School, Ames, under the supervision of John 

Kentucky — A 400-foot film taken by interested par- 
ents, is described by Ninde S. Wilder, principal of the 
Ballard Memorial School, Louisville. 

Louisiana — .A.11 activities of the St. Charles Parish 
Schools, Hahnville, are included in a 1200-foot film, 
as reported by Supt. J. B. Martin. A 400-foot film 
on the activities of Hahnville High School were pro- 
duced imder the direction of E. J. Landry, principal. 

Maryland — An Armistice Day celebration film (200 
feet) is one of three short films produced at the 
Southern Junior-Senior High School, Baltimore, under 
the supervision of Nicholas DeCesare. 

Massachusetts — W. B. Giiiford, principal of the High 
School at Belmont, reports the making of a lOO-foot 
film on a football game. 

"Briscoe Movies," a film of activities (400 feet), and 

February, 1940 

Page 67 

a film of a W.P.A. Nursery School (400 feet), have 
been made by Frank A. Rhuland, Briscoe Junior High 
School, Beverly. 

"A Day in Our Nursery School," a film showing a 
day's routine — health inspection, work with materials, 
play equipment, lunch, rest, etc. — (400 feet) is reported 
by Miss Pauline Fricat, Lancaster Street School, 

Nebraska — An 8mni film on school activities (100 
feet) has been taken by the Camera Club of Lincoln 
High School. 

Nnv Jersey — "Vineland-Landis Township Schools 
in Action" is a 1600-foot activity film made in Vine- 
land. Dr. Lawrence R. Winchell is the Vineland Su- 
perintendent of Schools. 

A Senior Washington trip and athletic activities are 
shown in a film (400 feet) by the Camera Club of 
Hamilton High School, Trenton. L. F. Rader is the 
club advisor. 

Nczv York — Six junior High school pageants 1930-36 
form the content of 1200 feet of film made at Glens 
Falls High School. 

Ohio — Euclid Central School, Euclid, has made a 
film entitled "A Day in the Euclid Schools." Accord- 
ing to Principal H. L. Shibler, the film is 1100 feet in 
length and its "scenario is based on the activities in the 
school, such as physical education, athletics, dramatics, 
and musical organizations." 

A 400-foot reel on football and 200 feet on May 
Health Day are recorded by A. L. Baumgartner, prin- 
cipal, Harvey High School, Paincsville. 

"A Century of Educational Progress in Maumee" 
(1600 feet) is an activity film shown at the 1938 
commencement exercises in Maumee, according to H. 
H. Eibling. Superintendent of Schools. 

Oklahoma — An unusual title, "Growing Up in Ok- 
mulgee Schools." identifies a film (2000 feet) about the 
Okmulgee Public Schools. Activities shown in this film 
include nursery school, classroom activities, exhibits, 
and commencements of High school and junior college. 

Pennsylvania — The Benjamin Franklin Junior High 
School. Uniontown. now owns 1400 feet of an activity 
film, made during a three-year period. 

The activities of the practical arts department of the 
Northwest Junior High School, Reading, have been 
filmed by Lester Sheirich. 

Texas — An outdoor spring pageant film (400 feet) 
is reported by Miss Emma Gutzeit, Board of Educa- 
tion, San Antonio. The Douglas Junior School for 
Negroes, .San Antonio, has made a school activity film 
(400 feet). 

Virginia — The school buildings, grounds, and activ- 
ities of the Madeira .School, Greenway, have been 
filmed. The 2400 feet of film were taken by the school's 
physical education department. 

Washington — A film sponsored by a local Education 
Association and the Longview Board of Education has 
been shown to many service and civic organizations. 
It is called "Sally Ann's Day at School" (200 feet). 
Miss Pearl Heidenrich was the production manager of 
the film. 

Wisconsin — An 800-foot film on the activities of the 
work of the Kenosha Orthopedic School has been pro- 
duced at Kenosha. 


There Is a 




Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 


To Fill 

Every Projection 


The Da-Lite Challenger, consisting of Da-Lite Glass-Beaded 
fabric, metal case and tripod can be set up anywhere in 15 
seconds yet folds compactly for easy carrying. The glass- 
beaded surface reflects brilliant clear pictures without 
sparkling or glare. The Challenger is the only screen with 
square tubing in the tripod to keep the entire picture in 
perfect alignment. 12 sizes from 30" x 40" to 70" x 94" 
inclusive from $12.50* up. 


This map-type screen is mounted 
in a dust-proof metal case to hang 
on the wall or from Da-Lite Super 
Tripods. 12 sizes from 22" x 30" 
to 63" X 84" from $7.50 up. 

'Prices slightly higher on 
the Pacific Coast. 


This electrically 
operated model is 
the most conveni- 
ent of all screens 
for auditoriums 
and large class- 
rooms. Its motor 
drive, operated by 
a remote control 
switch placed any- 
where desired un- 
rolls and rerolls the 
screen as desired. 
The screen stops 
automatically when 
completely lowered 
or rewound. Be- 
cause the screen is 
operated at a constant speed there is never any strain on the 
fabric. Available with Da-Lite Glass-Beaded or Mat White 
surface in a broad range of sizes up to 20' x 20' inclusive. 

For 31 years, Da-Lite has been antici- 
pating screen requirements with equip- 
ment of outstanding quality. As a 
result, the Da-Lite line is the most 
complete on the market, with surfaces, 
sizes and mountings to meet every 
requirement. All are fully described in 
the 48 page Da-Lite catalog. Ask your 
supplier for a copy or write direct. 



Page 68 

The Educational Screen 



l ^LLm 

Microphotography for Educators 


Director Photoduplication Service 
Library of Congress 

(Editor's Note : A slight departure from the usual news 
and comment on Government films is presented this 
week with a discussion of the problem of microphoto- 
graphy. Mr. Schwegmann has written this article es- 
pecially for Educational Screen as a contribution to 
an understanding of the new and growing science of 

DURING the past several years, the attention of 
progressive educators and scholars has been cen- 
tered to a large extent on the fabulous accomplishments 
of microphotography — a technique so new that there 
was no steady periodical reference to it before 1936. 
Since this date the literature has grown so rapidly that 
a new quarterly, The Journal of Documentary Repro- 
duction, dealing principally with microphotography, ap- 
peared in 1938. 

The photographic reproduction of printed and manu- 



HOLMES Sound-on-Fllm Projectors win out when careful comparisons are 
made. The more machines set up in competition for demonstration, the 
more outstanding the quality of sound and picture brilliancy of the 
Holmes product. 

Educators in all parts of America know that a very wide range of 
educationol pictures have been produced on 35 mm films. 

It is therefore very important that the Holmes 
35mm sound-on-film portable projector be carefully 
considered before purchasing any other kind. FuU 
picture brilliancy and clarity of sound are certain 
I vrith a Holmes as 
j precision in moving 
parts is assurance of 
superior reproductive 





Free Demonstration 

arranged upon request 

Send for Illustrated 

For full Information, write direct to 


Monufacfurcrs of 76fnm and 35mni sound pro/ectors 


Edited by Arch A. Mercey 

Assistant Director, U. S. Film Service, 
Washington, D. C. 

script materials is not new. Photocopying or photo- 
stating techniques have been widely used and are still 
ideal for short transcriptions and certain classes of ma- 
terial. Complete volumes and longer studies, however, 
can frequently be microfilmed for less than the cost of 
photocopying a limited selection of the same material. 

Although the chief users of microphotography are 
business firms and government offices, a very respect- 
able proportion of the total is employed for the preser- 
vation, duplication and dissemination of educational 
material. As educators become more familiar with 
microphotography, this new form of duplication will 
be increasingly employed by them, both as media of re- 
search and as visual aids to learning. 

Briefly, microfilm is the product of .successive ex- 
posures on 16 or 35mm safety motion picture film of 
manuscript, printed or graphic material. The result- 
ing images are read either through a magnifying glass, 
by enlargement on the screen of a reading machine or 
as enlargements on photographic paper. The essential 
novel feature of microphotography is that the facsimile 
image is tiny and comparatively inexpensive. Of the 
three suggested means of reading microfilm, the read- 
ing machine or wall projector is most widely used. 
Reading devices can be purchased at prices ranging 
from about $20 to $325. 

Because of their relative cheapness and compact- 
ness, microfilms have been adopted to solve various 
large-scale documentary preservation and storage prob- 
lems. In.stances of such use are the microfilming of the 
Social Security Board records, the NRA hearings, 
bank checks, department store accounts, new.spapers. 
European archives and rare books. It is estimated that 
several billions of microcopies have already been made. 

Large-.scale copying operations however are not the 
only grist for the microfilm mill, for as librarians have 
assumed the obligation of preserving research materials 
ort ■ film, they also have accepted the responsibility of 
providing .scholars with microfilms of required ma- 
terials in their custody. Thus it is now possible to se- 
cure from most large libraries of this country film 
copies of practically any material they have at costs 
varying from 1 to 5 cents a page. .'\ list of these micro- 
film sources is appended. In addition to material in 
the United States, scholars 'also may secure, through 
University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., and other 
sources, microfilms of materials in many libraries in 
England, France. Germany, and Itah'. 

The advantages of microfilm to the scholar are ob- 
vious. From the standpoint of original research, micro- 
photography places those in the most isolated institu- 
tions on an equal footing with students working in 
immediate proximity to complete collections. Indeed, 
microphotography permits the distant research worker 
to as.semble in his own study, at modest cost, the 

February, 1940 

Page 69 

wealth of not only one, but many libraries. It may be 
expected therefore that many who heretofore have been 
prevented from undertaking research for want of prop- 
er library facilities, will now find it possible to devote 
themselves to some of the numberless undeveloped 
fields. Many scholars are using microfilm as a short 
cut and substitute for extensive copying and note-tak- 
ing in the gathering of material. The inconveniences 
arising from errors or incompleteness in such records 
are entirely avoided. With microfilm copy at hand it 
is never necessary to make a second trip to a library 
or borrow the material a second time to verify refer- 
ences or notes. 

p-or centuries no doubt, scholars and scientists have 
dreamed of the ideal book in which all demanded refer- 
ences would be collected — a book available at reasonable 
cost for personal use in the study or laboratory. At 
last this ideal has been achieved. The book is not a 
rarity, nor is it costly. It is small enough to be car- 
ried in one's pocket. It is on microfilm. 

Microfilms may be obtained from the following libra- 
ries : Brown University. Catholic University, Wash- 
ington. D. C, Chicago University : Columbia Univer- 
sity ; Grosvenor Library. Buffalo, New York ; Harvard 
University : Henry Huntington Library, San Marino, 
California ; University of Illinois ; Iowa State College ; 
Iowa State University ; University of Kansas ; Library 
of Congress; McGill University; University of Michi- 
gan ; University of Minnesota ; The National Archives ; 
New York Public Library : University of North Caro- 
lina; Princeton University; University of Rochester; 
Stanford University; University of Toronto; Univer- 
.sity of Virginia ; University of Washington. St. Louis ; 
University of Washington, Seattle ; University of Wis- 
consin ; 'S'ale University. 

Re-edited U.S.D.A. Short Subjects 

The American Film Center has re-edited .seven short 
subjects in cooperation with the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture Division of Motion Pictures. 
These subjects, running from five to nine minutes each, 
have been prepared from existing footage and films in 
the Agricultural film library. 

Subjects include "How Animal Life Begins" (9 
min.) ; "Prize Calf (5 min.) ; "Cicada" (8 min) ; 
"Cane Sugar" (5 min.) ; "Swimming I, II, and III" 
(5 min. each reel) ; "Clouds and Weather" (6 min.) ; 
"Farm and City" (9 min.). 

Each film has with it a study guide which gives a 
brief synopsis of the film, background of the subject 
treated, suggestions for class activities, bibliographical 
notes, and the evaluation of the film by the American 
Council on Education. The films are being handled 
on a .sale basis directly from the American Film Center, 
with i)urcha,se figure at from $6.75 to $10.00 per 

One familiar with modern education materials and 
methods can readily see hoyv the motion picture 
described abcvc makes the job of interpreting the school 
to the public much easier. If the school had attempted to 
■present this subject to the public through some medium 
other than the motion jMcture it is doubtful whether 
the public would have received as clear a conception 
of the newer materials and methods of reading. 

Whether you seek 




is the BEST WAY'. 

You can educate while you enter- 
tain, just as you entertain while you 
educate — with Universal's outstand- 
ing selection of motion pictures. 

Here are pictures that should be on 
everybody's MUST list: 

DEANNA DURBIN In "Three Smart Girls Grow Up" 

BING CROSBY, Joan Blondell and MIscha Auer in 
"East Side of Heaven" 

Tomorrow Comes" 

DEANNA DURBIN in "That Certain Age" 

Gilbert and Sullivan's "The Mikado" in glorious 
technicolor, with the D'Oyly Carte Players and 
London Symphony Orchestra 

McCarthy in "You Can't Cheat an Honest 


Doug. FAIRBANKS Jr. and Basil RATHBONE In "The 
Sun Never Sets" 

"The Family Next Door" with Hugh Herbert and 
Joy Hodges 

Don't miss these. Write to VniversaVs 
^on-Theatrical Department for further 
information regarding short -subjects, 
travelogues, animated cartoons and 
other feature length pictures. 



Rockefeller Center New York, N. Y. 

CIRCLE 7-7100 

Page 70 

The Educational Screen 

^fiE J^iiExaiuxE in ^ l/LiuaL Lln±txuaiion 

A Monthly Digest 

Conducted by Etta Schneider 

Administration of Visual Aids 

Implications of Increase in Audio- 
Visual Equipment — H. Arnold Perr; , 
Division of Instructional Service, 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, Raleigh — North Carolina Educa- 
tion, December, 1939 
During 1937-8 when over a hundred 
institutes for teachers were held by the 
State Department of Public Instruction 
at various centers throughout the state, 
persons in attendance seemed as much in- 
terested in the audio-visual equipment 
used as they were in the particular topics 
presented. In March, 1939 an Audio- 
Visual Department was established in the 
North Carolina Education Association. 
In the annual reports of principals to 
the State Departments at the close of last 
year, many statements were included re- 
garding developments in the audio-visual 
field. Equipment inventories included, 
for the first time, audio-visual equipment 
and a tabulation of these figures reveals 
a remarkable increase over the figures 
for North Carolina in the national sur- 
vey made by the Office of Education and 
the American Council on Education. 

During the three-year period 1936-39, 
there was an increase from 39 to 202 
motion picture projectors, a gain of 
418%. Film strip projectors increased 
from 23 to 102, or 343%. Radios in- 
creased 169%, and phonographs 166%. 
Lantern slide projectors doubled, from 
62 to 124, 

Among the factors which no doubt 
contributed to this increase in interest 
and in materials were : general improve- 
ment in economic conditions, especially in 
school financing; an improvement in the 
quality of projection equipment ; decrease 
in cost of equipment ; growing awareness 
on the part of educators for visual aids ; 
availability of better audio-visual aids 
in terms of suitability for various grade 
levels as well as in technical quality ; 
the establishment of a rental service at 
the University of North Carolina. 

The most important consideration be- 
fore school people who have already ac- 
quired these new aids is the effective use 
of them. Administrators should plan 
these programs for a long term, and 
they should make a study of successful 
practice in other school systems. Dis- 
tribution arrangements within the school 
system should be routinized, so that there 
will be a minimum of effort and a maxi- 
mum of use. Adequate inventory .should 
be made of available equipment already in 
the schools. Provision should be made 
for additional materials and replace- 
ments. Inservice teacher-training in 
the techniques of using audio-visual aids 
is also necessary. And, what is most im- 
portant, a means of integrating it with the 

curriculum to broaden and enrich the 
educational experience. 

Administering a Film Library — Janet 
M. McDonald, Texas Technological 
College — Texas Outlook, 24:49-50 
January, 1940 

Problems met with in administering 
the local film library: 1. Selection, 
based on evaluations b\' teacher com- 
mittees, check lists of other film libraries. 
Free films should be carefully evaluated 
before being placed in an educational 
film library. 2. Publicity : This may be 
done through the catalog, through invi- 
tations for cooperation in previewing and 
selection, and through cooperative ex- 
perimentation. 3. Booking involves care- 
ful planning for borrowers who have 
made plans long in advance, as well as 
for those who desire material at short 
notice. Care should be taken to send 
films out in good condition and a day 
before the showing date. 4. Accounting, 
to determine costs of maintenance, in- 
come and balance is very essential. This 
involves also records of the number of 
times each film was used, the number of 
viewers, etc. 

Selecting Geography Equipment— Frank 
E. Sorenson, Teachers College High 
School, University of Nebraska — Ne- 
braska Educational Journal, 19:333 
December 1939 

An inventory of geography materials 
and equipment in the classrooms of all 
schools should be made to determine 
whether or not adequate instruction can 
be carried on. 

1. Who should select the geography 
equipment? The superintendent, a 
geography specialist affiliated with 
the local Teachers College or Uni- 
versity, and the teachers. 

2. What equipment should be consider- 
ed essential ? Modern textbooks and 
workbooks; 12" or 16" globe show- 
ing political boundary lines and 
physical factors, as well as ocean 
currents. Wall maps, including a 
relief map, a rainfall map, a tem- 
perature map, and a native vegeta- 
tion map. A slated map can also 
be added in the upper grades. Also 
a map of the home state. An au- 
thentic atlas, such as the J. Paul 

Goode. Atlas of the Rand McNally 
Co. Other visual aids, including 
slides, films, or mere prints. 
Laboratory materials include a ther- 
mometer, a barometer and a rain gauge; 
a sand table in the lower grades ; a dis- 
play cabinet for rocks and minerals, 
labels, a bulletin board. 

This represents more equipment than 
a school should try to buy in a single 

year. Perhaps a five-year plan can be 
arranged. Good equipment is simply an 
aid to good teaching and cannot take the 
place of it. 

Research and Evaluation 

Evaluating a Safety Film— Charles F. 
Hoban, ]r. —Safety Education 19:202 
January, 1940 

Evaluation of a film may lie done in 
one of three ways : 

a) A teacher or a group of teachers 
may preview and predict the value; b) 
The film may be used in class and its 
value rated on student reaction; c) A 
controlled observation may be set up to 
determine student behavior before and 
after the use of the film to note the 
values accruing from the film. 

Basically in evaluating motion pic- 
tures in safety education the evaluator 
must consider the contribution — predict- 
able and demonstrable — of the film and 
safe conduct. If the film contributes to 
some phase of conduct which relates to 
the safety of the individual or his breth- 
ren, it is a good film to the degree of its 
contribution to conduct. The first cri- 
terion, then, is the purpose for which the 
film is used. The second is the maturity 
and background of the pupils. 

The third criterion is the setting in 
which the film is placed — that is, the ex- 
periences which preceded its showing and 
those which will follow. The fourth cri- 
terion is the contribution the film makes 
to safe conduct. 

Relative Importance of Placement ol 
Motion Pictures in Classroom In- 
struction — Elizabeth L. Stadtlander, 
Slippery Rock State Teachers Col- 
lege. Penn. — Elenicntarv School Jour- 
nal, 40:284-90. December, 1939 

In an attempt to determine the most 
advantageous time to present a film 
when used as a teaching device in con- 
nection with reading, a series of film pre- 
sentations was devised for the sixth 
grade of the Laboratory School. Over 
a period of two years (1937-9) the ex- 
periment involved the use of 75 children. 
Tests were given the first year and again i 
the second year to verify the results. ■ 
The content of the material was based 
on nature study and reading. Reading 
material included mimeographed stories 
and supplementary readers. 

Aims : 1 ) To present to the children 
some of the living creatures of the 
world ; 2) to give the children oppor- 
tunity to understand the natural habi- 
tat, etc. ; and 3) to create within the 

(Concluded on page 72) 

February, 1940 

Page 71 

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WITH Victor Records playing 
an important part in the study 
of music and other subjects in many 
high schools and colleges, the use 
of the general Victor Record Cata- 
logue has become widespread with 
teachers. They have found it to be 
an unusually valuable aid, not only 
in planning, but teaching as well. 
Cross-indexed to cover classifica- 
tions such as folk songs, sympho- 
nies, historic gems, and many oth- 
ers — it facilitates the choice of the 
Victor Records to be used and as- 
sures selection of the proper re- 
cordings as well. Also lists Victor 
Records available for correlation 
of music with such other school 

subjects as geography, history, lit- 
erature, etc. 

The new 1940 edition of this 
catalogue is now waiting for you 
at your RCA Victor dealer's store. 
Visit him first chance you get and 
obtain this valuable aid to teach- 
ing. Or, if you prefer, just fill in 
and mail coupon below with 2 5c 
and your copy of the catalogue will 
be sent by return mail. 


Modern schools stay modern with RCA 

Tubes in their sound equipment. 

Trademarks "Victor" and "RCA Victor" Res- 
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You are cordially invited to visit the 
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Free new catalogue 


This catalogue contains complete 
listing of Victor Records avail- 
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It is arranged in convenient form 
for ready reference. Secure your 
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RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Camdan, N. J. • A S«rvic» of Radio Corp. of America 

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Page 71 

The Educational Screen 

children an understanding of the useful- 
ness and value of each creature. Units 
of work included the families of monke\s 
and apes, bears, game birds and the 
ruflfed grouse. 

Every period was subdivided into four 
parts : discussion, reading, film test. The 
sequence was rotated for each unit. The 
results of showing the film at different 
times within the period was measured by 
means of objective tests of the true- 
false type. Each of the rotation proce- 
dures was used twice : first, to obtain re- 
sults ; second, to verify the results ob- 
tained. In the iTiajority of cases there 
was little change in scores obtained on 
the tests. 

The conclusions reached from this 
study are: 1) that the showing of the 
film after the material had been read is 
superior to the utilization of it for mo- 
tivating purposes ; and 2) the use of the 
film after reading clarifies the printed 
matter better than the printed matter 
elucidates the film. These conclusions 
are valid only for one type of material 
and for one age level. 

Photoplay Appreciation 

What Shall We Do About Hatred.— 

by Alice V. Keliher — Progressive Edu- 
cation, 16:485-7 November, 1939 

In order to help young people to 
guard against the furious outbursts of 
hidden feeling and the hot-headed moves 
which result from restraints imposed on 
us by our mores, we as teachers can 
first understand the process in ourselves, 
and secondly we can help our young peo- 
ple to understand it. High school stu- 
dents are well able to understand the 
role of emotions in behavior. For ex- 
ample, these were some of the comments 
of high school students after seeing the 
excerpt of the motion picture "Fury," : 
"The tension, the awful waiting feeling, 
the growing excitement put everything 
out of the people's minds except the lust 
for revenge against someone, anyone." 
"It's just like going to war. Nobody is 
really against the enemy. But they will 
look for the slightest excuse to take out 
their anger on someone else." 

Such open study, through films, of the 
manipulation of human emotions should 
be widely encouraged since awareness of 
what is happening within us gives us 
some measure of control over what we 
do. Rather than being victims of our 
feelings, we can more and more direct 
them to useful channels. 

Group Discussion Guide — a monthly 
cumulative presentation of individual 
photoplay studies, replacing the indi- 
vidual guides previously issued. Rec- 
reational and Educational Guides, Inc. 
Rodm 1418, 1501 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y. $2.00 yearly. William 
Lewin, editor. 

This enlarged edition of the photo- 
play study guides which have previously 
been a great help to students and teachers 
furnishes excellent illustrations, study 
helps and background information in the 
form of production notes. Guides to The 

Hunchback of Notre Dame, Gulliver's 
Travels, The Great Victor Herbert, and 
Harvest are included in the January, 
1940 issue. 


Films — h quarterly of discussion and 
analvsis. Vol. 1, No. 1. Kamin Pub- 
lishers, 15 West S6th St., N.Y.C. $2.00 
year, 60c issue. November, 1939 

The appearance on the news stands 
of a new magazine Films gives promise 
of filling the gap in film literature created 
by the dissolution of Experimental 
Cinema and New Theatre {and Film). 
By the very simplicity of its format — 
almost severity — Films reveals the ser- 
iousness of its purpose. In its first is- 
sue, it has brought together some fine 
statements by leaders in the creative 
cinema movement. Professor Sawyer 
Falk of Syracuse University, opens the 
discussion on a metaphysical note, by 
which he indicates that there is a decency 
and humanitarianism in art, and especial- 
ly in the cinema art, which transcends 
any reformist campaign now in existence. 
He offers three ethical principles or 
"counter-rules against censorship," by 
which film makers might be guided if 
they are to meet the requirements of 
American morality. 

That the motion picture movement lost 
a guiding spirit in the premature death 
in 1933 of Harry Alan Potamkin is re- 
vealed by the manuscript printed in this 
issue of Films. Dr. Edgar Dale, in a 
series of annotations, points out the basic 
soundness of Potamkin's observations 
almost ten years ago, about the relation- 
ship of films to society, and of both to 
the impressionable minds of the young. 
The serious movie-goers who want some 
guidance in appreciating the creative 
technique in films, will find much of 
value in Cavalcanti's discussion on the 
use of sound (commentary, music, dia- 
logue, and natural sounds) in movies. 

This periodical is especially recom- 
mended to teachers of photoplay appre- 
ciation and to teachers interested in the 
social force of the movies. 

Motion Picture Number — Design, 41 : 
7-32 December, 1939 

This issue, as stated in the foreword 
by Felix Payant, is devoted entirely to 
the motion picture as a force in art edu- 
cation and an art whose implications are 
many and varied. 

Daniel M. Mendelowitz, Assistant 
Professor of Art Education at Stanford 
University, in his article "Motion Pic- 
tures and Art Education," sees the mo- 
tion picture as having "potentialities of 
being one of the most important educa- 
tional and cultural agencies of our time. 
This powerful artistic medium has cer- 
tain mechanical features which make it 
particularly effective as an instrument 
for mass education." 

Film production technique is discussed 
in a number of articles, namely, "ABC's 
of Movie Making," by Benjamin F. 
Farber, Jr., "Motion Pictures Come from 

a Design," by Evelyn S. Brown of the 
Harmon Foundation, "Scholastic Holly- 
woods," a description of movie-making 
activities at Central High School, 
Newark, New Jersey, by Alexander B. 
Lewis, and "A Modernized Cinderella," 
another student-made film, by Ruth 
Henry of San Diego. 

Reviews and news of artistic films, 
many striking illustrations, and a listing 
of educational films available for art 
education, complete this splendid num- 

Source Materials 

List of Free Films and Recommended 
Literature — compiled by Marian M. 
Wiersch, Nels Nelson and M. I. Smith. 
Visual Education Section, Northeast 
Division, Minnesota Education Associa- 
tion, October, 1939. 30 pp. mimeo. 
Available from M. I, Smith. High 
School, Hibbing, Minn, for 10 cents. 

A list of approximately one hundred 
free films recommended by the three 
members of the Visual Education Con- 
ference Literature Committee who have 
compiled the list, representing the schools 
of Duluth, Hibbing and Virginia, Minn. 
The films are arranged according to the 
Dewey Decimal Library classification, 
with screening time, silent or sound, date 
produced, distributor, a brief description 
of the film content, and recommended 
grade placement. 

A List of Films on Skiing — Lawrence 
E. Briggs, Secretary, Western Mass. 
Winter Sports Council. — Journal of 
Health and Physical Education. 11:36 
January, 1940 

Films are listed according to dis- 
tributors, with fairly complete informa- 
tion as to size, length and price. No at- 
tempt at annotation or evaluation. 

Sources of Free and Inexpensive Aids — 

Francis Feency, Creighton School, 
Phoenix, Ariz. — The Arizona Teacher, 
28:144 January, 1940 

An evaluated list of bibliographies 
which have appeared recently, dealing 
with materials from commercial sources. 
Subsequent listings by the same autho." 
will indicate government and professional 
sources that is, if interest in the field 

Visual Education — Paul Anderson, Dil- 
lon, Montana. Montana Education, 
16:9 December, 1939 

This is the first issue in which a 
page on visual education has been allo- 
cated. This was in response to a request 
from the Social Studies Sectional meet- 
ing of the Montana Education Associa- 
tion. An attempt will be made in this 
monthly section to exchang; experiences 
in visual education, to evaluate film use, 
and to list news notes. 

A short article by Robert Hamilton of 
Bozeman summarizes the proceedings at 
the Midwestern Forum held in Chicago 
last May. (Proceedings available from 
Educational Screen.) 

February, 1940 

Page 73 





Four Dramatic Travelogues That Belong in Every School Library, Featured in 



the ancient and the modern glories of the 
Eternal City which has made and is mak- 
ing history! See the great churches, the 
famed palaces! 

History — Geography — Current Events — Sociology — 
any number of classroom subjects come alive when 
illustrated by such expertly edited, comprehensive 
and yet inexpensive travelogue films as these! 
sochers will find the films listed above as well as 

the many other Castle Films on travel subjects of 
great value for both study and reference. The low 
cost of ownership of these films permits any school 
to build a comprehensive library of subjects for 
current and future use. 





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"On to Jupiter" — 2 reels 

March of Time's "Anti-Freeie — A Story of Scientific 

Research" — 2 reels 
"It's The Little Things That Count" — 3 reels 
"New England Yesterday and Today" — 2 reels 
— And Many Others — 
"The Cavalcade of Civilization" — Or "Are We Civilized" — 

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"Grand Illusion" — 10 reels 
"Explorers of the World" — 8 reels 
"Sli Revels"— I reel 

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The Educational Screen 

Perceptual Learning 

(^Concluded from page 50) 

Some guiding principles might be briefly stated as 
follows : 

1. No one type of material should be used to the ex- 
clusion of others. 

2. Too much material used at any one time may 
befog rather than clarify learning. 

3. Preparation for effective use of aids to perceptual 
learning is essential. Immediate "mental set" 
may cause an intellectually active attitude and 
prevent passive indifference. 

4. Materials should be an integral part of learning 
areas and should be definitely a part of well- 
organized teaching procedure. Requisitions for 
materials should contain evidence of the applica- 
tion of this principle. 

Will not some other readers of Educational Screen 
elaborate upon the ideas here presented? May there be 
abundant criticism of this brief presentation ! Mav 
we call particular attention to the term "perceptual 
learning" used instead of "visual instruction," "audio- 
visual instruction." "sensory aids" and similiar terms? 
Pro and con discussion should be enlightening. 

Everyone interested in education should examine 
himself to see if he is doing the best possible job. 
Are the schools of this country as good as they can be 
with our present knowledge of educational procedures 
and materials available to make educational procedures 

Benson, C. E., Lough, James E., et al. Psychology for 

Teachers, 1926, Ch. VII 
Book, W. F., Economy and Technique in Learning, 1923, 

Ch. XVII. 
Dewey, John, Logic The Theory of Inquiry, 1938, Ch. IV. 
Hartmann, George W., Gestalt Psychology, 1933, Ch. VI, VII, 

Hoban, C. F., Hoban, C. P., Jr., Zisman, S. B., Visualizing 

the Curriciili'm, 1937, Ch. I. 
Robinson, E. S.. Practical Psychology, 1926, Ch. VII, VIII. 
Stormzand, M. J., Progressive Methods of Teaching, 1924, 

Ch. IV. 

Three Methods of Using Motion Pictures 

(Coitinued from page 57) 
accorded to all, and the pre-tests were given twenty- 
four hours before the film presentation and the final 
test immediately after the film presentation in each case. 

The reliability coefficients of the six tests when given 
as pretests were as follows : Plant Grozvth .864, Plant 
Roots .899, Leaves .771, Flozvcrs at Work .705. Green 
Plant .905, Flower to Fruit .856 as determined by split 
test correlation and corrected by the Spearman-Brown 
formula. The reliability coefficients of the same tests 
when given as final tests, were Plant Growth .893, 
Plant Roots .903. Leaves .830. Flozvers at Work .826, 
Green Plant .901, Flower to Fruit .849. 

No attempt was made to determine the statistical 
validity of the tests but care was taken to see that they 
covered every item of importance in each film. An ex- 
perienced teacher of botany checked each test writh its 
respective film and also checked the authenticity of all 
the statements. 

4. Teaching Procedure — Pctrt I 

The lessons on the four first films: Plant Growth, 
Plant Roots, Leaves, and Flowers at Work were pre- 

February, 1940 

Page 75 

News Review of 1939 — Sport Parade of 1939 




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sented by the regular classroom teachers in the class- 
rooms regularly used. In all of these film presenta- 
tions with Group A and with the second film presenta- 
tion in each lesson with Group B the teachers used 
questions and outlines based on the film content. These 
had been prepared previously by the teachers themselves 
with the help of the writer. For all of the Groups: 
A, B. and C a list of questions on each film was pre- 
pared in advance by the writer for use in guiding the 
discussion during the period between the two film show- 
ings of each lesson. 

An outline of the procedure used in presenting the 
four talking pictures to the three pupil groups is given 
below : 
Group A 

1. Pre-test — twelve minutes. 

Orientation statement — two minutes. 
Presentation of film as a silent film accompanied 
with questions and discussion prepared and di- 
rected by the teacher — eleven minutes. 
Questions and discussion on film content — ten 

Presentation of film as a silent film the second 
time with additional questions and discussions led 
by the teacher, stressing points not previously 
understood — eleven minutes. 
6. Final test — twelve minutes. 
Group B 

1. Pre-test — twelve minutes. 

2. Orientation statement — two minutes. 

3. Presentation of film as a talking picture — eleven 

4. Questions and discussion of film content (Same 
as for Group A)^ten minutes. 

5. Presentation of film the second time but with 
sound from the projector shut ofif and accom- 
panied instead by questions and discussion — the 
same as with the second presentation to Group 
A — eleven minutes. 

6. Final test — twelve minutes. 
Group C 

1. Pre-test — twelve minutes. 

2. Orientation statement — two minutes. 

3. Presentation of the film as a talking picture — 
eleven minutes. 

4. Questions and discussion on film content (Same 
as for Groups A and B) — ten minutes. 

5. Presentation of the film the second time as a talk- 
ing or sound picture — eleven minutes. 

(Conlinticd on page 76) 

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Page 76 

The Educational Screen 

16MM. Sound Picture 



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A vivid presentation of the life of the 
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Story of 

6. Final test — twelve minutes. 

Froin the above outline of procedure it will be noted 
that the three groups were taught with the same mo- 
tion pictures and that the only difference in the presen- 
tation of the pictorial materials was in the oral ex- 
planatory accompaniment and class discussion during 
the actual showing of the films. Hence any diiTerence 
in results reasonably could be assumed to be due to the 
difference in the effectiveness of the three methods. 
5. Teaching Procedure — Part II 

In order to measure any differences in the effective- 
ness of the above mentioned methods in promoting the 
transfer of training all the pupils in the three groups 
were exposed subsequently to two silent films : The 
Green Plant and From Floiver to Fruit. As previously 
stated these films cover the same biological processes 
as the talking pictures but employ different kinds of 
plants. They contain the customary captions and other 
devices of silent films and are part of the Eastman 
Teaching Films series. They were presented to all of 
the groups at the same time in the high school audi- 
torium withont any instruction from the teachers other 
than a brief orientation statement before the showing. 

Since all three groups had these two films presented 
in the same manner any difference in gains between 
the three groups in this second part of the study 
might be assumed to be due to the difference in the 
three methods of presenting the first four films. The 
procedure with each of these two films was as follows : 

1. Pre-test — twelve minutes. 

2. Orientation statement including the reason for 
studying the film — two minutes. 

3. Presentation of film without any discussion — 
— fifteen minutes. 

4. Final test — twelve minutes. 


1. Sumstine, David. A ComparatkT Study of Visual Instruc- 
tion in the High .School. School and Society 7 :235-8. 
February 23, 1918. 

2. Freeman, F. N. and otliers. Visual Education. University 
of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1924. 

3. Weber, Jospeh J. Comparative Effectiveness of Some 
Visual Aids in Seventh Grade Instruction. Educational 
Screen, Inc. Chicago. 132 p. 1922. 

4. Wood, Ben D. and Freeman, Frank N. Motion Pictures 
in the Classroom. Houghton Mifflin Company. New 
York. 392 p. 1929. 

5. Knowlton, Daniel C. and Tilton, J. Warren. Motion 
Pictures in History Teaching. Yale University Press. 
184 p. 1929. 


February, 1940 

Page 77 



For Screen Projection 


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1A50 Broadway Dcpt. E New York City 

6. Knowlton, Daniel C. and Tilton, J. Warren. Auditorium 
Versus Classroom Slwti.'ing of Motion Pictures in History 
Teaching. Journal of Educational Psychology, 23:663-70. 
December, 1932. 

7. Hansen. John Elmore. The Effect of Educational Motion 
Pictures upon the Retention of Information Learnint/. 
Journal of Experimental Education 2:1-4. September, 1933. 

8. Clark, Clarence C. Sound Motion Pictures as an Aid in 
Classroom Teaching. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. School of 
Exlucation, New York University. 1932. 

9. Arnspiger, Varney C. Measuring the Effectivness of 
Sound Pictures as Teaching Aids. Contributions to Edu- 
cation, No. 565. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, 
Columbia University. New York. 157 p. 1933. 

10. Rulon, Phillip Justin. The Sound Motion Picture in Science 
Teaching. Harvard Studies in Education, Vol. 20. Har- 
vard University Press. 236 p. 1933. 

11. Westfall, Leon H. A Study of Verbal Accompaniments to 
Educational Motion Pictures. Contributions to Education, 
No. 617. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Co- 
lumbia University, New York. 1934. 

12. Hansen, John Elmore. The Verbal Accompaniment of the 
Educational Film — The Recorded Voice versus the Voice 
of the Classroom Teacher. Journal of Experimental Edu- 
cation 5: 1-6. September, 1936. 

(Chapters IV and V, giving results and conclusions, will 
appear in our March issue, completing the thesis.) 

Safety Education 

(Concluded from page 63) 

street.s filled with young cyclists. Since they use 
the streets and go where cars go, these young 
"drivers" should be subjected to the same regula- 
tions a.s an auto operator. Perhaps at first the child 
is reluctant to observe these rules, hut if he is told 
how accidents occur by going through a stop light 
or an intersection without stopping, he will readily 
see the necessity of obeying the rules. There is 
such a glow of satisfaction in a youngster when 
he pull.-5 up to a red light alongside an auto and 
stops, then goes on when the light changes, that 
children soon enjoy following the same rules older 
persons obey. Not only is there the satisfaction 
in emulating an auto operator, but basically, the 
youngster is practicing safety first. 

Through introspective data and personal investi- 
gation of the individual, the teacher can find the 
child's attitude towards this vital subject. If he has 
the proper mental set, his reaction should show an 
interest and a desire to learn more of the importance 
of safety. This writer believes that if children 
make, see, and discuss the individual safety slides, 
they will gain tnental pictures, images, and lasting 
impressions of certain safety practices which are 
fundamentallv vital in their dailv lives and activities. 

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— N. Y. Post 


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. . . stirring human document of a sturdy island 

folk waging a losing struggle for existence 

in which youth forces a break with age-old 


"Magnificent"— N. Y. Times 

"Ranks with 'Man of Aran " — World Telegram 

"An enormously absorbing, memorable and mag- 
nificently performed entertainment which you will 
not easily forget." — Herald Tribune 

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American Library Association Holds 
Visual Instruction Conferences 

The Midwest Conference of the American Li- 
brary Association, held December 27-30 in Chicago de- 
voted two days and two evenings to the consider- 
ation of motion pictures and other "non-reading' 
materials. One session was held jointly by th( 
School Libraries and the Teacher-Training Librar- 
ies sections of the Association of College and Refer- 
ence Libraries. It was marked by an address anc 
equipment demonstrations by Dr. M. Lanning 
Shane, of Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville 
the program including a round talkie discussion or 
"A Library Centered Audio-Visual Program. 

The remainder of the work was conducted jointlj 
by the Publicity Committee and the Visua 
Methods Committee of the A.L..A. Guest speakei 
here was Mr. John Devine, .Assistant Directoi 
of the American Films Center. In each case th( 
audience numbered several hundred, and seeme( 
most receptive to the new types of material, offeree 
for the first time at this A.L.A. conference. 

According to Mrs. Beatrice Sawyer Rossell. hea( 
of A.L.A. publicity activities, the present activ( 
interest in motion pictures was inspired, to a con 
siderable extent, bj' the reception accorded in botl 
library and school circles to the two-reel silent filn 
Found In A Book, produced by tlie Library Schoo 
of the University of Illinois, and distriliuted for th 
A.L.A. by Bell & Howell. Two of this year's film 
were on the same field, with healthy emphasis oi 
results of effective library utilization, rather thai 
on internal library methodics. Several of the film 
were of the institutional type, made to bring horn 
to the local community the good work done liy th 
local library, despite physical handicaps that shoul( 
be removed. In one case a pointed comparison wa 
made with the better building and equipment facili 
ties enjoyed by the library in the adjoining towr 
A very effective original 16mm. sound film, mad 
on the "documentary" pattern, showed the activitie 
of the Sarah Lawrence School for Girls in terms o 
human aims and achievements, rather than in thi 
stereotyped campus-classroom-dormitory type c 
building review that characterizes so many institu 
tional films made l:)y schools. Two of the sevei 
films shown were professionally produced, the re 
mainder made by amateur producers. In technics 
standard, they show encouraging progress. 

Considerable discussion concerned itself with th' 
possible future functions of present-day librarie 
as film distribution centers. The routines workei 
out for the handling of printed matter are readil; 
applicable to film, it was pointed out. The genera 
interest and the forward-looking attitude of the en 
tire meeting promises real contributions to the ad 
vancement of visual instruction. 

(Contrthutcd h\ William F. Kruse 

^February, 1940 

Page 79 


I Northwestern University Film Programs 

A new educational technique, combining the use of 
documentary fihns and the Town Hall type of dis- 
cussion, will be experimentally inaugurated at North- 
western University during the second semester. Six 
programs will be presented by the University college 
in Thorne hall on the Chicago campus. Dean Samuel 
Stevens has announced. They will be concerned with 
vital contemporary American problems, illustrated by 
films and utilizing as discussion leaders Dr. Irving 
T. Lee, of the speech division of the University college, 
and visiting experts. The programs will be open free 
to students enrolled in the college, and open on pay- 
ment of a small fee to the general iiublic. Topics to be 
discussed are Democracy and Education. February 21 ; 
Propaganda. March 13; War and Peace, March 27. 
Unemployment. April 10 ; The People's Wealth, April 
24. and Free Speech. May 8. 

Films to be used in the series come from a great 
variety of sources. Documentary productions from 
the National Association of Manufacturers and the 
Tashkent Textile cooperative of Soviet Russia, from 
the United States navy and from peace societies, from 
Gaumont-British's new documentary studio and from 
the March of Time, will be shown. In addition one pro- 
gram will consist of cut scenes from Hollywood films. 

Texas Visual Education Facts 

We arc indebted to Mr. C. F. Reagan of the Texas 
Visual Education Company, Austin, for the following 
interesting news items. 

Over 700 superintendents, principals, supervisors 
and teachers w^ere enrolled in Texas summer schools in 
he summer of 1939 for Visual Education courses. 
A.udio- Visual Education Conferences were held dur- 
ng the same summer at Abiline Christian College, Sam 
Houston State Teachers College, and Texas Tech- 
lological College. 

A Film Library Service is now available for Texas 
schools from Texas Technological College, Lubbock; 
University of San Antonio, San Antonio ; University 
ti Texas, Austin ; West Texas Teachers College, 
Zanyon ; and Sam Houston State T. C. Huntsville. 
\bout 25 school systems in East Texas have organized 
he East Texas Bureau of Visual Education located at 
•Cilgore Junior College, with a library of over 140 

Ten Best" Theatrical FUms lor Year 

"Goodbye. Mr. Chips," made by MGM in England, 
vas selected the best picture of 1939 by reviewers par- 
ictpating in the annual Film Daily poll, receiving 472 
if the 542 votes cast. Other selections were, in order : 
'Mr. Smith Goes to Washington." Columbia; "Pyg- 
nalion." made in England by MGM; "Wuthering 
ieights." a Samuel Goldwyn production for United 
Vrtists; "Dark Victory," Warner: "The Women." 
vIGM ; "The \\'izard of Oz," MGM ; "Juarez." War- 
ier; "Stanlev and Livingstone." Twentieth-Centurv 
■ox; "The Old Maid," Warner. 

Li/^Z'^LUJHm Are there 
enough Instructional Sound Films 
available to warrant slartintt an 
audio-visual program in my school? 

■ 'l^ IAj t> f • Erpi Classroom 
Films has produced approximately 
one hundred fifty Sound Films spe- 
cifically for classroom use and is 
continuing to produce at the rate 
of twenty-four subjects per year. 



In sharp contrast to the situation of only a few 
years ago, Erpi Classroom Films Inc. now offers 
to your school a comprehensive library of sound 
films. Produced under the sponsorship of lead- 
ing educators— made solely for classroom use— 
these films incorporate the finest modern photo- 
graphy and the most modern teaching technique. 

Subjects covered include the Biological Sci- 
ences, the Physical Sciences, Human Geography, 
Music, Art, Athletics, Child Psychology, Voca- 
tional Guidance — for use from primary grades 
through high school. 

Send the coupon today for full details on these 
modern aids to more effective teachinir! 

See our exhibit at the NEA Convention, 
St. Louis, Booths L29-30, K32-34 

Erpi Classroom Films Inc. 



35-11 T)iirty-firth Avenue, Long Jutland City. N. Y. 

Gentlemen : Please Bend me your complete descriptive ratalog and your 
sperial Integration Chart which stiDwa graphically how each film can be used 
in a number of d.flerent citiirse^. 



Page 80 

The Educational Screen 

Cuzxdnt \jiLni ^\Uvj^ 

Espi Classroom Films Inc., 35-11 35th 
Avenue, Long Island City, New York, 
announce the availability of many 
new educational sound films to 
schools and colleges throughout the 
country. These films round out a 
broad production program carried on 
during 1939 and cover a wide range 
of subjects. Among them are the fol- 

Goats — Follows two baby goats 
through their early development periods 
and shows the feeding, milking and 
care of mature goats. 

Shep, the Farm Dog — Beautiful out- 
door scenes form the settings as Shep 
goes through a busy day of herding 
cattle and routing chickens from the 
garden. Portrays wholesome boy-dog 

Black Bear Twins — Provides an un- 
usual insight into the surroundings and 
characteristics of these popular animals. 

Children of Holland — Authentic re- 
cording of child life in that quaint 

The Fireman — Presents the activities 
of a company of firemen in a modern 
city. Care of equipment, drills, life sav- 
ing devices are stressed. 

The Pygmies of Africa — Filmed in 
cooperation with governmental and tri- 
bal authorities. 

The Watussi of Africa — Portrays a 
highly developed African culture which 
few people have had an opportunity to 

Mexican Children — ^A vivid picture of 
the home, school and social environment 
of our interesting neighbors. 

Colonial Children — A picturesque vis- 
ualization of colonial home life in all 
its aspects. 

PicT0Ri.\L Films, Inc, 1650 Broadwaj-, 
New York, offer for sale or rental : 
Industrious Finland — 1 reel, 16mm 
sound — Photographed just previously to 
the outbreak of Russian-Finnish hostili- 
ties, the film does not portray a people 
under stress of this conflict, but tlie .sinews 
of that nation which now play a major 
part in this struggle for existence. Fin- 
land's progressive agriculture is shown — 
her inexhaustible timber — her nickel 
mining at Petsamo — her artistic pottery 
and china — her beautiful cities, Helsinki 

and Viborg her ancient history — her 

culture, her people. An off-stage com- 
mentator and a musical score by the 
great Finnish composer Jan Sibelius ac- 
company the film. 

Bailey Film Service. 1651 Cosmo Street, 
Hollywood, California, have com- 
pleted five new nature study films in 
sound, and seven silent color pic- 
tures among their "Educational Films 
of Merit." These nature-study films. 
termed Trailside Adventures by their 
exclusive distributors, were produced 
by Arthur C. Barr, well-known nat- 
uralist. Titles are : 

Cooper Hawk, Horned Owl, Road- 
runner, Sparrow Hawk, The Kangaroo 
Rat and His Associates — biographical 
studies of the entire life cycles of these 
birds and, in the last mentioned film, of 
smaller animals. These subjects make 
an important edition to the various 
science courses. 

Color is also playing an important 
part in the Bailey spring releases, as 
indicated by the production of the fol- 
lowing color films on the United States 
Natural Parks and three others : 

Yellowstone, Mt. Rainier, Glacier, 
Yosemite (offered individually or as a 
kit). China, Missions of California, 

Castle Films, Rockefeller Center, New 
York City, have issued their new 1940 
film catalog for 16mm (silent and 
sound) and 8mm projectors. The films, 
as shown by the 
index, are 
grouped accord- 
ing to general 
subject classifica- 
tions : sports, 
news, travel, car- 
toons, novelties, 
etc. Each release 
is described as 
to contents and 
illustrated with 
one or more pic- 
tures. Among the 
new subjects are : 

Sports Parade of the Year 1939 — 

Annual review of outstanding sports 
events during the year, showing cham- 
pions winning their titles. 

Football Thrills of 1939 — A panorama 
of the season's greatest thrills, showing 

lieadline plays of top-notch games. 

Ski Revels — Skiing at its best amid 
scenes of amazing beauty. 

Sock — Demonstrating the art of self- 

A scene from "Golden Gate City' 

defense by tomorrow's champions. 

Swimming and Diving Aces — Slow 
motion studies of great divers. 

Golden Gate City — A tour through 
San Francisco, showing its new bridges, 
Dolores Mission, Chinatown, Fisher- 
man's Wharf, etc. 

Desert Wild Flowers— each 200 feet 
and retail for only slightly more than 
black-and-white film. They are also 
available for rent from Bailey Film 
Service and libraries in different sec- 
tions of the country, names of which 
will be sent on request. 

Garrison- Film Distributors Inc., 1600 
Broadway, New York City, have ob- 
tained for distribution the first sound 
motion picture of a Nobel Prize 
Winner doing the experiments for 
which he was awarded the Nobel 
Prize, namely : 

Dr. Langmuir — 16mm and 3Smm 
sound — Showing Dr. Irving Langmuir 
of the General Electric Company and 
his researches in surface chemistry 
which resulted in his becoming the first 
industrial chemist in this nation to re- 
ceive the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 
1932. This film was produced and di- 
rected by Edmund Lawrence Dorfman, 
President of the American Institute of 
Motion Pictures, for the New York 
World's Fair Science and Education 
Committee, headed by Dr. Gerald 
Wendt. and is the first of a projected 
series which it is hoped will bring to 
the screen four other great American 
scientists who have been awarded the 
Nobel Prize — Dr. Urey of Columbia 
University, Dr. Davisson of the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, Dr. Compton 
of the University of Chicago, and Dr. 
Millikan of California Technology. The 
Langmuir film is available for rental 
or purchase. 

Post Pictures, 723 Seventh Ave., New 

York City, report that : 

King of the Sierras — 16mm sounds 
has been highly recommended for chil- 
dren by the Legion of Decency and the 
National Board of Review. This is one 
of many films on which Post Pictures 
has 16mm exclusive distribution rights. 

Washington, the Most Beautiful City 
in the World — 2 reels — is another re- 
cent addition to this library. 

Walter O. Gutlohn. Inc., 35 W. 45th 

Street. New York City, offer many 

new releases this month, including 

twelve Monogram feature films in 

16mm sound : 

Boys' Reformatory — 6 reels — A por- 
trayal of a youtli who finds himself 
fighting crime from the inside of a re- 
form school: starring Frankie Darro. 

Undercover Agent — 6 reels — .\ story 
of the L^. S. Postal inspectors' fight 
against crime ; featuring Russell Glea- 
son and Shirley Deane. 

Wolf Call — 7 reels — Jack London's 
story of the X^orthland featuring John 
Carroll and Movita. 

Stunt Pilot — 7 reels — .\irplane film 
based on the Tailspin Tommy cartoon 
strip with John Trent and Marjorie 

Tex Ritter Musical Westerns: "Roll- 
in' Westward," "Man from Texas," 
"Down the Wyoming Trail" and five 
others complete the Monogram list. 

Camera Highlights of 1939 — 1 reel, 
16mm sound — A review of the great 

I February, 1940 

Page 81 

New Sound Projector Offers 
. ^^ Value For Schools ! 

Complete mixing of sound from film, micro- 
phone and phonograph — Permanently attached 
reel arms — Ample volume for audiences rang- 
ing from a classroom to a large auditorium — 
And many other outstanding features .... 

Model UAB 

Why this improved Ampro Projector is ideal for Schools . . . 

This new Ampro 16 mm. Sound Projector Model UAB offers 
remarkable adaptability to the varying demands of school 
Audio-Visual programs. At unusually low price levels you 
can obtain all the standard Ampro features plus basic new 
improvements that make this model an outstanding value. 
These features include: Soundproofed blimp case . 
double action tone control . . . projector volume control and 
microphone volume control which permits complete mixing ot 
sound from film, microphone and phonograph . . . master 
\olume control which permits reduction of extraneous noises 
in low position and gives reserve amplification in high posi- 
tions . . . attached folding reel arms . . . sound and silent 
speeds . . . rheostat control . . . reverse picture operation 
. . . still pictures . . . new amplifier conforming with new 

R.M.A. tube ratings which operate the tubes with a larger 
factor of safety . . . 6L6 Beam Power tubes with three triode 
driver tubes insure high output and low distortion without 
overloading ... all tubes easily accessible . . . forced draft 
ventilation on amplifier . . . A.C.-D.C. motor . . . 50-60 
cycle amplifier (operates on D.C. with 150-watt converter) 
. . . 2-inch F 1.6 super lens (all sizes interchangeable) . . . 
750-watt illumination . . . automatic rewind . . . pilot and 
dial lamps . . . lens lock ... up and down tilt . . . 
framer . . . centralized oil well . . . 12-inch deluxe speaker. 
Model UAB — Complete with sound-proofed blimp case... $365 
Model UA — Same as model UAB but without blimp case. $345 
Send coupon for full detailed information. 

Page 82 

The Educational Screen 


Pictorial Adaptations of the 
Immortal Poems of 


A Series of 13 Single-Reel 
Subjects on 16 mm. Sou nd Film 

"ThTRGHT for 

Documentary Historical 


7-Reel F eature — 16mm. S . O. F. 


Exceptionally intimate and all 
embracing World Travelogues. 

A Series of 31 Single-Reel 
16mm. Subjects — Sound or Silent 

"KING of the 

An Epic Dramatization of an 
Old Ranger's Humane Phil- 
osophy. A Revelation of 

Equine Wild Life. 
6-Reel Feature — 16mm. S . O. F. 


Australian Nature Drama — 
Absorbing Tale of Kangaroos. 
6-Reel Feature — 16mm. S. O. F. 

Other Subjects in Wide 

Variety — 

Catalog on Request 


723 Seventh At*. 
New York City 


In the educational sound films. TERRITORIAL EXPANSION 
and TERRITORIAL POSSESSIONS, the romance of our excit- 
ing history is retold. 

covers the growth of our country from the Revolutionary War 
through the Gadsden Purchase. 

carries our history onward, beginning with Seward's Folly and 
finishing with the purchase of the Virgin Islands. 

Not only were these films made to instruct, but also to create 
an interest in American history. An interest so magnetic that 
the student's desire to learn would bring knowledge of the 
greatness of this country and, appreciation of the freedom 
that is ours. 



events of the past year, including the 
visit of British royalty, Coronation of 
Pope Pius XII, bombing of Helsinki 
and the Graf Spec incident. 

Rice Culture — 2 reels, 16mni silent. 
Bell & Howell Company, 1801 Larch- 
mont Avenue, Chicago, are now dis- 
tributing the 1940 edition of the Filmo- 
sound Library Catalog just off the 
press. The new 92-page film book is 
larger than last year's catalog, listing 
400 more films on a vast variety of 
subjects : Hollywood features, nature 
subjects, comedies, newsreels, films on 
history, travel, industry, religion, ad- 
venture, music, sport, teacher training. 
Descriptions and rental prices are 
given, and the audience-suitability of 
each picture indicated. A new feature 
is the addition of ratings on those films 
which have been evaluated by official 
teaching bodies. The catalog is of 
standard letter size and is "binder 
ptmched." Bell & Howell will be glad 
to send a copy of the book without 
charge to all owners of 16mm sound 
projectors, upon registration in the Bell 
& Howell files. 

DeVry School Films 

The circuit service of 16mm educational 
sound pictures distributed by DeVry 
School Films, a subsidiary of the DeVry 
Corporation", 1111 Armitage Avenue, 
Chicago, while not new in principle, is a 
new development with sound educational 
films. The plan makes it possible for 

(1) a group of schools to rent or pur- 
chase a 16mm sound projector and a 
complete program of educational films, or 

(2) if schools own projectors, to work 
out a cooperative Visual Education pro- 
gram with motion pictures, without the 
necessity of being obliged to take a 
"block" or a "schedule" of subjects, the 
dates and subjects of which are selected 
by the distributor. By permitting the 
member schools to select the films they 
want at the time they want them, the 
DeVry plan eliminates the severest ob- 
jection to this type of service. 

Circuit Plan No. 1 requires a group of 
schools to contract to rent a 16mm sound 
projector and a minimum of 40 educa- 
tional films over a period of one school 
year. Circuit Plan No. 2 is a plan where- 
by two or more schools may contract to 
buy a projector and rent any number 

of educational films (minimum of 20) 
during the school year. 

Another feature is the complete study 
outlines furnished with each subject. 
These outlines are sent out before the 
films, thus enabling the teachers to pre- 
pare their pupils for the film lesson. The 
outlines give in detail the content of the 
film lesson with detailed instruction as to 
how to present the lesson so that maxi- 
mum teaching results may follow. 

Each subject in the DeVry School Film 
Library is selected for its teaching value, 
and new subjects are added monthly. 
DeVry School Films produces one or 
more new subjects each month besides 
purchasing new subjects from other pro- 
ducers. A catalogue descriptive of the 
service and listing the films available 
may be had upon request. 

Film Reviews 

The Conquest of the Air — 4 reels, 16mm 
sound — Produced and distributed by 
Films, Inc., 330 W. 42nd St., New 
York City. 
A very new and noteworthy addition 
to the field of "educational documenta- 
ries," covering its subject skillfully and 
completely by expert selection of contents, 
and by a quality technique thoroughly 
professional in photography, animation, 
vocal narrative, and background music 
throughout. It presents authentic histor- 
ical data in a form to compel tense and 
interested attention from any audience. 

"Conquest of the Air" offers a forty- 
five minute survey of the facts of flight, 
from the first flyer — Pterodactyl of the 

Machine used by Santos-Dumont 

late Reptilian Age — down to date. It 
marshalls in chronological succession the 
discoveries and dreams, plans and achieve- 
ments, of Archimedes the Greek, the 

Chinese kite-makers, Leonardo da Vinci, 
Professor Charles, Cayley, Mongolfier, 
Hargrave, Santos-Dumont, Count Zeppe- 
lin, the German gliders, the Wrights, 
Bleriot, and many another. Extant prints 
and drawings from remote periods are 
reproduced, and expert motion picture 
photography covers the modern actual- 
ities. Most of the picture is naturally con- 
cerned with the last forty years of amaz- 
ing progression in power and design of 

ijlut^jitn ^^\ 

The Atlantic Clipper 

machines, pioneer feats, ocean crossings, 
globe circlings, altitude flying, polar 
flights, all marking swift progress toward 
ultimate mastery of the air by man. 

Lighter-than-air flight is first treated 
as a unit, from the earliest hot-air bal- 
loons through Zeppelins and blimps, the 
Shenandoah, the Akron, the Macon, and 
finally to the Hindenburg disaster, bring- 
ing a great temporary lull in lighter-than- 
air activity. Then, heavier-than-air, from 
the beginning, through numerous weird 
attempts funny, fantastic, futile, but 
significant, through the constructive ef- 
forts of the Wrights, Curtiss, Lavasseur, 
Lindbergh, Law, Chamberlain. Byrd, 
Costes, Nungesser, Earhart, Balbo, Gatty, 
Post, and down to the latest 50,000 
pound, two-decker transports and sub- 
stratosphere planes of today. 

Splendid animation makes clear the 
dynamics of wing-lift. Vital flight 
mechanisms and methods, monoplanes, bi- 
planes, multiplanes, wind tunnels, light 
beacons, radio beams, servicing methods, 
land field operations are vividly shown 
and explained. The elaborate Govern- 
ment training for flyers is presented in 
full detail — glider operation, ground 
school, radio school, acrobatics, mass for- 
mations, blind flying, pursuit planes and 
flying fortresses. And the absorbing 


February, 1940 

Page 83 


(PRI MARY)— This safety film for children in 
the first three grades illustrates safety practices 
for children in the home — care of playthings; 
hazards of climbing on unsteady furniture; fire, 
and the handling of matches; protruding nails; 
loose rugs, etc. Vz reel — $12. 


safety film for children in the first three grades. 
Contrasts safe and unsafe places to play; safety 
in the use of play equipment; good habits in play; 
proper care of the playground; and first aid for 
minor injuries. Vz reel — $12. 


safety film for use in grades four to six, and in 
junior high schools. The film units are: (1) 

Water Safety in an Organized Camp — good 
swimming precautions. (2) Boating — correct 
methods of handling boats. (3) Safe Condi- 
tions in Camp — the dangers from broken glass 
and from poison ivy. (4) The Campfire — cor- 
rect methods of building and extinguishing 
campfires. 1 reel — $24. 

In addition to the three new Safety pictures out- 
lined above, Eastman Classroom Films on Health 
also include Bacteria . . .The Blood . . . Breathing 
. . .The Living Cell . . . Child Care . . . Circulation 
. . . Cleanliness . . . Digestion . . . First Aid . . . Food 
and Growth . . . Home Nursing . . . Muscles . . . 
Posture . . .Teeth . . . and 2 1 others. Write Eastman 
Kodak Company, Teaching Films Division, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Eastman Classroom Films 

Page 84 

history concludes with strong emphasis on 
American supremacy in the air, on im- 
minent expansion to be expected, and 
frank admission that no limits can be set 
for air achievement of the future. N.L.G. 

The Edge of the World— 7reels, 16mm 
sound — Distributed by Common- 
wealth Pictures Corp., 729 Seventh 
Avenue, New York City. 
North of Scotland, wrapped in Atlan- 
tic mists and storms, stand countless 
rugged islands, among them Hirta. Sup- 
posedly this was the island glimpsed by 
the Romans circumnavigating England 
and named by them Ultima Thule, the 
uppermost land of the world. Today 
rocky Hirta stands in majestic desola- 
tion, a forbidding mass of frowning cliffs 
and scanty soil, tenantless but for hardy 
sea birds. Yet Hirta was long inhabited, 
up to recent times, by a sturdy Scotch' 
folk as rugged as their island. They were 
the product of generations of struggle 
for life against impossible handicaps of 
heartless nature, and had grown staunch, 
strong, intrepid from the conflict. They 
wrung a comfortless living from air, sea 
and man-made soil, raised sheep, goats 
and Shetland ponies, wheat and hardy 
vegetables, with occasional imports from 
the mainland to eke out the necessities of 
existence. Homes and buildings they 
built of native stone, laboriously quarried 
and laid by their own horny hands, and 
these still stand on the dreary heights 
of Hirta, empty, windowless but eloquent 
and still strong. Work, a little play, love 
and endless hardships made up "life" for 
these stout-fibered, deeply religious 
people. They lived it hard and long. 
Hirta was "home." They loved it and 
would not change for the "comforts and 
advantages" of civilization. Their fine 
old faces, seamed and leathered by work 
and weather, reflected their uncompromis- 
ing will, their fortitude of their utter 
devotion to their Hirta homeland. That 
life, with its problems and struggles, is 
now lived through again to the end in 
the notable sound motion picture. The 
Edge of the IVorld. 

This exceptional film, a "Man of Aran" 
in epic dimensions, pictures powerfully 
grimly, vividly the last year of Hirta's 
human habitation. It is character drama 
rich in human interest and stern truth.' 
The call of civilization is spelling the 
doom of life on Hirta. Young men 
are drawn to visit the mainland, learn that 
life may yield more comforts, and do not 
return. Hirta's population dwindles. 
Harvest shrinks for lack of working 
hands. The losing struggle centers round 
the sons of the two Nestors of the colony. 
Accidental tragedy comes to one family, 
and unrelenting bitterness to the other.' 
As a consequence, dramatically true and 
very delicately handled, a baby is born 
out of wedlock. And the adorable baby 
gradually brings the denouement by melt- 
ing down the bitterness, harmonizing the 
warring elements, and making possible 
the final momentous and unanimous de- 
cision for exodus from Hirta. The long 
heroic cycle of human life on the island 
ends and rocky Hirta returns to its lone- 
ly isolation amid the Atlantic's mists 
and storms. N.L.G. 

The Educational Screen 

czrfmong ikz ^xoduas.%± 

RCA New Sound Projector 

The RCA Manufacturing Company, 
Camden, New Jersey, has announced a 
new 16mm sound motion picture pro- 
jector, called Model PG-170, designed 
specifically for use among schools and 
by industrial users of 16tnm films. De- 
veloped by the same RCA Photophone 
engineers who have designed 35mm equip- 
ment now in use in large production 
studios and theatres, this 16mm projector, 
priced at $300, is said to meet the ex- 
acting requirements of theatrical projec- 
tion at moderate cost. 

Simplified in construction to provide 
ease of operation, the new machine has 
many features which are especially in- 

teresting to schools. These include : brill- 
iant projection with 7S0-watt lamp; 10- 
watt output sound with push-pull ampli- 
cation; simplified threading; theatrical 
framing with no change of projector 
position; efficient cooling. The machine's 
sound reproduction is accomplished with 
RCA stabilized sound, with the sound 
drum mounted on shielded ballbearings; 
and an electro-dynamic speaker mounted 
in separate case. The sound is sufficient 
for any classroom or average school 
auditorium. Other interesting features 
are : separate motor for film take-up and 
rewind which is adjustable to provide 
proper tension for 400 to 1600-foot reels ; 
sound and silent film projection speeds 
with governor-controlled motor, easy 
cleaning of aperture gates; provision for 
using microphone; connection for record 
players; variable tone control; and ex- 
treme portability, the projector and 
speaker together weighing 59 pounds. 

S.O.S. Expansion 

S.O.S. Cinema Supply Corp. has taken 
over International Theatre Accessories 
Corp., with which S.O.S. was affiliated 
for years. The two concerns jointly occu- 
pied the premises at 636 Eleventh Ave- 
nue in Manhattan, where they manu- 
factured and distributed a varied line of 
theatre equipment. There will be no 
change in the officers or the directors 

under the new set-up. S.O.S. recently 
absorbed the business of Consolidated 
Theatre Supply Corp., and is now nego- 
tiating the acquisition of another equip- 
ment manufacturer said to be in business 
since 1922. 

Ampro Offers 8mm Projector 

The .Ampro Corporation. 2839 N. 
Western .Avenue, Chicago, have just 
introduced a new 8mm projector Model 
A-8, the first machine of this size to be 
manufactured by this company. The new 
model incorporates many fine features in 
design and construction, among them 
being: a still picture lever, reverse 
picture operation, automatic safety shutter 
and rewind, efficient cooling system, 400 
foot reel capacity, 500 watt illumination, 
automatic fire shutter, reel-locking de- 
vice, pilot light, centralized controls, easy 
threading, quite operation, optical system 
corrected for color films. It has a 1" 
F 1.6 objective lens, and operates on both 
AC and DC 100-125 volts. 

Keystone Science Units 

Three new units in their Elementary 
Science series of lantern slides and ster- 
eographs, each consisting of 25 subjects, 
are being offered by Keystone View 
Company, Meadville, Pa. The photog' 
raphy is all new, being the work of 
Arthur E. Eldridge. The unit on "Butter- 
flies" is furnished all in color only. The 
stereographs of the units on "Insects" 
and "Moths" are plain. Both these units 
are furnished either with eight slides in 
color or all slides in color. The . units 
previously published in the Elementary 
Science series are "Birds," "Wild Flow- 
ers," and "Trees." i 

For teachers seeking timely material 
on Finland, Keystone recommends their 
Geography Unit No. 32. All the stereo- 
graphs and slides in this unit were re- 
produced from negatives made in Finland 
two years ago by Major Sawders. A 
teachers' manual accompanies the unit. 

New Filmo Master 8 Projector £ 

Just announced is the Filmo Master 
8 Projector, latest product of the Bell 
& Howell Company, 1801 Larchmont 
Avenue, Chicago. The new machine is 
fundamentally the same as its prede- 
cessor, the Model 122 Filmo 8, but it said 
to be greatly refined and improved. New | 
features are: rack-and-pinion tilt, where- ' 
by the picture is positioned simply by I 
turning a knob; centralized switch panel, 
with separate controls for both lamp and 
motor mounted on the base of the pro- 
jector; tripod socket beneath the base; 
radio interference eliminator; lens-lock, 
as on Filmo 16mm. projectors, permitting 
the projection lens to be locked firmly 
in position after it is focused. Like its 
predecessor, the Filmo Master 8 has the 
B & H film-protecting side-tension fea- 
ture, all-gear drive, electric rewind, still 
picture clutch, framing device, and ability 
to take 300-, 400-, or 500-watt lamps. 

February, 1940 

Page 8 5 


Have Built-In-Blower 
Cooling System 

Located in the forepart of the 
base, out of the operator's way, 
the Built-In-Blower Cooling 
System forces a current of cold 
air over the opaque material 
being projected and out through 
the vents at the top of the 
Balopticon, thereby cooling the 
entire interior. Opaque mate- 
rial can be shown for as long 
as desired without harm. Inde- 
pendent switches are provided 
for illuminant and cooling 
system, wiring is concealed. 



The new Balopticons ERM and LRM are in step long and trouble-free service, brilliant, sharp screen 
with modern teaching procedures. These new models images, and ample provision for using effeaively 
have all the features essential to ease in operation, the wide variety of available teaching material. 


Slides and Opaque Material 

Balopticon LRM is a combined slide and opaque 
projector with balanced illumination to avoid eye- 
strain. No great change in image brightness occurs 
when switching from one to the other nor is it 
necessary to move the Balopticon. 

Listed models differ only in projection lens equip- 
ment. The 14 inch focus lens permits a projeaion 
distance of 18 to 20 feet. With the 18" focus lens, 
the projection distance may be as great as thirty 
feet, if used in a well-darkened room. 


Opaque Material Only 

Balopticon ERM enables the teacher to project a 
vast amount of illustrative material, such as photo- 
graphs, post cards, printed pages or pictures, stamps, 
maps, charts, drawings ; or even solid objeas, such as 
geological or biological specimens, coins, and curios. 

The ERM Balopticon is noteworthy for brilliance 
of image and keenness of definition, especially 
important in taking notes and maintaining dis- 
cipline, and showing fine detail on the screen. 


Both the KRM and L.RM Balopticons have the new spring: actuated 
holder for opaque material, which can be operated from either side 
or the back. It is free from any projection. This design permits 
use of selected 6"x6%" areas from much larger material. Large 
door at the side provides access to the pi'ojection chamber for solid 
objects which can not be introduced conveniently otherwise. 

Send for folder which describes these two new Balopticons in detail. 
Baitsch & Lomb Optical Co., 688 St. Paul Street, Rochester, N. Y. 



Page 86 

The Educational Screen 

LyA^: \jiLm c^±timatE± 

B«uig the Combined Judgments of o National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 
(A) Discriminatmg Adults (Y) Youth (C) Cluldren 

Date oi mailing on weekly service is shown on each Hbn. 

Bad Little Angel (V. Weidler, Guy Kibbee) 
(MGM) Appealing sentimental little drama 
with religious motif and much pathos and 
humor. V. Weidler as little orphan girl charm- 
ingly meets all problems through counsel of 
the Lord. Melodramatic climax, highly emo- 
tional for children, but happily resolved. 1-15-40 
(A) & (Y) Good of kind (C) Probably 

Big Gay, The (McLaglen, Jackie Cooper) (Univ) 
Innocent lad, forced into aiding escaping con- 
victs, is sentenced for crime. Stolen money re- 
covered, which would have cleared boy, is long 
withheld by prison warden. McLaglen good as 
rash, impulsive warden and moral weakling. 
Morbid theme well handled. 1-23-40 

(A) Good of kind (Y) No (C) No 

Blondie Brings Up Baby (Penny Singleton, Lake) 
(Colnm) Another in comic-strip series with many 
of the inanities less funny on screen. Piquancy 
and charm in suburban domestic scenes. Others 
seem absurd and stupid. Dagwood loses and re- 
crains job. Daisy gets lost, Baby Dumpling goes 
to school. Very elementary but amusing. 2-6-40 
(A) Fair (Y) Good (C) Excellent 

Child Is Born, A (Fitzgerald, Page) (Warner) 
Serious but uninspiredattemptatrealistic picture 
of maternity ward. Young wife about to be 
mother, under life sentence for unexplained mur- 
der, chooses death that child may live. Char- 
acters utterly obvious "types." Fitzgerald and 
Page good, but whole fails to convince. 1-23-40 
(A) Unconvincing (Y) No (C) No 

Earl of Chicago (Montgomery. Arnold) (MGM) 
Strange, impossible, rather depressing, yet absorb- 
ing picture. Tough uncouth head of Chicago dis- 
tilleries inherits English estates and title and goes 
over to "cash in.'* Kills partner, is tried by House 
of Lords, found guilty, executed. Unusual psy- 
chological role finely done by Montgomery. 2-6-40 
(A) Very good of kind (Y) Too mature (C) No 

End of a Day, The (French-Eng. titles) Ab- 
sorbing drama done with deft, realistic French 
touch. Romances, intrigues, amusing complica- 
tions of retired actresses and actors in private 
home for aged thespians. Interlocking themes 
of plot expertly handled. Notable acting by 
fine cast. 1-30-40 

(A) Excellent (Y) and (C) No 

Everything Happens at Night (Henie, Cum- 
mings, Milland) (Fox) Diverting, fast-moving 
comedy-romance brings in logically Sonja's 
magnificent solo skating in palatial setting 
and amusing doings of two competitors for 
her heart and for a "scoop" on famous doctor, 
supposedly dead. Charming backgrounds. 1-23-40 
(A) & (Y) Very entertaining (C) Good 

Fighting 69th, The (Cagney, O'Brien, Brent) 
(Warner) Powerful war drama, finely acted by 
excellent cast, dedicated to the famous Father 
Duffy. Scrappy, tough, disagreeable private earns 
hatred of regiment, turns yellow at front. Finally 
redeemed by priest. Gruesome war scenes but 
emphasis on human relationships. 1-30-40 

(A) Good of kind (Y) Harrowing (C) No 

Flying Deuces. The (Laurel and Hardy URKO) 
Ridiculous but amusing comedy a la Mack 
Sennett, Hardy falls in love with French 
girl who rejects him. They join the Foreign 
Legion to forget and soon desert. Typical 
Laurel and Hardy complications ensue. Clever 
ending. 1 30-40 

(A) Depends on taste (Y) and (C) Amusing 

Gone With the Wind (Leigh, Gable, de Havilland, 
Howard) (MGM) Technically superb, splendidly 
acted, complete screening of famous novel of lovely 
old South ruined by Civil War. Painstaking detail, 
gorgeous background and costume, relentless 
Technicolor, countless episodes, fluctuating dra- 
matic tensity, for nearly A hoars I 1-30-40 
(A) Notable (Y) Mature (C^ No 

Green Hell (JoanBennett, Fairbanks. Jr.) (Univ) 
Fine cast used in stereotyped jungle thriller of 
pseudo-scientific search for Inca treasure by 
six males and one female (absurdly chic amid 
Amazonian wilds). Full of artificial Hollywood 
"punch," limping plot, stilted situations, im- 
possible heroics, pretentious hokum. 1-23-40 
(A) Artificial thriller (Y) & (C) No 

Heaven With a Barbed Wire Fence (Jean Rogers. 
Raymond Walburn) (Fox) Mediocre tale of ad- 
ventures of train-jumpers — eccentric old profes- 
sor, Spanish girl refugee (totally unconvincing), 
young hobo, and rather obnoxious boy whose every 
cent was used to buy Arizona ranch. Plot point- 
less, action feeble, situations stupid. 1-23-40 
(A) (Y) & (C) Worthless 

Henry Goes Arizona (Frank Morgan, V. Weidler) 
(MGM) Entertaining little comedy melodrama. 
Morgan excellent as genteel but timid New York- 
er who inherits ranch after brother's death. Wants 
to flee plotting enemies, but devoted niece per- 
suades him to stay. Tricks and subdues enemies 
with cleverness. Unpretentious, good fun. 1-30-40 
(A) Good of kind (Y) and (C) Amusing 

Invisible Man Returns, The (Hardwicke, V. Price) 
(Univ) Fantastic, utterly preposterous, char- 
acteristically Hollywood horror film with pseudo- 
medical features. Innocent man sentenced for 
murder, made invisible by doctor, escapes and 
tracks down real murderer. Doctor restores visi- 
bility by uncanny methods. Gruesome. 1-30-40 
(A) Absurd (Y) and (C) No 

Invisible Stripes (Raft. Jane Bryan) (Warner) 
Vivid film of ex-convict's struggle to get and 
hold job and keep kid brother from going 
crooked. Finally joins gang to supply needed 
funds for brother, and meets death he antici- 
pated. Mother and brother relationship well 
done. Lurid gang killings. 2-6-40 

(A) Fair of kind (Y) Too morbid (C) No 

Judge Hardy and Son (Hardy Family) (MGM) 
Wholesome amusing "Hardy" story. Andy's ro- 
mances and financial problems as complicated as 
ever. Illness of mother sentimentally but human- 
ly and gracefully handled. Situation of selfish 
daughter deserting her aged parents righted by 
Judge Hardy and son. Emotional .-scenes. 1-30-40 
(A) and (Y) Amusing (C) Fair 

Kid Nightingale (John Payne, Jane Wyman) 
( Warner ) Brisk tempo to small town farce. 
Ambitious talented young singer lured into 
prize fight business by false promises of 
scheming promoters. Clean, fast, emphasis on 
comedy, but predominantly stereotyped and 
definitely second rate. 1-15-40 

(A) Hardly (Y) Valueless (C) No 

Mad Empress, The (Medea Novelara, Nagel) 
(Warner) Elaborate historical picture of mu- 
tual devotion of Maximilian and Carlotta and 
their heroic defense against forces of republic 
and Juarez despite Napoleon's betrayal. Slow 
tempo, but well done. English version of pre- 
vious Spanish production. 2-6-40 
(A) & (Y) Fairly mteresting (C) No 

Main Street Lawyer (Ed. Ellis. A. Louise) 
(Republic) Nice little small town drama. 
Kindly, capable attorney blackmailed by crook 
whom he is about to try. but who knows truth 
about his prison-born adopted daughter. Melo- 
dramatic climax but mostly unpretentious, 
homely, rather interesting film. 1-15-40 

(A) Fair (Y) Good of kind (C) Perhaps 

Mexican Spitfire (Velez, Leon Errol) (RKO) 
Ridiculous, somewhat risque farce-comedy, in- 
volving complex marriage and illegal divorce 
situations. Film flavored by nonsensical antics 
of shrieking heroine. Much elementary but dis- 
tinctive humor supplied by Errol's dual role. 
Slanstick climax a la Mack Sennett. 1-23-40 
(A) Depends on taste (Y) Perhaps (C) Hardly 

Mill on the Flo.<is (GeraldineFitzgerald) (Stand- 
ard) George Eliot's famous "Romeo and Juliet" 
stoi-y (of young lives ruined by family feud) 
expertly set, costumed and acted. Convincingly 
portrays early 19th century England. Fitzgerald 
superb. Picture's faults largely those duetofaith- 
ful screening of the Mid-Victorian novel. 1-15-40 
(A) Excellent (Y) Good (C) Mature 

My Little Chickadee (West, Fields) (Univ) 
Risque western comedy melodrama of Gay 
90*s. Happy combination of West and Fields. 
"Flower Belle" of checkered past, driven out 
of town by woman vigilantes, saves self by 
mock marriage to Fields. Mae milder. Fields 
funnier than of old. 2-6-40 

(A) Good of kind (Y) & (C) No 

Oh, Johnny, How You Can Love (Tom Brown, 
Peggy Moran) (Univ) Fairly entertaining harm- 
less lightweight farce-melodrama. Traveling 
salesboy wrecks eloping girl's car, is persuaded 
to take her to New York but gangster side- 
tracks them to Canada. Climax in trick tourist 
cottage. Snappy dialogue and action. 2-6-40 
(A) Perhaps (Y) Amusing fC) Fair 

Our Neighbors, the Carters (Fay Bainter, Frank 
Craven) (Para) Rather pleasant, human unpre- 
tentious little story. Father of five forced out 
of business by cut-rate competitor. Wealthy 
friend offers to adopt child and settle annuity 
on family. All ends happily with family to- 
gether and business established. 1-23-40 
(A) Pleasing (Y) & (C) Very good 

Overture to Glory (Hebrew-Eng. titles) Story 
of Jewish Cantor who is influenced by com- 
poser to become opera singer, but returns 
eventually to sing his last in the synagogue. 
Much fine singing, many excellent, realistic 
scenes, but action slow and many details long 
drawn out. 1-30-40 

(A) Depends on taste (Y) & (C) Little interest 

Raffles (deHavilland, Niven) (Warner) Excellent, 
completely diverting, deftly played entertain- 
ment. Debonnairegentleman-thief , as Robin Hood 
in English high life, pulls final coup to save 
honor of friend before reforming for his lady 
love. Suspense well-sustained. Niven charming 
as suave, clever, likeable Raffles. 1-15-40 

(A) & (Y) Fine of kind (C) Too mature 

Remember the Night (Barbara Stanwyck, Fred 
McMurray) (Para) Aftertriteopening.ratherim- 
probable situation of prosecuting attorney and 
girl thief becomes thoroughly human, diverting 
story. He postpones trial, posts bond and takes 
culprit home for Christmas ! Sentimental scenes 
well done. Consistent, natural conclusion. 1-23-40 
(A) Fairly good (Y) Entertaining (C) Perhaps 

Return of Dr. X (R. Lane. H. Bogart) (War- 
ner) Murder mystery drama. Doctor's experi- 
ments with blood composition resurrects a 
man dependent upon blood of others ! Oft-used 
role of meddling smart aleck reporter who 
unravels crimes. Thrill, horror and suspense 
in pseudo-medical atmosphere. 1-15-40 

(A) Depends on taste (Y) Doubtful (C) No 

SlighUy Honorable (O'Brien, Arnold) (U.A.) 
Lively, wisecracking comedy- murder- mystery 
with cheap touches. District attorney gets out 
of political machine and into trouble. Framed 
in murder case. Absurdly pursued and caught 
by empty-headed heroine. Moments of high 
tension, but mainly humorous. 2-6-40 

(A) Diverting (Y) Doubtful (C) No 

Student Romance (Patrick Knowles) (British) 
Over-sentimentalized musical comedy of stu- 
dent life at Heidelberg. Usual far-fetched ro- 
mantic tale of singing (not too well) student. 
his comic faithful friend, a princess (poor 
actress, thin voice) and pretty barmaid. Whole 
production a bit cloying. 1-9-40 

(A) Mediocre (Y) and (C) Probably good 

Thou Shalt Not Kill (Bickford) (Republic) 
Mediocre melodrama. Innocent man convicted 
of murder of girl. Murderer confesses to priest. 
Dramatic climax, when two priests discuss 
sanctity of confessional, misses. Melodramatic 
climax when murderer tries to kill! 
Usual thrill stuff. 1-15-40 

(A) Poor (Y) &(C) By no means 

Too Busy to Work (Jones Family) Mayor-hus- 
band neglects business for civil affairs. Wife 
proceeds to teach him lesson by neglecting 
home for amateur theatricals. Many farcical, 
over-worked, ridiculous situations. Definitely 
class B but harmless, perhaps amusing for 
the uncritical. 1-15-40 

(A) Hardly (Y) & (C) Probably amusing 

Tropic Fury (Arlen. Devine) (Univ) Formula 
adventure story. Rubber industry specialist 
goes into depths of Amazon, finds lost scien- 
tist at mercy of cruel rubber king with delu- 
sions of grandeur. No new angles to unpre- 
tentious usual-type thriller. Fair interest for 
the undiscriminating. 2-6-40 

(A) Mediocre (Y) Perhaps (C) No 

We Are Not Alone (Muni. Bryant. Robson) (War- 
ner) Strong, poiprnant drama of human relation- 
ships skillfully cast and produced. Muni notable 
as kindly, understanding country doctor, caught, 
with fine little governess heroine in tragic web 
woven by ignorance, intolerance and stupidity 
which sends them to their death. 12-19-39 

(A) Fine of kind (Y) Depressing (C) No 

Also for the Visual Field 

(New 15th Edition just out) 

"1000 and ONE" The Blue Book of Non-Theatrical Films, 
published annually is famous in the field of visual instruction 
M the standard film reference source, indispensable to film 
users in the educational field. The new edition lists and de- 
scribes over 5,000 films, classified into 147 different subject 
groups (including large group of entertainment subjects). An 
additional feature this year is a complete alphabetical list of 
every film in the directory. Other information includes designa- 
tion of whether a film is available in 16mm, or 35mm, silent 
or sound, number of reels and sources distributing the films, 
with range of prices charged. 
128 pp. Paper. Price 75c. (25c to E. S. subscribers) 

By Albert E. Osborne. 

A stimulating, wide-range view of the higher potentialities 
of visual instruction in promoting world harmony by a "more 
humanity-centered education." A pertinent reply to H. G. 
Wells' dictum that "the future is a race between education and 

124 pp. Cloth. Price $1.25. 


By C. F. Hoban, C. F. Hoban, Jr., and S. B. Zisman. 

Presents in theory and in practice the basic methodology of 
visual instruction in relation to classroom procedure. Through- 
out the text the theory of visual aids is applied to textbook 
illustration. "Visualizing the Curriculum", itself a splendidly 
"visualized text", provides an abundance of technical guidance 
in the form of illustrative drawings of photographs, reports of 
school journeys, suggestions for mounting materials, for mak- 
ing slides, film strips, etc. It incorporates up-to-date material, 
provides a fine balance in the treatment of various teaching 
aids, evaluates various types of aids, and defines the functions 
and values of each in the learning process. 

320 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $3.50. 
(20% discount to schools) 

By Ellsworth C. Dent. 

Presents in convenient form, practical information for those 
interested in applying visual and audio-visual aids to instruc- 
tion. The six chapters include discussions on "The Status of 
Visual Instruction," "Types of Visual Aids and Their Use," 
"Types of Audio- Visual Aids to Instruction," "Types of Sound 
Aids for Schools," "Organizing the Audio-Visual Service,' 
"Source List of Materials and Equipment." 

212 pp. Illus. Cloth. Price $1.50. 

By Joseph J. Weber, Ph. D. 

An important contribution to the literature of the visual field. 

Presents in unusually interesting form the results of extended 

investigations on the teaching values of the lantern slide and 

stereograph. 156 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $1.00 

(67c to E. S. subscribers) 

By Joseph J. Weber, Ph. D. 

The first published work of authoritative research in the 
visual field, foundational to all research work following it. Not 
only valuable to research workers, but an essential reference 
work for all libraries. 
131 pp. Cloth. Price $1.00 (67c to subscribers of E. S.) 

Full Proceedings of the Midwestern Forum on Visual 
Aids (Held in Chicago, May 1939) 

The most complete record ever printed and on one of the 
livest visual meetings ever held. Numerous addresses by leading 
figures in the visual field, a notable Directors' Round Table 
and three complete recordings of classes taught by sound films 
are among the rich contents of the 80-page booklet. 
80 pages, Paper. Price 50c. 
(25c to subscribers of Educational Screen) 

By G. E. Hamilton. 

Simple directions for making this economical and increas- 
ingly popular teaching aid. 24 pp. Paper. Price lOc. 

INSTRUCTIONAL USE. By Lelia Trolinger 

A full presentation of the latest piece of research on de- 
termination of teaching values of pictures. Development of 
the Score Card and elaborate experiment in use of same. Full 
documentation, tabulation of results, and appendices. The 
latest, most complete and scholarly investigation of a problem 
in the visual teaching field that has long needed such a 
solution. 48 pp. Paper. Illus. Price 50c. 

By Frederick L. Devereux. 

Presenting preliminary solutions of some of the more im- 
portant problems encountered in adapting the talking picture 
to the service of education. The first six chapters deal with 
the development of fundamental bases of production, with the 
experimentation which has been conducted, and with suggested 
problems for future research. The remaining chapters discuss 
the effective use of the sound film in teaching. 
220 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $2.00. (20% discount to schools) 

By M. R. Brunstetter, Ph. D. 

Discusses the utilization of the educational sound film, and 
lists and illustrates techniques for placing the film into effective 
service in the classroom. The procedures suggested are based 
upon extended experience in studying teachers' use of sound 
films and in helping to organize programs of audio visual in- 
struction in school systems. Two valuable Appendices and 
a full index. 
175 pp. Cloth, Illus. Price $2.00. (20% discount to schools) 


A report of the instructional use and indirect educational in- 
fluence of motion pictures in this country, divided into nine 
units. Treats the motion picture (1) as an educational influence; 
(2) in service of health and social hygiene; (3) in governmental 
service and patriotism: (4) in vocational guidance; (5) in in- 
ternational understanding; (6) Motion picture legislation ; (7) 
technique of production and distribution ; (8) systematic intro- 
duction of films in teaching ; (9) general educational problems 
of films in teaching. 

106 pp. Paper. Price $1.00 (20% discount to schools) 

IN EDUCATION. By G. E. Hamilton. 

The most comprehensive discussion yet published. 

47 pp. Paper. Price 15c. 

TO ORDER, Check Material Desired and Fill in Blank Below 

To subscribers 

Price of E. S. 

"1000 and One" Film Directory t .75 t .2B Q 

An Alternative for Revolution and War... 1.25 n 1-25 D 

Visualizing the Curriculum 3.50 D 3.50 □ 

(To Schools) 2.80 n 2.80 n 

The Audio-Visual Handbook 1.50 ID 1.50 D 

Picture Values in Education 1.00 D .67 D 

Comparative Effectiveness of 

Some Visual Aids 1.00 D .67 D 

Proceedinifs of Mid-West Forum on 

Visual Aids 50 n -25 

Evaluation of Still Pictures SOD .50 

The Educational Talking Picture 2.00 2.00 

(To Schools) 1.60 n 1.60 O 

How to Use Educational Sound Film 2.00 O 2.00 D 

(To Schools) 1.60 O 1.60 n 

Motion Pictures in Education in 

The United States 1.00 D 1.00 D 

(To Schools) 80 O -SOD 

Stereograph and Lantern Slide in Education .15 O -15 O 

How to Make Handmade Lantern Slides .10 Q .10 D 


U. S. 1 year, $2.00 D 2 years, $3.00 D 
Foreign 1 year, $3.00 D 2 years, $5.00 D 
Canada 1 year, $2.25 D 2 years, $3.50 D 

Educational Screen 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

I have indicated items desired and enclose check for $ 


School or Street. 


Page 88 


The Educational Screen 

A Trade Directory 
for the Visual Field 


Akin and Bagshaw, Inc. (3) 

1425 Williams St., Denver, Colo. 

Audio-Film Libraries (2) 

661 Bloomfield Ave., Bloomfield, N. J. 

(See advertisement on page 76) 

Bailey Film Service (3, 4) 

1651 Cosmo St., Hollywood, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 74) 
Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 44) 

Castle Films (3) 

RCA Bldg., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 73) 

College Film Center (3, 5) 

59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago. 

Commonwealth Pictures Corp. (2, 5) 

729 Seventh .'^ve.. New York City 

(See advertisement on page 78) 

DeVry Corporation (3, 4) 

1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago 
(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Dudley Visual Education Service (1) 

736 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 

4th Fl., Coughlan Bldg. 

Mankato, Minn. 
Eastin 16 mm. Pictures (3) 

707 Putnam Bldg., Davenport, la. 

Burns Bldg., Colorado Springs, Colo. 
Eastman Kodak Co. (1) 

Teaching Films Division 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 83) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave., New York Citv 
Eastman Kodak Storees, Inc. (3) 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Edited Pictures System, Inc. (3) 

330 W. 42nd St., New York City 
Erpi Classroom Films, Inc. (2, 5) 

35-11 35th Ave., Long Island City, 

N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 79) 

Films, Inc. (3) 

330 W. 42nd St.. New York City 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

314 S. W. Ninth Ave.. Portland, Ore. 
(See advertisement on page 41) 
Frith Films (1) 

P. O. Box 565, Hollywood, Calif. 
Garrison Films (3, 6) 

1600 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 76) 

General Films, Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 
156 King St., W. Toronto 

Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc. (3) 

35 W. 45th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 75) 

Harvard Film Service (3, 6) 

Biological Laboratories, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

(See advertisement on page 77) 

Guy D. Haselton, Travelettes (1, 2, 4) 

7936 Santa Monica Blvd., 

Hollywood, Calif. 
J. H. Hoffberg Co., Inc. (2, 5) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 45) 

International Film Bureau (3, 5) 

59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago 
International Geographic Pictures (2, 5) 

52 Vandcrbilt Ave., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 82) 

Lewis Film Service (3) 

105 E. 1st St., Wichita, Kan. 

(See advertisement on page 75) 

The Manse Library (3) 

1521 Dana Ave., Cincinnati. O. 

(See advertisement on page 76) 

Nu-Art Films, Inc. (3) 

145 W. 4Sth St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 66) 

Pictorial Films (2) 

1650 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertimement on page 77) 

Arthur C. Pillsbury (2) 

640 .Arlington Ave.. Berkeley, Calif. 

( See advertisement on page 76 ) 

Post Pictures Corp. (3) 

72i Sevi-nth .Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 82) 

Swank Motion ii'ictures (2) 

5861 Plymouth, St. Louis, Mo. 
(See advertisement on page 75) 

United Educator Films Co. (2) 

State Theatre Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

107 South Court, Sq., Memphis, Tenn. 
United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Universal Pictures Co., Inc. (5) 

Rockefeller Center, New Y'ork City 

(See advertisement on page 69) 

Visual Education Service (3) 

131 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 

Wholesome Films Service, Inc. (1, 6) 
48 Melrose St., Boston, Mass. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau (3- 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago 
351 Turk St.. San Francisco. Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 74) 


The Ampro Corporation (3) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 81) 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 44) 

DeVry Corporation (3, 6) 

1111 Armitage St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave., New York City 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
General Films, Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

156 King St., W. Toronto 
Hirsch & Kaye (3) 

239 Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. 
Holmes Projector Co. (3, 6) 

1813 Orchard St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 68) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 45) 
Jarrell-Ash Company 

165 Newbury St.. Boston, Mass. 
RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc. (2) 

Camden, N. J. 

(See advertisement on page 71) 

S. O. S. Corporation (3, 6) 

636 Eleventh Ave., New York City 
United Educator Films Co. (2) 

State Theatre Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

107 South Court, Sq., Memphis, Tenn. 
United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Universal Sound Projector (2) 

1917 Oxford St. Philadelphia. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 78) 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (3) 

Davenport, Iowa 

(See advertisement on page 42) 

Visual Education Service (3) 

131 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Da Lite Screen Co. 

2717 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 67) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Motion Picture Screen & 
Accessories Co., Inc. 

351 W. 52nd St.. Xcw York City 
Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Eastman Educational Slides 

Johnson Co. Bank Bldg., 

Iowa City, la. 
Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

330 W. 42nd St., New York City 
Friends of the Western Mountains 

.\rcata, C'alit. {2k2 "Kodacliromcs") 
Ideal Pictures Corp. 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 45) 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadvillc, Pa. 

(Sec adverti.soment on page 46) 

Radio-Mat Slide Co., Inc. 
1819 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 77) 

Society for Visual Education 
100 E. Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Spindler & Sauppe, Inc. 

86 Third St., San Francisco, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 77) 

Visual Education Service 

131 Clarendon St., Boston. Mass. 
Visual Sciences 

Suffern, New York 

(See advertisement on page 76) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

( See advertisment on page 46) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 85) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave., New York City 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
General Films Ltd. 

1924 Rose St.. Regina, Sask. 

156 King St., W. Toronto 
Hirsch & Kaye 

239 Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. 
Jarrell-Ash Company 

165 Newbury St., Boston, Mass. 
Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Williams, Brown and Earl, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


(1) indicates 6rm supplies 

16 mm. 


(2) indicates firm supplies 

16 mm. 


(3) indicates firm supplies 

16 mm. 

sound and silent. 

(4) indicates firm supplies 

35 mm. 


(5) indicates firm supplies 

35 mm. 


<6) indicates firm supplies 

35 mm. 

sound and silent. 

Continuous Inserflons under one heading, $L50 per issue; additional listings under other headings, 75c each. 






Public Library 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Teachers Library 

film "Rural Quebec Folkways" 

(Courtesy Bell & Howkll 

25^ A COPY S2.00 PER YEAR 

MARCH. I 940 


Have Built-In-Blower 
Cooling System 

Located in the forepart of the 
base, out of the operator's way, 
the Built-In-Blower Cooling 
System forces a current of cold 
air over the opaque material 
being projected and out through 
the vents at the top of the 
Balopticon, thereby cooling the 
entire interior. Opaque mate- 
rial can be shown for as long 
as desired without harm. Inde- 
pendent switches are provided 
for illuminant and cooling 
system, wiring is concealed. 



The new Balopticons ERM and LRM are in step long and trouble-free service, brilliant, sharp screen 
with modern teaching procedures. These new models images, and ample provision for using effeaively 
have all the features essential to ease in operation, the wide variety of available teaching material. 


Slides and Opaque Material 

Balopticon LRM is a combined slide and opaque 
projector with balanced illumination to avoid eye- 
strain. No great change in image brightness occurs 
when switching from one to the other nor is it 
necessary to move the Balopticon. 

Listed models differ only in projection lens equip- 
ment. The 14 inch focus lens permits a projection 
distance of 18 to 20 feet. With the 18" focus lens, 
the projection distance may be as great as thirty 
feet, if used in a well-darkened room. 


Opaque Material Only 

Balopticon ERM enables the teacher to project a 
vast amount of illustrative material, such as photo- 
graphs, post cards, printed pages or pictures, stamps, 
maps, charts, drawings ; or even solid objeas, such as 
geological or biological specimens, coins, and curios. 

The ERM Balopticon is noteworthy for brilliance 
of image and keenness of definition, especially 
important in taking notes and maintaining dis- 
cipline, and showing fine detail on the screen. 


Both the ERM and LRM Balopticons have the new spring- actuated 
holder for opaque material, which can be operated from either .side 
or the back. It is free from any projection. This design permits 
use of selected 6" x 6%" areas from much larger material. Large 
door at the side provides access to the projection chamber for solid 
objects which can not be introduced conveniently otherwise. 

Send for folder which describes these two new Balopticons in detail. 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., 688 St. Paul Street, Rochester, N. Y. 





Nelson L. Greene - - - Editor-in-Chief 
Evelyn J. Baker - Advertising Manager 
Josephine Hoffman - Office Manager 

Camilla Best - - - 
WiLBER Emmert - - 
Hardy R. Finch - - 
Ann Gale - - - - 
Charles F. Hoban, Jr., 
Josephine Hoffman - 
F. Dean McClusky - 
Arch A. Mercey - - 
Etta Schneider - - 


New Orleans, La. 

- - Indiana, Pa. 

Greenwich, Conn. 

- - Chicago, 111. 
Washington, D. C. 

- - Chicago, 111. 
Scarborough, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 
New York, N. Y. 

Editorial Advisory Board 

Ward C. Bowen, Chief, Bureau of Radio 
_ and Visual Aids, State Education De- 
partment, Albany, N. Y. 

Iarian Evans, Director, Visual Instruction 
Center, Public Schools, San Diego, 

. M. Gregory, Director, Educational Mu- 
seum, Public Schools, Cleveland, Ohio. 

E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

A. Holunger, Director, Department 
of Science and Visualization, Public 
Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

byd B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director, 
Extension Division, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

?AUL C. Reed, Director, Department of Ra- 
dio and Visual Education, Board of 
Education, Rochester, N. Y. 

Gayle Starnes, in charge of Audio- 
Visual Aids, Department of University 
Extension, University of Kentucky, 
Lexington, Ky. 

Lelia Trolinger, Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

f. W. Whittinghill, Director, Depart- 
ment of Visual and Radio Education, 
Board of Education, Detroit, Mich. 





Diversitorials 92 

Standards of Geographical Film for Instruction W. M. Gregory 95 

A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Three Methods 

of Using Motion Pictures in Teaching (II) John Elmore Hansen 97 

School-Made Motion Pictures for Public Relations 

in Ohio (III) William S. Wagner 99 

Proceedings of the Winter Meeting of the Department 
of Visual Instruction 

Directing the Visual Instruction Program 

The Statewide Program J. W. Brouillette 101 

The City Program Alex. Jardine 103 

The Individual School R. B. Woodwor+h 105 

Problems in the Production of Educational 

Motion Pictures W. H. Maddock 107 

Standards in Teacher Training in the Use of 

Visual Aids Clarence D. Jayne 110 

The Literature in Visual Instruction — 

A Monthly Digest Conducted by Etta Schneider 115 

School-Made Motion Pictures Conducted by Hardy R. Finch 118 

News and Notes Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 124 

The Federal Film Edited by Arch A. Mercey 127 

Current Film News 1 30 

Among the Producers — 132 

Film Estimates 134 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 136 


Domestic $2.00 

Canada $2.25 

Foreign $3.00 

Single Copies 25 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published monthly except July and August by The 
Educational Screen, Inc. Publication Office, Pontiac, Illinois; Executive Office, 64 
East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontiac, Illinois, as 
Second Class Malter. 
Address connmunicatlons to The Educational Screen, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, III. 

Page 92 

The Educational Screen 


The SL Louis Meeting 

THE St. Louis meeting of the D.V.I., ably planned 
and conducted by President J. E. Hansen and Sec- 
retary Camilla Best, was a distinct success, marked by 
good attendance, lively interest, and an almost unpar- 
alleled mass of utterance. Very little program time was 
used in showing pictures, with the consequent footage 
in papers, speeches and discussions reaching record 
proportions. Therefore, in undertaking to reprint the 
"proceedings" in our pages, we are met with extra- 
ordinary demands upon our limited space. 

Something over half the material appears on pages 
101 to 114 of this issue; the balance must await the 
April issue. This balance will include the following 
papers or rescripts — The Teaching Film as a Class- 
room Aid by Mrs. Alma B. Rogers, Producing the 
Educational Sound Film by V. C. Arnspiger, Hozv to 
Use the Sound Film in the Classroom by Ruth Liver- 
mon. Local Production of Motion Pictures to Supple- 
vient Professional Production by Wm. F. Kruse, Prog- 
ress Report on the D.V.I. Yearbook by F. Dean Mc- 
Clusky, a panel discussion on Where Are We Headed 
in Visual Instruction conducted by Edgar Dale, 
Standards in Visual Instruction by W. M. Gregory. 
Classroom Facilities by S. B. Zisman, and The Status 
and Future of School-made Public Relations Films by 
Wm. S. Hart and Godfrey Elliott. Only one address 
from the program will be missing from these proceed- 
ings — a resume of "Materials of Instruction" by Her- 
bert Jensen, who preferred to have his paper printed 
elsewhere. Despite this single exception, our total re- 
print in the March and April issues represents, we 
believe, the most nearly complete "proceedings" ever 
published on an annual meeting of the Department of 
Visual Instruction of the N.E.A. 

An Omission in This Issue 

BECAUSE of the extended reprinting of the St. 
Louis meeting we have been regretfully forced to 
omit, for this issue, the regular monthly insertion of 
Arthur E. Krows' definitive history of the non-the- 
atrical field, "Motion Pictures — Not for the Theatre." 
It is the first break in 17 consecutive installments of 
this unique history, and it will be resumed in April if 
possible, in May at latest. 

The Midwestern Forum 

THE second annual meeting of the Midwestern 
Forum on Visual Teaching Aids will take place at 
the Hotel Morrison in Chicago on April 5th and 6th 
next. (The full program is printed on page 124 of this 
issue). This second meeting is being held because the 
first, in the Spring of 1939, was so markedly worth- 
while. The attendance last year exceeded expectations, 
and there is every prospect that the 1940 session will 
eclipse the former figure. Continuity of management 

Again we are gathering completest possible data on 
all summer courses in visual instruction, for publica- 
tion in April and May next. 

Any reader knowing of such courses to be given next 
summer is earnestly asked to send us names of the 
institutions — with or without further data such as title 
of course, name of instructor, dates of duration, 
credits allowed, contents of course, etc. N. L. G. 

and |X)licy is a decided factor in this growing success. 
Practically the same Committee, with many notable 
additions, is functioning for the second meeting, with 
William C. Reavis. Department of Education, Univer- 
sity of Chicago, as the present Chairman, succeeding 
Donald Bean, University of Chicago Press, whose able 
handling of the first meeting gave the enterprise its 
auspicious start. 

The coming program will ofifer all the outstanding 
features of last year's meeting — Demonstration Clinics 
for Elementary School, High School and College, a 
Round Table discussion for Directors of Visual Instruc- 
tion, general sessions with authoritative addresses on 
various problems of the field — plus far more attention 
to the use of still pictures, more discussion from the 
floor, a dinner without "speeches," and a full evening 
devoted solely to presentation of recordings, still pic- 
tures, motion pictures and slides. 

For maximum interest in and benefit from the com- 
ing Forum, all attending, either for the first or second 
time, would do well to read or reread the "full pro- 
ceedings" of the 1939 Forum. It will afford an inter- 
esting basis for comparison of values of the two meet- 
ings and for a check on progress and improvement in 
the space of one short year. It should be easy to beg 
or borrow a copy of the 80-page "Full Proceedings 
of the Midwestern Forum of 1939" (many copies have 
been widely circulated) , published by The Education.\l 
Screen at the actual cost price of 50 cents. Or, if all 
else fails, there are still a few copies available from 
us, postpaid, at the original figure. 

Because last year's Forum was one of the livest and 
meatiest sessions we ever attended on visual instruc- 
tion, because the Forum this April bids fair to surpass 
it in all respects, we can, with a clear conscience, urge 
upon all our readers everywhere to make their plans 
to attend — and then hold to those plans. 

Film Evaluation Project 

AT THE start we anticipated possible difficulty in 
securing enough judges to make the Evaluation 
Committee of a size adequate for reliable results. Our 
fears were unfounded. Numerically the Committee is 
already beyond the dimensions needed, but some mem- 
bers are scoring very few films a year. Obviously a 
further step can be taken to the distinct advantage of 
the Film Evaluation Project. 

We shall now aim at a permanent Committee of 500 
teachers, each of whom will score not less than 10 
films per semester, and a majority of whom will score 
a greater number. Limiting the Committee personnel is 
not only sound economy. We have found that the more 
films scored, the better the critical judgment becomes. 
More films can be scored only by teachers who use 

(Concluded on page 114) 

March, 1940 

Page 93 

Note how conveniently large periodicals are used. 

Teach visually the modern way 
with Spencer Delineascopes 

Teaching takes on new interest both to pupils and instruc- 
jtors when projection dramatizes the presentation of subjects. 
[And economy joins with efficiency, for one set of material 
' whether it be glass or film slides, actual specimens, or opaque 

illustrations from books, magazines or prints — serves the 

entire class. 

Spencer builds quality equipment to meet practically every 
iclass room or auditorium need, ranging from the Combina- 
|tion Model VA for lantern slides and opaque material, shown 
ibove, to the various instruments illustrated to the right. 

Write Dept. C12 for literature which describes Spencer 
IDelineascopes in detail. 

Model GK Auditorium Delineascope (750-watt) — 

for 2''x2" and 3^i"x4" slides, either natural color 

or black and white. 

Model MK Define a- 

scopea- for 2"x2" slides. 
100-watt. 200-watt, 
300-watt models. Pro- 
jects slides with a bril- 
liance and clarity here- 
tofore possible only 
with larger, more costly 

Model B. Science Delineascope 

— projects lantern slides, ma- 
terial in Petrie dishes, and ex- 
periments in biology and physics. 
Teacher faces class ; screen is 
in back of him. 

Spencer Lens Company 



Page 54 

The Educational Screen 

See the exclusive features which put this 
simplified unit for schools YEARS AHEAD! 

Built by the company with the woiJd's 
greatest eKperience in sound recording 
and reproduction — the company that 
not only makes the sound recording 
equipment used by Hollywood studios, 
but also the RCA Photophone 
Magic Voice of the Screen repro- 

ducing equipment now in thousands 
of theatres — this new 16 mm. sound 
film projector gives you perform- 
ance, convenience and ease of opera- 
tion that mark it the finest equipment 
of its type ever made! Yet the low 
price is within reach of every school I 

projector uses a specially desixned optical 
system and larKe objective lens (f.1.65) 
which provides 10 to 20% greater screen 
illuminatioti with 750 watt lamp 

ing line cast on projection block, this pro- 
jector is as easy to thread as silent equip- 
ment. Has large 1 6-tooth sprockets which 
engage four to five sprocket holes, increasing 
life of Alms. 

scroll in this compartment cools lamp, ampli- 
fier and aperture gate. Lamphouse is only 
slightly warm while projector is operating, 
thus increasing lamp life. Lamp may be 
quickly and easily removed. 

an exclusive RCA feature. Separate motor 
eliminates spring belts, assures equal tension 
on 400. 800, 1200 and 1600-fool reels. R -1 
rewind is simple and rapid. 

5. BETTER EQUALIZATION. The film take-up 
equalizer, between take-up reel and lower 
sprocket, greatly reduces magnitude of jerks 
and uneven pull of reel. 

6. BETTER CONVENIENCE. The sound optical 
units are mounted on single casting with 
swinging bracket for easy cleaning. Exciter 
lamp may be quickly changed. 

conveniently located and grouped for easy 
operation. Loss of film loop quickly adjusted 
without stopping projector. 

permits use of high impedance microphone 
or Victrola attachment with magnetic or crys- 
tal pickup. Speech input may be used with 
either sound or silent films. 

















Trade-marks "RCA Victor," "Victrola" Reg. U. S. 
Pat. Off. by RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc. 

Modern schools stay modern with RCA Radio Tubes in their sound equipment. 


Educational Dept., RCA Mfg. Co., Inc., Camden, N. J. • A Service of the Radio Corp. of America 

Educational Dept.(B-»\ 
RCA Manufacturing Co.. 
Camden, New ^^"^"^ information con- 

Please send me complete ^^ ^^^^^ p,,„ 

cerning the new 

fiame. ■ ■ 
School . ■ ■ 



Itarcb, 1940 

Page 95 

Standdrds of Geographicdl Film 
for Instruction 

PROOFS of the general and specific instructional 
value of motion picture films have been obtained by 
classroom tests. Freeman, Davis, Knowlton, Gat- 
to, Hansen, Arnspiger, and many others have conducted 
extensive tests to ascertain the value of certain films in 
instruction. These tests are as reliable as scientific 
controls can devise and are valid proofs that a certain 
film has educational value for specific purposes. But 
we must not commit the seriotis error of accepting these 
tests as a blanket proof of the general educational value 
of all films so that they "may be shown when received" 
for any worthwhile instruction. 

I. Standards Needed for Geographical Films 

The present mass of so-called educational and adver- 
I tising films is a distinct menace to progress in the use 
of the film as an educational tool. Many films are 
not evaluated by the teacher but are used under the 
impression that films have in general some instructional 
value. This present situation is confusing and the poor 
results in instruction are misleading as to the real 
value of a high standard film as an educational tool. 
If films are to be used for instruction they should be 
selected with careful discrimination based on close 
attention to those professional standards which enable 
the classroom teacher to make definite and specific use 
of this tool in particular units. 

In geographical instruction the film is a tool that 
brings facts and ideas to the pupils that would be other- 
wise unobtainable. These films should meet the pro- 
fessional standards of geographical correctness and 
suitability for various grade levels. They should empha- 
size man as the center of a geographical environment. 

The clever artificial deceptions of Hollywood are 
ruled out of all geographical films which must present 
a truthful visual impression of man's activities in a 
natural environment. The educational value of the 
one reel "commercials" or theatricals varies so widely 
that each reel should be judged on its merits. In these 
films good photography often prevails but there too 
frequently is undue emphasis on the bizarre, queer 
habits, freaks, crudity, etc. Switzerland — The Beauti- 
ful in color is excellent geographical material. 

The documentary film tries to dramatize facts in the 
geographical field as Nanook of the North, Moana, 
Man of Aran and Elephant Boy. These examples are 
fine interpretations of life in a natural environment and 
have no propaganda subtleties. The geographical con- 
ditions are more highly dramatized in such subjects as 
The Plow that Broke the Plains, which hands out the 
idea of dustbowls caused by wheat growing and now 

A searching analysis of elements and qualities, 
the desirable and the undesirable, in motion 
pictures planned for the teaching of geography. 

W. M. GREGORY. Director 

Educational Museum of Cleveland Schools 

requiring a conservation program. Another geographi- 
cal problem in soil conservation has been dramatized 
and almost set to music in The River. 

Sometimes the documentary technique produces a 
vivid and artistic mixture of gears, rods, whirling 
crankshafts, high chimneys, rapidly moving wheels and 
music which arouse vague unintelligent emotions but 
give no true ideas of man in industry. This type of film 
needs careful selection for use in the classroom. 

If the documentary film uses its power to make 
known critical geographical facts it should be selected 
as a definite part of training for citizenship. "The 
City" is a presentation of the geographical growth and 
activity within a great metropolis. It is useful in 
dramatizing the problems of man's urban development. 

II. Standards for the Producer and for the Class- 
room Teacher 

First and most important is some guidance for the 
producer who realizes that to succeed his films must 
be excellent tools for instruction. Detailed standards 
for instructional geographical films should be formu- 
lated by the close cooperation of the producer and his 
staff ; a geographical expert who fully comprehends the 
needs of the classroom ; and a teacher who works with 
films and uses them with a modern technique. Such 
standards should be in sufficient detail to guide the 
producer in meeting all the requirements of modern 
geographical instruction and the resulting films should 
be so closely adjusted to the courses that they become 
integral parts of important units of instruction. 

The field of production should be chosen for those 
units of geographical instruction which require tech- 
niques for their understanding. The most promising 
field to the producer is elementary school geography 
to which the motion picture can bring laboratory ma- 
terial for observation and rich experiences. The un- 
usual, the spectacular, and wonderful are of the older 
type of geography which has been superseded by the 
visual presentation of man at work and how he lives 
and moves from place to place on the earth. The units 
are selected as typical of the ways in which man lives 
and works. Each small unit of film should bring inter- 
esting experience to the pupil. 

In the elementary school the presence of mixed 
social studies, integrated courses, "core" subjects, and 
progressive procedures too often confuses the real 
purpose of giving experience to pupils. In many 
schools geography and history are presented as related 
but separated fields in the social studies. As a result 
a continuity of geography units at various learning 

A scene from the Erpi film "Irrigation Farming" 

levels is commonly found. One serious mistake of the 
producer is trying to provide material and ideas that 
are too extensive and over dramatized. Such films 
without a continuity as to man's labor and its results 
are pointless and valueless as educational tools. Again 
too many films in geography deal almost entirely with 
man's physical environment and not at all with his 
use of it. Such a treatment is not according to modern 
interpretation of geography. 

The clearness with which the producer follows the 
standards required, the more educational value he can 
build into films. The standards for producers are so 
important as to demand more discussion than this space 
permits. However in passing, attention is called to 
the fact that the success or failure of a producer's is 
due to his skill in getting the high standards in organi- 
zation of the material which he produces. 

Standards for Selection of Geographical Film for 

To guide the classroom instruction in the selection 
of film is an important item in any progressive program. 
Teachers are trying to develop definite worthwhile in- 
struction with films and it is for their guidance that 
clear standards should be established. 

The present lack of such standards and the idea that 
any film that is put together may be used for any grade 
level at any time is the present weakness in the appli- 
cation of films to geographical instruction. One good 
film applied correctly is superior to many that have 
little relation to the lesson content. Each film must 
be evaluated by the teacher as to its content and the 
level of learning before it is used. This is not an im- 
possible task and it is necessary to assure correct and 
successful techniques on the teacher's part. Repeat 
showings of films by the same teacher throughout 
several semesters is a clear indication that these films 
are a definite part of her program of instruction. 

A study of the circulation of geographical films in 
several of the many film libraries of this country would 
indicate those films most used at certain levels of 
learning. A nation-wide check-list like that being 
conducted by the "Educational Screen" reveals the films 
most used in various grades and units. 

It is from the consideration of such source of in- 
formation and many experiments with films in class- 
rooms that the writer makes some attempt to formulate 
some suggestive standards that may guide teachers in 
their selection of geographical films. 

The Educational Screen 

III. Films Made for Various Learning Levels 

Learning levels are more clearly understood since 
P.L.R.'s have been determined for large pupil groups. 
This knowledge of the pupil's capacity for learning has 
made ])ossible a close correlation of subject matter to 
pupil's abilities in the modern school. The P.L.R.'s of 
pupils give teachers a clue as to the ideas that classes 
can take and use. Many teachers have been slow to 
adjust the subject matter to pupil's abilities. This is 
the producers most serious problem. Teachers at first 
used any film subject with any class but this was in 
those brief days of the first wonderful movies when 
educational authorities seemed dazed by the celluloids. 
In the modern classroom it is necessary to select the 
film as to specific subject and as to learning level based 
upon the capability of the student. 

It must be remembered, however, that the ease of 
the film as a medium of communication makes possible 
the clear presentation of concepts which ordinarily have 
been considered "too difficult" or "too complex" to be 
used at established learning levels. In the selection of 
films the teacher should not fall into the error of under- 
estimating the ability of pupils to comprehend facts 
clearly ]iresented simply because pupils are low in read- 
ing ability. 

Ability to learn through the picture is much more 
easily acquired than learning through reading. Growth 
in this ability seems to follow fairly well defined steps 
which may be outlined somewhat as follows: 

(1) The clear recognition of single objects is the 
basis for geographical ideas. Such simple scenes as 
cows in pastures, ducks on the water, dogs on a farm, 
Eskimo huskies pulling a sled, horses at work, men 
cutting trees give simple basic basic concepts for ele- 
mentary geography combining both physical and cul- 
tural environment. 

(2) The recognition of activities in their natural 
settings in such films as A Day on the Farm and Farm 
Animals oflfers opportunity for simple observations and 

(3) Wheat Fanner, Wisconsin Dairies, Clothing 
and Transportation on Great Lakes offer material for 
observation and interpretation of simple geographical 

(4) A recognition of simple types of man's adjust- 
ment to his physical environment as Fall, Winter, 
Spring, and Summer on an English Farm, The Truck 
Farmer, Market Gardening, Irrigation, Peru, Panama 
Canal, Land of Mexico. 

(5) Recognition of the complex activities of man 
in relation to many elements of his environment. Some 
of the following are suggested as being in this level of 
complex relationships : Development of Transportation, 
Water Power, Germany — Industries. 

IV. Details of Standards for Geographical Films 
The Title 

It should be axiomatic that the geographical film is 
exactly titled as to its contents. Smart cracks, word 
plays, dull generalities are taboo as titles for school 
films in geography or other subjects. "Geography of 
North America" is adapted to a large group of film 
subjects and not suitable for one reel. 

The title Lumbering in the Pacific Northwest is a 

(Continued on page 120) 

March, 1940 

Page 97 

A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Three 
Methods of Using Motion Pictures in Teaching (II) 

Chapter IV 

THE results of the two parts of the study are sum- 
marized in the following chapter. First are given 
the mean scores for the two tests on each of the 
films, the mean gains, the differences in gains, and the 
standard errors of the differences. These are followed 
by a brief statement regarding the significances of the 
differences in gains between the three groups. 
Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Groups A, B, 
and C on Pre-tests and Final Tests; the Gains between Tests: 
the Differences in Gains between Groups; and the Standard 
Errors of the Difference for the First Part of the Experi- 

Testl Test 2 Tests 2-1 Difference S.D.of 
Averages Averages Averages in Gains Dig. 
Plant Growth 

Grotil> A 68.42 81.18 12.75 A-B=2.71 1298 

SD (dis) 10.12 7.504 7.79 

SD (av.) 1.31 .977 1.014 

Group B 70.76 80.80 10.04 

SD (dis) 8.425 6.89 6.15 

SD (av.) 1.02 .835 .747 

Groul' C 70.16 84.15 12.99 C-A= .24 1.333 

SD (dis) 9.830 7.310 7.22 C-B=:2.95 1.150 

SD (av.) 1.19 .886 .875 

Plant Roots 

Croup A 




SD (dis) 




SD (av.) 




Group B 







SD (dis) 




SD (av.) 




Group C 







SD (dis) 







SD (av.) 





Group A 




SD (dis) 




SD (av.) 




Group B 







SD (dis) 





= .19 


SD (av.) 




Group C 







SD (dis) 




SD (av.) 




Flowers at 


Group A 




SD (dis) 




SD (av.) 




Group B 





= 1.41 


SD (dis) 




SD (av.) 




Group C 







SD (dis) 







SD (av.) 




A carefully controlled study of classroom values of 
sound films with results conducive to further research. 


Bureau of Visual Instruction 
University of Wisconsin, Madison 

As will be noted from the above summaries, the mean 
gains fon Group A and the four films. Plant Growth, 
Plant Roots, Leaves, and Flowers at Work were 12.75, 
14.85, 5.86, and 6.56, respectively ; for Group B 10.04, 
16.47, 7.47, and 7.98 respectively ; and for Group C 
12.99, 18.78, 7.28 and 9.47 respectively. These gains 
are all statistically significant. 

On the first film Group C gained more than either 
Groups A or B, while Group A gained more than 
Group B. On the second film Group C gained more than 
either Groups A or B, while Group B gained more than 
Group A. On the third film Group B gained mure 
than either Groups A or C, while group C gained more 
than Group A. Of these various differences none can 
be said to be statistically significant. However, the 
consistency of Group C in gaining more than Group A 
on all four films and more than Group B on three of 
the four would seem to indicate a trend in favor of this 
group and method. The fact that Group B outgained 
Group A on three of the four films would seem to have 
some, though less, meaning. 


Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for Groups A, B, 
and C on the Pre-tests and Final Tests; the Gains between 
Tests; the Differences in Gains between Groups; and the 
Standard Errors of the Differences for the Second Part of the 

Testl Test 2 Tests 2-1 Difference S.D.of 
Averages: Averages Averages in Gains Diff. 

The Green Plant 

Group A 83.09 87.72 4.63 

SD (dis) 8.075 8.990 3.475 

SD (av.) 1.05 1.17 .452 

Group B 83.01 88.12 5.11 B-A= .48 .714 

SD (dis) 8.926 7.885 4.57 

SD (av.) 1.08 .956 .554 

Group C 81.59 88.87 7.28 C-A=2.65 .756 

SD (dis) 8.755 7.405 5.003 C-B=2.18 .823 

SD (av.) 1.06 .898 .606 

Flower to Fruit 

Group A 74.09 79.46 5.37 

SD (dis) 6.910 7.790 4.76 

SD (av.) .899 1.01 .619 

Group B 75.93 82.56 6.63 B-A=1.27 .813 

SD (dis) 8.080 7.095 4.10 

SD (av.) .979 .860 .498 

Group C 74.88 82.37 7.48 C-A=2.12 .886 

SD (dis) 9.030 8.065 5.245 C-B= .85 .825 

SD (av.) 1.09 .980 .636 

The mean gains for Group A on the two silent films. 
The Green Plant and Floivers to Fruit were 4.63 and 

Page 98 

The Educational Screen 

5.37 respectively; for Group B, 5.11 and 6.63 respec- 
tively ; and for Group C, 7.28 and 7.48 respectively. On 
both films Group C gained more than either Group A 
or Group B, and Group B gained more than Group A. 

The gain made by Group C over that made by Group 
A on the first film is more than three times the standard 
error of the difference and therefore may be considered 
statistically significant. The gain made by Group C 
over that of Group A on the second film, although not 
quite so large, is nearly two and one half times the 
standard error of the difference and may also be con- 
sidered statistically significant. Group B made greater 
gains than Group A on both films but the differences 
cannot be considered significant. 

From the above results for Part I of the study it 
will be noted that Group C (Group taught by the talk- 
ing pictures in which the mechanically recorded voice 
presented all of the verbal explanation during both 
showings of each film) made substantially greater gains 
than Group A (Group taught by motion pictures in 
which the classroom teacher asked questions and 
directed the pupil discussion during both showings of 
each film). Group C also outgained Group B (Group 
taught by motion pictures in which mechanically re- 
produced voice was used with first showing and teacher 
questioning and pupil discussion with second showing 
of each film) on three of the four films. On the fourth 
film there was little difference between these groups. 
Group B outgained Group A on three films while Group 
A outgained Group B on one film. In brief. Group C 
made the greatest gains, Group B ranked second, and 
Group A, made the lowest gains. 

On Part II of the study the trend was in the same 
direction, only more pronounced. Here Group C clearly 
outgained both Groups B and A, while Group B out- 
gained Group A. 

Chapter V 


As indicated in the statement of the purpose of the 
study reported herein the writer desired to determine 
the relative effectiveness of three different methods of 
using instructional films (1) in helping pupils to gain 
factual information presented in the films and (2) in 
helping them to comprehend subsequent similar situa- 
tions which might confront them. The results of this 
study seem to indicate that the last method, that em- 
ployed with Group C, in which the formal verbal con- 
tinuity which has been prepared by the producers as an 
integral part of the sound motion picture is used, is 
more effective than that employed with Group A, in 
which an accompaniment directed by the teacher and 
consisting of teacher-pupil questions and discussions 
is used. This method in which both presentations of 
each film were accompanied by the regular sound con- 
tinuity also seems more effective than the method em- 
ployed with Group B, in which only the first showing 
was accompanied by the fixed verbal continuity while 
the second showing had the sound shut off and a dis- 
cussion and questions led by the regular classroom 
teacher substituted. 

The method employed with Group A in which the 
regular verbal or sound continuity was shut off in both 
showings and teacher-pupil discussion substituted 
proved in this study to be the least effective of 
the three methods in aiding pupils to acquire factual 
information from films. It might seem that the method 
of film presentation in which the pupils are actively 
participating in discussing the scenes as they appear on 
the screen would be more effective than the method in 
which all explanations are offered through the mechani- 
cal reproduction of a synchronized voice, but such does 
not seem to be the case. 

Even more inconsistent with the generally accepted 
ideas regarding learning are the results of the second 
part of the study. In this part of the study the writer 
attempted to discover whether there was any difference 
in the effectiveness of the three methods employed in 
the first part of the study in making knowledge thus 
gained available for subsequent use in solving new 
problems. Since the acquisition of factual information 
is of little value unless it results in the development of 
generalizations or concepts which are part of the pupil's 
thinking equipment and thus facilitates the transfer of 
training, it is essential that learning be of such a 
nature that it can be used. The results of this study 
seem to indicate that the fixed verbal continuity of the 
talking motion picture is more effective than either 
of the other two methods employed in accomplishing 
this. Apparently there is genuinely active pupil par- 
ticipation even though they are listening quietly to a 
spoken continuity while viewing the picture on the 

More marked than the difference in gains between 
the three groups is the size of the gains made by all of 
the groups. It must be borne in mind that the pupils 
had just completed the study of most of the subject 
matter covered by the motion pictures, that they had 
been taught by a staff of well trained and experienced 
teachers of biology and that the laboratory and other 
facilities provided in this school were better than those 
of the average school ; yet all of the groups made large 
gains. Probably the most striking evidence furnished 
by this study is that the motion picture is a very effec- 
tive aid to learning regardless of the particular method 
used in presenting it and that, although the teaching 
methods used do make a difference, apparently the most 
important factor in teaching with motion pictures is 
a good pictorial presentation. 

The writer does not recommend that the results of 
this study be accepted as conclusive evidence. This 
study, or variations of it. ought to be repeated by others. 
Smce the talking and sound motion pictures are proving 
themselves to be valuable instruction aids more con- 
sideration should be given to their construction, especial- 
ly to the accompanying verbal explanation and other 
sound effects. Experimentation with the form of the 
spoken continuity is especially important. Instead of 
the formal explanation which accompanies most of the 
present talking pictures a more challenging and thought 
provoking form of spoken continuity should be con- 
sidered. Much experimental work needs to be done 

March, 1940 

Page 99 

School -Made Motion Pictures 
For Public Rektions in Ohio (III) 

Chapter VI 
Content of Films 

OBVIOUSLY, the best method of discovering the 
content of the films produced by the thirty-four 
schools reporting, would be to see them pro- 
jected. For the purposes of this study, however, each 
school was asked to outline briefly the content of its 
films. From the outlines submitted, it was possible 
to determine broad classifications of types of pictures 
produced, and to compare these classified types on the 
basis of the amount of projection time devoted to each. 
Table II presents eight broad classifications — the num- 
ber of schools having each type of picture, and the pro- 
jection time of each classification. 

Table II Classification of Films and Their Projection Time 

Number of Total projec- 
Classification of films Schools lion time in 

Having Minutes 

General school activities 27 1419 

Football 9 141 

Public service 1 98 

Safety 2 76 

Community 3 74 

Instructional 2 44 

May Day 3 32 

Teacher selection 1 6 

Total minutes of projection time 1890 

From Table II it is obvious that the general school 
activities type of picture dominates. This type of pic- 
ture is well illustrated bv the following outline. 

A Day in the Euclid Schools 

.Sliort shot of children leaving home — mother on 


Short shot of another home with children leaving 

for school. 

Traffic crossing witli police assisting children 

across the street. 

.School safet)' patrol aiding students cross street. 

Students unloading from buses. 

Large group of elementary children going into 

the school building. 

Large group of high school students going into the 

school building. 

Shot of little boy carrying books for little girl. 

Shot of high school boy carrying books for high 

school girl. 

Nursery school room. 

Kindergarten room. 

First grade room. 

Fourth grade room. 

Elementary — sixth grade room. 

Elementary students in library. 

Elementary students in shop. 

































Concluding installment summarizing types of school- 
produced films and community reaction to them. 


Montpelier, Ohio, Pubhc Schools 

Scene 17 Elementary students in the gym. 

Scene 18 Elementary students in assembly program — 

dramatic production. 

High School 
Scene 1 Students in corridors changing classes. 
Scene 2 Commercial department. 
Scene 3 Industrial arts department. 
Scene 4 Home economics department. 
Scene 5 Art department. 
Scene 6 Library. 
Scene 7 Dramatics. 
Scene 8 Science laboratory. 
Scene 9 A Social Science class showing an integrated 

Scene 10 High school orchestra. 
Scene 11 High school choral group. 
Scene 12 High school bands. 

Scene 13 High school physical education classes. 
Scene 14 On the field — 

a. Football d. 

b. Track e. 

c. Baseball 
Scene 15 On the floor — 

a. Basketball c. 

b. Volleyball d. 
Scene 16 Guidance — 

a. Conference room counselling 

b. Clubs 

c. Student aid 

d. Big sister talking to little sister 

e Big brother talking to little brother 

f. Employment bureau 

g. Entering college 

Scene 17 A flag blowing with a boy and a girl on each side 

of it. Fade-out. 

The outline of the Euclid schools motion picture 

presents a rather complete account of the contents of 

their picture, which is 1600 feet in length, and taken 



A high school class in Home Economics 

on 16 mm. silent film. The remaining twenty-six 
schools with pictures of this type presented outlines 
which were, on the whole, not as complete as the one 
included above. However, any outline which included 
a combination of activities of the school was classified 
as a general school activities picture. 

Football Film. While football and other athletic 
activities are included in many of the general school 
activities type picture, there are, however, nine films 
devoted entirely to football. Obviously, football and 
other athletic events are challenging photographic sub- 
jects. However, there may be some doubt as to the 
public relations value derived from an entire picture 
devoted to this activity. 

Public Service Films. Only one school reported 
making this type of film, presenting the public service 
activities of the community, such as sewage disposal, 
water supply, etc. 

Safety Films. The following material from the 
Cuyahoga Falls report on this type of film may serve 
as a description. "Illustrates correct street crossing — 
danger of playing in street — correct and incorrect driv 
ing — fire drills, etc." 

Community Film. This type of film is difificult to 
classify. It includes shots of local people, local com- 
munity activities, and local points of interest. 

Instructional Films. In this classification are the 
films produced to aid teaching of a specific area of sub- 
ject matter. The pictures included under "social serv- 
ice" and "community" might also be termed instruc- 

The Educational Screen 

tional as they were used in the civics classes as well 
as for public relations. 

May Day Films. Three schools have short pictures 
showing the activities of May Day. 

Teacher Selection Film. One six-minute film on 
teacher selection was made in Gallon. The outline of 
this film is included here. 





How Teachers Are Selected 

The need for an additional teacher manifests itself. 
The superintendent is made aware of the fact. 
The superintendent writes for credentials of applicants 
whose applications he already has on file; he selects 
several most promising and writes them for inter- 

One applicant is shown appearing for interview. 
The superintendent writes the applicant notifying her 
she has been hired. 

A shop class studying farm machinery 

Chapter VII 
Public Relations Value of Motion Pictures 

How many times and to approximately how many 
people has your picture been shown? This question 
was answered by thirty-one schools. The totals show 
fifty-six pictures, exhibited 1,439 times to 211,650 
people. It is not known how many of these were school 
pupils, but it is certain that significant numbers of 
school patrons attended the showings. 

Twenty-nine schools replied to the question regard- 
ing the drawing-power of these films, four saying at- 
tendance was normal, eleven saying greater, and four- 
teen saying much greater. It would seem logical to 
conclude that the school-made motion picture has more 
drawing power than the usual school-community type 
meeting. The writer, when interviewing eight of the 
men having programs, was told usually that attendance 
was at times doubled, and always greater when school 
pictures were on the program of a meeting. 

An attempt was made to discover the effectiveness 
of the film programs in developing better public rela- 
tions. Some of the typical remarks of patrons are 
particularly revealing, and for this reason they are in- 
cluded here: 

"I didn't know we had those departments in our 

"This is one of the best things that the school has 
done to acquaint the patrons of the school with the 
operation of the school." 

"I did not know you were doing all those things at 

"I don't .see how you are able to manage so many 
kids so efficiently." 

"My. I wish my children could attend your school." 

In addition to this are the comments made by the 
school staff members who exhibited the school films: 

"Constant call by public for showings." 

"Parents more willing or anxious to have special 
departments expanded." fj 

"Comments b}^ local papers." 

"Demand for tickets." 

"Cooperation of board members and superintendent." 

"Increased enrollment in school." 

"Requests for repeat showings." 

"Sliown to residents just before voting on renewal 
of 3 mill levy for operating, which was passed." 

"Film stimulated interest on the part of patrons in 
the work of the schools." 

(Concluded on page 128) 

March, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 101 

PtocQQdln^5 of the Winter Meeting o£ the 

Department of Visual Instruction 
of the National Education Association* 

(Held in St. Louis, February 27 and 28, 1940) 

Directing the Visual Instruction Program 

The Statewide Program 


State Department of Education 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

IX keeping with its general program 
for the improvement of instruction, 
Louisiana is making a serious effort to 
bring into classroom use on a State- 
wide basis the newer devices classed 
under "perceptual aids" to teaching. 

Louisiana's visual instruction program 
grew out of a State-wide curriculum 
study initiated during the spring of 
1936. At that time, a conference of the 
staff of Teachers College of Louisiana 
State University and members of the 
State Department of Education was 
held to discuss plans for a State-wide 
study of curriculum. As a result of 
this conference a class was organized 
under direction of Dr. E. B. Robert, 
Dean-elect of Teachers College of 
Louisiana State University, and Mr. A. 
M. Hopper, State Supervisor of Ele- 
mentary Schools and State Director of 
"Program for the Improvement of 
Instruction." This class consisted of 
about 50 members, including members 
of the University staff and other col- 
leges, members of the State Department 
of Education, Parish (County) super- 
intendents, supervisors, principals, and 
teachers. The program worked out 
during the summer of 1936 at Louisiana 
State University has been expanded and 
continued. During the early stages of 
the curriculum movement, it was found 
that instruction in the schools of the 
State L'ould be greatly improved if 
more and better use were made of the 
many types of perceptual aids, including 
the school journey, objects, specimens, 
models, the school museum, graphs, 
charts, maps, globes, photographs, prints, 
the stereograph, the glass and film slide, 
and the motion picture. The possibilities 
of enriching instruction through in- 
creased use of sound aids such as the 
phonograph record and the radio were 
also considered. It was believed that an 
intensive study should be made to deter- 
mine how these aids could be more 
profitably used in classroom instruction. 
Accordingly a State Committee on 
Visual Education was appointed to make 
an intensive study of the possibilities 
in the field of audio-visual education. It 
should be explained here that Louisi- 
ana's school system is well centralized. 
The parish (county) is the unit of 

*See Diversitorials, page 92. 

school administration. The parish ad- 
ministrative units work in close co- 
ordination with the State Department 
of Education which serves as a service 
and co-ordinating agency for the local 
units. The State Committee consisted 
of representatives from the sixty-four 
parish school units and the three separ- 
ate city systems that compose Louisi- 
ana's school system. 

Questions of the following type were 
considered by the State Committee. 

1. Are the schools of Louisiana mak- 
ing the most effective use possible of 
the illustrations which are found in 
many of our textbooks? 

2. Are we supplementing illustrations 
in our textbooks with other illustrations 
that could be easily collected, classified, 
and used in connection with our teach- 
ing? (Geography and history are illus- 
trative subjects that might be cited 
where a more extended use of pictures 
may be made.) 

3. Are we using to their full possi- 
bilities, diagrams, maps, and c'hartis, 
and other graphic materials which are 
available and can be made to supple- 
ment many phases of teaching? 

4. Is there a possibility of using the 
camera to bring into the classroom 
many phases of local life which might 
serve to vitalize teaching? 

5. What are the possibilities of us- 
ing still pictures and lantern slides more 
effectively in teaching? 

6. Do the silent and sound picture 
machines offer opportunities yet un- 
realized to make teaching more effective? 

7. What opportunities does the radio 
offer to us as a device in teaching? 

8. What effective steps should the 
State Committee take to bring before 
school officials and teachers the great 
possibilities of enriching instruction 
through a State-Wide visual instruction 
program ? 

The State Committee organized itself 
as a study group for the purpose of 
exploring all the possibilities of im- 
proving teaching and learning inherent 
in the field of audio-visual education ; 
to examine the scientific studies that 
have been made in these fields ; and to 
draw conclusions of its own as to the 
possibility of increasing the use of per- 
ceptual aids in teaching. The State 
Committee was organized as a nucleus 
to stimulate and co-ordinate a State- 
wide study in the field of visual edu- 
cation. The whole study program was di- 
rected by the writer. 

Members of the State Committee 
served as advisers and directors to 

study further on a State-wide basis in 
the field of visual education. The col- 
leges of Louisiana were represented on 
the Committee. The Louisiana Library 
Commission cooperated with the study 
program. It furnished bibliographies 
dealing with visual education and made 
available to the Committee members 
and to others interested references and 
inaterials dealing with the field. The 
libraries in the various colleges of the 
State also cooperated in the same man- 

Initiative on the part of individual 
teachers was emphasized. During the 
summer of 1937, courses in audio-visual 
education were offered in two institu- 
tions of higher learning. Practically- 
all Louisiana colleges offered courses in 
this field during the summers of 1938 
and 1939 and plan to continue to do 
so. The Extension Division of the 
Louisiana State University, which had 
an organized visual education library 
prior to the State-wide program, co- 
operated in every way to facilitate the 
expanded program. 

The study program as briefly explain- 
ed above was well received by the 
teachers of the State. The faculties in 
the various schools made an intensive 
study of the possibilities of increasing 
teaching effectiveness through increased 
use of visual and other perceptual aids. 
They learned to use mechanical devices 
essential to an effective program as 
these were purchased and installed in 
many schools of the State. The pro- 
gram was given impetus on October 17, 
1939, by a resolution adopted by the 
State Board of Education establishing 
visual education libraries in six cen- 
ters, including the following State ins- 
titutions of higher learning: Louisiana 
State Normal College; Louisiana Poly- 
technic Institute; Southwestern Louisi- 
ana Institute; Southeastern Louisiana 
College; Southern University for Ne- 
groes. A center was also provided for 
in the State Department of Education. 
These film libraries were established in 
addition to the one at Louisiana State 
University which brought the total State 
film centers to seven. The administra- 
tion of the visual education libraries 
was placed under the direction of the 
Directors of Extension in the State in- 
stitutions. In the case of Southeastern 
Louisiana College, the administration of 
the library was placed under the direc- 
tion of Dr. D. C. Martin, as this insti- 
tution has no Extension Division. In 
each institution, the field work in the 
territory served by the institution was 
placed under the direction of some 
competent staff member of the institu- 

Page 102 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

tion. The Directors of the visual edu- 
cation libraries became permanent mem- 
bers of the State Committee on Visual 
Education, and the State program was 
modified so that each institution would 
plan its own program to serve its best 
interests and the best interests of the 
region in which the institution is 

The State Committee agreed to plan 
a long-time program in Visual Education 
for Louisiana, with the view of making 
a continuous study of developments in 
the field and securing appropriations to be 
used in expanding the visual education 
program to serve the schools and colleges 
of the State. The representative of each 
institution on the Committee agreed to 
assume responsibility for developing with 
the entire faculty of his institution the 
State Program of Visual Education and 
the plan projected for using the State 
film libraries. With regard to films only, 
the following tentative program was 
worked out : 

1. Each library center will make a 
list of the films that it chooses to pur- 
chase for its own use and region it serves, 
this list to be submittted to the State 
Department of Education. 

2. Each institution should add free 
films to its film library after they have 
been previewed and accepted. Criteria 
should be set up for the judging of these 
films in order that undesirable propa- 
ganda and advertisement will not be 
shown in the schools. 

3. Each institution should secure copies 
of the film catalogs of Louisiana State 
University, the University of Wiscon- 
sin, Ohio State University, and other 
institutions to study the organization of 
libraries in other centers. 

4. Each institution should provide a 
room for the demonstration of films and 
other visual materials. 

5. The State Department of Educa-* 
tion will publish a general catalog giving 
the names of the films that are avail- 
able in each film center in the State, and 
each institution will prepare a list of the 
films available in its library. This cata- 
log and the lists will be made available 
to the schools of the State. 

6. It was agreed that anv school in 
the State should feel free to draw from 
the library of any institution, but. in 
general, a school should draw from the 
institution located in its reeion. 

7. It was agreed that each school 
borrowing from a film center should 
deposit $5.00 to cover the transportation 
of films to and from the school. All 
films will be made available to schools 
without cost but each school borrow- 
ing films is to pay for their transnorta- 

8. It was agreed that each institution 
would submit a minimum list of films 
for immediate purchase. Other films 
should be selected as soon as oossible 
and listed with the State Deoartment of 
Education for purchase. 

9. It was agreed that, while films 
would be rental free to a school, the 
school would be held responsible for anv 
damage. It was agreed that $1.00 would 

be charged for each day that a school 
delayed the return of a sound film bcvond 
the date agreed upon, and SOc would be 
charged for each day that a silent film 
is delayed beyond the date of its return. 

10. The representatives of the institu- 
tion agreed to submit further suggestions 
for the development of the Visual Edu- 
cation Program as experience is gained. 

11. It was agreed that meetings would 
be called by the State Department of 
Education as needs would arise for com- 
mittee consultation. 

In relation to the State Program of 
Visual Education, it was felt that a con- 
tinuous study of developments in the use 
of visual and auditory aids in teaching 
should be made. It was planned that 
each institution of higher learning would 
ofler summer courses in this field in the 
immediate future and plan to offer 
courses in the regular session for the 
training of teachers. In other words, 
one of the first problems recognized iij 
the program was teacher training in the 
use of visual and auditory aids. It was 
realized from the first that there is no 
separate field of visual education, but 
that the use of all types of perceptual 
aids in teaching should be an integral 
part of classroom instruction and a de- 
termined effort has been made to bring 
into actual use in the teacher-training 
programs wide application of recognized 
tvpes of visual and auditory aids. As an 
example of this idea, the training schools 
of the State are attempting to bring into 
classroom use various types of perceptual 
aids in teaching so that student teachers 
will see actual demonstrations of how 
these function in teaching. A program has 
been projected whereby more extensive 
use will be made of various types of 
perceptual aids in the academic courses 
taught in the colleges of the State. All 
teachers, either in public schools or in- 
stitutions of higher learning in the State, 
have access to the film libraries and 
other materials useful in enriching in- 
struction through perceptual aids. Many 
librarians in the public schools and 
colleges of the State are cooperating. 
Librarians believe that in addition to the 
books, periodicals, and papers usually 
found in the library, visual materials of 
all kinds should be a part of the library 
service. It is recognized that audio- 
visual aids are, themselves, a kind of 
book — a talking book. The young people 
of today do not limit their search for 
information and ideas to books. Ideas 
and information from motion pictures, 
the radio, comic strips, advertising illus- 
trations are part of their education, and 
it should be stated incidentally that audio- 
visual service is increasing the use of 

In Lousiana it was recognized that 
certain problems had to be met wherever 
a serious attempt was being made to 
use audio-visual aids in teaching. Ad- 
ministrative problems, such as financing 
and setting up budgets for the purchase 
of visual materials, have to be solved. 
Other problems of a supervisory nature, 
such as the training of instructors in the 
use of equipment and the selection and 
use of audio-visual materials, are being 

studied by practically all tlie schools of 
the State. It is believed that a contin- 
ous, organized study of these problems 
will result in a reasonably satisfactory 
solution of many of them. 

The local administrative officers of the 
various parishes of Louisiana, especially 
the parish (county) superintendents and 
supervisors, have cooperated wholeheart- 
edly. In several parishes, every school 
has been equipped with motion picture 
and other projectors to facilitate and in- 
crease the use of visual aids. In other 
parishes a few schools have been equipped 
and plans have been projected for the 
equipment of all schools as these schools 
become ready for the use of equipment 
and as finances permit. 

As stated in the early part of this 
paper, the institutions of higher learn- 
ing and the State Department have as- 
sumed responsibility for making avail- 
able to the schools of the State education- 
al films. As the program expands and 
appropriations are made, it is hoped that 
these centers will be able to make avail- 
able visual materials of every type. 
Materials available in the centers named 
are supplied to schools of the State with- 
out cost. The State Board of Education 
has furnished money to stock these 
library centers. 

In addition to the State film centers 
established and financed by the State 
Board of Education, local film centers 
have been established by local units. 
Especial mention should be made of the 
Visual Instruction Department in the City 
of New Orleans established and financed 
by the Orleans Parish School Board. 
Mrs. Camilla Best, Secretary-Treasurer 
of the Department of Visual Instruction, 
N. E. A. is Director of the Depart- 
ment of Visual Aids for the city school 
system of Orleans. 

Much credit is due Superintendent 
Bauer and Mrs. Best for the impetus 
given to the Louisiana program. A 
modest film library has been established 
in New Orleans. Mrs. Best and her 
associates have developed an effective 
visual edrcation program in New Or- 
leans. Other parishes are develop- 
ing local programs to co-ordinate with 
the State Program. The stimulation to 
Louisiana's program of Visual Instruction 
given by Mr. J. E. Hansen, Chief of 
the Bureau of Visual Instruction, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, during the summer 
of 1938 through his class at Louisiana 
State University should not be over- 

In summarizing the following state- 
ments indicate the main features of the 
Louisiana Program : 

1. It is a state program. 

2. The program provides for the train- 
ing of teachers in the use of visual 

3. The institutions of higher learning 
are actively cooperating in the de- 
velopment of the program. 

4. Film libraries are being established 
so that all schools will be conven- 
iently served. 

5. The visual instruction program is a 
part of the State's general program 
for the improvement of instruction. 

March, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 103 

The City Program 


Director of Visual Instruction, 
Evansville, Indiana 

IN presenting this topic I shall first 
discuss the problem as it relates to 
my own school situation; then make 
some statements with regard to current 
practice throughout tlie nation ; and con- 
clude with some rather general observa- 
tions as to what the current practice 
seems to be. 

Any program to be successful must 
be well organized. Evansville, Indi- 
ana, is a city of 110,000 people with a 
public school population of 17,500 chil- 
dren. Of this number approximately 
5,500 are in five secondary schools and 
12,000 are enrolled in seventeen ele- 
mentary schools. Heading the entire 
program of audio-visual instruction is 
the director. His office is located with 
that of the department directors and 
supervisors in the central administrative 
headquarters. He is assisted by a sec- 
retary in this office. Located at the 
Public Schools Warehouse is the gen- 
eral audio-visual library. Here there is 
a booking clerk who also fills orders and 
repairs damaged films and slides. Op- 
erating out of the library is the de- 
livery clerk. A technician is employed 
part-time by the department to keep 
the projection equipment in operating 

In each of the schools one person is 
designated as school director of visual 

education. The school director in each 
of the high schools has a staff of train- 
ed student operators who are assigned 
by periods to teachers who have ma- 
terials to be projected. This group in 
each school is being changed yearly by 
graduation. However, the list of ap- 
plicants for jobs as projectionists out- 
numbers the vacancies. In the ele- 
mentary schools the school director 
trains teachers in the use of equipment. 
In the beginning there was considerable 
fear and trembling on the part of many 
teachers who used the projectors. Much 
of this has been overcome, and many 
of the teachers are experienced as op- 
erators. As new teachers come in, the 
building director acquaints them with 
the materials available, how to secure 
them, and how to utilize them. 

Each building is regarded as a sep- 
arate unit, and projection equipment is 
supplied to each as such. A typical 
grade school is equipped with one 
16 mm. sound projector, two or more 
stereopticons, two or more portable 
screens, and one opaque projector. In 
addition, nearly all of the rooms in 
the school are equipped with opaque 
shades and electrical outlets. In the 
high schools, in addition to the equip- 
ment mentioned, there is an additional 
16 mm. sound projector, one 16 mm. 
silent projector, a public address sys- 
tem, one ten-foot theatre-type auditor- 
ium screen, several radios, and one rec- 
ording machine. All of this equipment 
is in the charge of the school director. 
Every school has worked out a plan 
for informing teachers as to when 
equipment will be available. The most 

generally used device is a form wliich 
is placed on the bulletin board of the 
school office. This form divides each 
school day into periods and teachers 
sign for the period during the week 
which they want the equipment. In the 
elementary schools the custodians de- 
liver the equipment and call for it when 
the teacher has completed using it. In 
the high schools this is done by the 
student operators. 

Biennially a complete catalog of 
visual materials is published and is 
placed in the hands of every teacher. 
Materials are listed by subject areas, 
and the grade level as well as a descrip- 
tion of the material is indicated. From 
time to time as coures of study are re- 
vised, available materials are listed 
therein by units. Numerous lists are 
issued from time to time of visual aids 
available from the State Health De- 
partment, from Various government 
agencies, from the State University and 
from commercial and industrial organi- 
zations. From all of these, teachers 
make choices of materials which they 
want for classroom purposes. These 
are sent in by the various schools on 
requisitions to the booking clerk who 
clears conflicts and sends out orders. 
The delivery clerk makes a daily round 
of the buildings picking up and leaving 
orders on his schedule. Due to the size 
of the city he can conveniently reach all 
the schools in one day. Films and 
slides are circulated on a two-day 
basis. Exhibits and transcriptions are 
circulated on a four-day schedule. 

The foregoing report has been largely 
on the mechanical aspects of the Evans- 


School System 

Type of 

System of 




Amount in 

Size of 





for Loans 



Boston, Mass. 


(in Teachers 








Buffalo, N. Y. 


Own truck 

Three times 
a year 


4 days 

$ 7,500.00 


Cambridge, Mass. 


Called for 



$ 500.00 


(in Museum) 

by teachers 

Chicago, 111. 






Weekly or 




Dallas, Texas 


Own truck 



Week or 

$ 4,644.00 


Detroit, Mich. 

and school 

Own truck 

One month 
to a year 





Evansville, Ind. 





2 days 

$ 2,800.00 


Kansas City, Mo. 


and truck 

By semester 
or oftener 


Week or 



Philadelphia. Pa. 


Own truck 

Weekly or term 





Pittsburgh, Pa. 

and school 

Own trucks 

Twice a year 



$1.00 per 


Pueblo, Colo. 





Week or 

$ 200.00 


Sacramento, Calif. 






(Films) 2 days 
(Slides) week 

$ 8,000.00 


Sioux City, Iowa 




Weekly or 

One day 

$ 1,000.00 

2 part 



(3 days in 
High Schools) 


St Louis, Mo. 


(in Educational 

Own trucks 





♦This figure does 

not include 


Page 104 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

ville program. These are important 
considerations in any well ordered pro- 
gram. Every phase of the program 
must operate smoothly if it is to be 
functional. Some of the important 
instructional features of the program in- 
clude those of utilization and experi- 

From time to time the director has 
used various methods to secure a maxi- 
mum of correct use of materials. Among 
the techniques employed are : 

1. Bulletins and other printed ma- 
terials are sent out periodically. These 
suggest uses to which aids may be put. 

2. Talks before teachers' groups are 
made frequently by the director. 

3. The director works with prin- 
cipals, supervisors, and department heads 
in encouraging wider and more correct 
use of visual aids. 

4. Teachers are accepting the pro- 
gram and on their own initiative are 
inviting the director into their classes 
to work with them in planning the use 
of materials. It is on this basis that 
the program should expand most in the 

5. A new development in our ninth 
year program is the so called "General 
Living" Course. Instead of being divided 
into smaller class groups on the basis 
of subject matter divisions, the fresh- 
men classes are arranged in groups of 
about 100. These groups work to- 
gether with a committee of four teach- 
ers. One of these teachers formerly 
was a social studies teacher, another an 
English teacher, another a Science teach- 
er, and another a commerical teacher. 
One of these teachers is chairman of 
the teacher committee. The "General 
Living" portion of the day takes in three 
clock hours. The groups are free to 
work on any problem which they may 
care to set up relating to a better 
knowledge of their school and com- 
munity. The lengthened time permits 
them to do many things formerly im- 
possible under the forty or fifty minute 
class periods. Trips, use of radio, as- 
semblies, etc., grow out of the work. 

It is in the area of "the experiment" 
that many teachers become thoroughly 
sold on the visual technique. No mat- 
ter how much conclusive evidence has 
been compiled by others proving that a 
visual procedure is superior to other 
methods, the teacher who wishes to re- 
peat or try a variation of the experi- 
ment should be given all the encourage- 
ment in the world. Some of the ideas 
which we have used to experiment with 
include : 

1. Transcribing dramatic sketches 
written and broadcast by students, then 
playing tiiem back to the classes which 
produced them as well as to other 
groups interested in the content of the 
broadcast. This resulted in increased 
reading of so-called "required books," 
as reported by teachers and increased 
reading of the same books by adults as 
reported by the public libraries. 

2. Effect of multiple showing of 
films. This experiment is just now be- 
ing made. A film is shown to one 

group once, another twice, and another 
three times. Appropriate tests are given 
and an attempt will be made to measure 
the effect of repeated showings. 

3. Using the opaque projector as a 
device for teaching reading. 

4. Making purposeful school jour- 
neys to vitalize classroom work. 

5. Teachers assist in evaluating new- 
er materials which are to be added to 
the library. 

6. Course of study committees in- 
clude a convenient listing of visual ma- 
terials at appropriate places in the 
courses which they develop. 

7. Teachers and administrators are 
encouraged to enroll in summer school 
and extension classes in visual educa- 

No matter how often such research 
and experimentation is carried on, it 
is wise to let it be continued. Partici- 
pation in an experiment is an effective 
method of winning friends to it. 

There are many cities throughout the 
country which have developed outstand- 
ing programs of visual instruction. Some 
of these are tabulated below. As 
examples of large and small cities I will 
report on Chicago and Buffalo in some 

Chicago circulates all of its visual ma- 
terial from a central depository. Every 
item which is circulated is carefully 
checked each time it is returned so that 
it will go out again in good condition. 
All material is delivered by a hired 
package delivery service at 2Sc per stop. 
Packages leave the library at 8 :00 a. m. 
and are delivered not later than 
2 :00 p. m. of the same day. Pick-ups 
made during the day are returned to the 
library by 8 :00 a. m. the following 
morning. Since the delivery service 
covers an area of 325 square miles, the 
Chicago department feels that the serv- 
ice is quite adequate. The commercial 
service has proved to be cheaper in Chi- 
cago than if the school system owned 
a number of trucks. 

All vistial aids in Chicago are cir- 
culated on a weekly loan basis. Schools 
may order their entire program of 
visual materials one year in advance. 
As the Chicago teachers become ac- 
quainted with the material which is 
available, many of them keep a record 
of the particular aid they want at a 
certain time during the semester. From 
this record they make their orders for 
subsequent semesters. 

Some of the schools prefer block 
booking. In that instance the entire pro- 
gram for a school is set up in Septem- 
ber and the school is notified of its 
schedule for the year. 

Other schools prefer to order visual 
materials from time to time as they 
need it. The method of booking is left 
with the school. 

Exclusive of salaries the Chicago 
visual education budget is $63,500. The 
Chicago staff consists of one director, 
one secretary, one accountant, one book- 
ing clerk, and two assistants who 
handle all of the circulation record, 
eight inspectors and order packers. In 
each public school there is one teacher 

who serves as a director for the visual 
program. It is the business of this 
teacher to see that the program func- 
tions within his school. 

Chicago's program is confined to 
16 mm. sound and 16 mm. silent films and 
standard stereopticon slides. The films 
and slides circulate; the projectors do 
not. Projectors are picked up once a 
year during the summer and are given 
a thorough inspection and overliauling. 
The library consists of 5,000 reels of 
films, twenty per cent of which are 
16 mm. sound ; 2,500 sets of stereopticon 
slides averaging about forty slides to 
the set ; slightly more than 100 sound 
projectors and approximately 500 silent 
projectors, and 1,000 stereopticon lan- 

Buffalo uses the central depository 
system. Visual aid supplies are de- 
livered to the schools by truck. The 
city is zoned into two divisions. De- 
livery is made in the first zone on 
Monday and in the second zone on 
Tuesday. Pick-ups in the first zone are 
on Thursday and in the second zone on 
Friday. As is evident, visual aids re- 
main in the schools of the first zone 
Monday through Thursday, and in tlie 
second zone Tuesday through Friday. 
When material is returned to the central 
library, it is inspected, repaired, and 
repacked ready for redelivery, ^'isual 
aids are requisitioned in Buffalo over 
three long-term periods. The first is 
from September to the Christmas vaca- 
tion, the second from the Christmas va- 
cation to the Easter vacation, and the 
third from the Easter vacation until 
the close of school. The budget in 
Buffalo allows $15,000 for salaries and 
approximately $7,500 for supplies and 
equipment. The Buffalo staff is com- 
prised of one supervisor, one repair 
man and operator, one clerk, one 
stenographer, three film and slide 
clerks, one driver, and one driver's 

This report points out a number of 
similarities among the audio-visual pro- 
grams throughout the country. In all 
cities reporting, the central depository 
system is proving most practical. Two 
of the cities reported that they had dis- 
counted a zone plan as being too costly. 
Several cities place certain types of ma- 
terials, such as flat pictures and slides, 
permanently in each school, while films 
are distributed from a central library. 
In nearly all cases visual materials are 
distributed by a truck owned by the 
public schools. In a few instances, the 
school city found it more economical 
to hire delivery service on a package 
basis. The weekly system of requisi- 
tioning materials was most popular, al- 
though some systems permit orders to 
be filed as long as a year in advance. 
An encouraging feature of the develop- 
ing visual education program is that 
nearly all programs are included in the 
school budget. Some of the visual educa- 
tion budgets are quite substantial. The 
staffs handling the various programs 
are usually in proportion to the size of 
the school city. 

March, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 103 

The Individual School 


Prin. Roosevelt Jr. High School 
Fond du Lac, Wisconsin 

VISUAL aids to learning are as old 
as education itself. While it is 
fairly safe to assume that every Am- 
erican school uses them in some form or 
another, it is equally safe to assume that 
very few schools make optimum use 
of this most effective adjunct to the 
learning process. No school administra- 
tor who is acquainted with recent edu- 
cational literature will question the 
efficacy or desirability of visual aids to 
learning. Yet in spite of what appears 
to be convincing evidence, visual edu- 
cation programs have failed to get the 
enthusiastic or intelligent support they 
deserve from school administrators in 

Freeman of Chicago, in 1924, defined 
visual education in substance as a 
"grouping of educational materials, , , , 
based not upon subject matter, but up- 
on a method of presentation. This 
method has as its essential feature the 
fact that it belongs to one of the 
senses. Such a situation is without 
parallel. We do not have a department 
of auditory education, of tactual, kines- 
thetic, gustatory or olfactory education," 

In setting up a department whose ma- 
terials, equipment and devices cut across 
and enter into the functioning of prac- 
tically all other departments, we are 
violating an old established principle of 
school administration. If a new de- 
partment is not set up, how then shall 
visual aids be administered? Can a 
visual education program be intro- 
duced without a director? Should the 
director have time off from teaching? 
Who will decide on the specific aids to 
be used, director, teachers, or others? 
Who will keep the mechanical equip- 
ment in working order? Shall each 
building have its own equipment or shall 
visual aids operate through a city-wide 
department ? Where is the money com- 
ing from to establish this service? Shall 
all departments share equally in the 
budgetary provision for visual aids or 
how shall it be done? Shall a film and 
slide library be established or shall they 
be rented? These and many other 
problems confront the administrator at 
the start. 

Many administrators have envisaged 
such conflicts ahead and have gracefully 
backed away from visual education be- 
cause of them. School men whose 
principal interest is a smooth running 
system will be inclined to wait until 
the more progressive schools have 
solved most of these problems. Even 
now there are timid principals and 
superintendents who are still hesitating 
after ten or fifteen years exposure to 
tlie impact of the more modern types 
of visual education. 

Before a school starts to build its 
visual aids program it should bear in 

mind tliat the field of visual aids real- 
ly includes the following : 

t'leld trips and excursions — Museum 
specimens — Models, replicas, dioramas — 
Opaque pictures — Maps, globes, charts, 
graphs, etc, — Stereographs — L a n t e r n 
Slides — Strip ftlnfc — Motion pictures, 
(silent and sound). 

These materials may be classified for 
convenience under five headings, i.e. : 

Field trips — Museum materials — 
Graphic materials — Still pictures — Mo- 
tion pictures. The last classification, 
motion pictures, is the only one that can 
lay any claim to being new in educa- 

Field trips and excursions rank high 
in value because of their extremely 
objective nature. This is the most con- 
crete aid to learning of them all, though 
(Jircumstances Often prevent its most 
effective use. Problems of pupil trans- 
portation, allotment of tiine, size of 
classes, rigidity of teaching schedules and 
tlie like sometimes add up to a total 
which outweighs the advantages and 
renders the whole project impractical. 
In spite of such handicaps the school 
with which I am connected undertakes 
occasional visits to the state capitol, the 
state penitentiary, to circuit court and 
to the local library and museum. Ex- 
cursions planned for early morning or 
late afternoon permit part of the trip 
to be taken out of the pupils' own 
time. We have operated "Know Your 
City Clubs" successfully for four 
years, using the school activity period 
and some of the pupils' own early morn- 
ing time for weekly field trips. These 
trips into factories and industrial plants 
have been the means of establishing the 
most cordial relations between school 
and local enterprise. 

Schools so situated as to be able to 
use the facilities of a large city museum 
are indeed fortunate. Many of the 
larger museums have loan collections 
which are sent out to schools. Any 
school without facilities of this type 
should start a small museum of its 
own. Any enthusiastic teacher can in- 
duce her pupils to start collecting speci- 
mens. Inexpensive display trays made 
in the Manual Arts Department or low 
paste board boxes with glass or cello- 
phane covers will serve most purposes. 
Pupils themselves should be encouraged 
to label and arrange their own exhibits 
wherever possible. Collections of moths, 
butterflies, leaves, plants, weeds, rocks, 
minerals, shells and the like lend them- 
selves to this type of activity. An 
aquarium makes an excellent room or 
class project and pupils are often will- 
ing to contribute everything necessary 
to establish one. Glass sided cases are 
preferable but not an essential part of 
such a project. In a like manner a 
vivarium may be established with pupils 
furnishing the small animals and plants. 

Under graphic materials could be in- 
cluded — maps, charts, globes, diagrams, 
graphs, posters, drawings, cartoons and 
similar materials. It is the writer's con- 
viction that a collection of graphic ma- 
terials should be accumulated by every 
teacher. Any alert teacher will find 

much usable material that can be cut 
from daily papers, Sunday supplements, 
magazines, advertising folders and trade 
or professional journals. Such material 
should be mounted and filed away so 
that it may be available at a moment's 
notice. Departmental teachers may find 
it advantageous to have a central file 
for their department. This material is 
easy to collect and is most inexpensive. 
With a balopticon and screen the small- 
er materials may be shown so that the 
whole class may see them at the same 

Still pictures will include all opaque 
pictures, te.xtbook prints, stereoscopic 
views, lantern slides and certain of the 
micro-projection slides. Textbooks on the 
elementary and high school level do not 
offer nearly enough material to furnish 
the desired motivation or end results, 
learning. Like graphic materials opaque 
pictures may be gathered from innum- 
erable sources at small expense. Every 
classroom should be equipped with 
adequate bulletin board space to accom- 
modate large blocks of these easily ob- 
tainable materials. The modern trend, 
if I interpret it correctly, is for less 
blackboard and more bulletin or ex- 
hibit board. 

Lantern slide materials introduce cer- 
tain additional and desirable features, 
difficult or impossible to accomplish in 
other ways. First, showing a series of 
slides to the whole group at once saves 
a great deal of class time ; second, the 
resulting class discussion can take place 
during or just after the showing when 
pupils will be most eager to give their 
contributions ; third, the resources of 
slide rental agencies are usually much 
greater than the teacher's for procuring 
authentic materials ; fourth, lantern 
slides are easy to procure on a rental 
basis and fairly easy to manufacture at 
home if something special is desired. 
The cost of a good portable stereopticon 
is about $70,00 and the rental cost of 
slides is quite low, A combination bal- 
opticon and stereopticon enables one to 
project opaque pictures of postcard size 
as well as lantern slides, A standard 
model of this type lists for about 

Micro-projection is quite new and is 
especially valuable in the sciences of 
botany, biology, physiology and bac- 
teriology where it is desirable to show 
still or live microscopic phenomenon. 
Standard units in this field range from 
$50.00 to $150.00 depending upon the 
power of the unit. Attachments may be 
purchased for about $25.00 which will 
change an ordinary compound microscope 
into a micro-projeqtor which is very 
adequate for classroom purposes. 

A decade of experience in the use of 
motion pictures has convinced the 
writer that there are certain distinctive 
contributions made by motion pictures. 
The motion picture is the most realistic 
of the picture aids. It affords us an al- 
most perfect illusion of reality through 
action, color and sound. While motion 
is not essential in depicting many things 
it becomes very essential in understand- 
ing such a complex thing as the beating 

Page 106 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

of a human heart. Motion pictures for 
diagrammatic instruction, or wherever ac- 
tion of any kind is involved, are invalu- 
able. Whether it be the illustrating of 
the digestion of food, the circulation of 
blood, the action of a gasoline engine 
or the trek of our early pioneers across 
the prairies, no teaching device has dem- 
onstrated its effectiveness quite as well 
as the motion pictures. They have an 
urgency of appeal to most pupils which 
textbooks do not have ; they arouse in- 
terest quickly and if they are wisely 
administered provoke discussion, think- 
ing and learning. Many of us have felt, 
and recent experiments have confirmed 
the hypothesis, that pupils can acquire 
certain types of information more 
quickly, more thoroughly and retain it 
longer through motion pictures. This 
is particularly true of low ability groups 
who bog down easily under the verb- 
alism of textbooks. 

Before an adequate visual education 
program can be established for the in- 
dividual school, certain practical aspects 
of the problem must be considered. The 
writer will attempt to point out some 
of the problems and offer suggestions as 
to how they may be solved, or at least 

Who shall head up the program of 
visual aids in the individual buildings? 
This will, of course, depend upon the 
size of the building. In a small school 
the principal or any interested teacher 
could do everything necessary. In large 
schools I find no uniform procedure. It 
is usually a person who has more than 
the ordinary amount of interest in visual 
aids, often he is an enthusiast. Heads 
of Science Departments, principals, vice- 
principals and science teachers are most 
often mentioned. Such leaders should 
be given some time on the schedule to 
accomplish these additional duties. 

Who shall start the program? In- 
spiration for better visual aids is very 
frequently provided by a classroom teach- 
er or a principal who has become 
aware of the advantages long before the 
superintendent. By starting out with 
the least expensive aids such as field 
trips, still pictures, graphic or museum 
materials, the attention of other teachers 
and of those in authority will soon be- 
come focused on your program. 

How keep it going? If the program 
stalemates at the point of buying equip- 
ment, try inducing your principal to con- 
duct some sort of a benefit for your 
visual aids program. Enlist the aid of 
the Parent-Teacher group or the Moth- 
ers' Qub in your project. Offer to raise 
half of the amount necessary for your 
first piece of equipment if the Board of 
Education will appropriate the other 
half. Select the less expensive types of 
equipment first and defer the more ex- 
pensive types, such as motion pictures and 
sound equipment, until later. Exhibit 
your equipment and methods by show- 
ing a model class before your Parent- 
Teacher group. Invite your superinten- 
dent and members of your school board 
to attend. Keep showing your interest 
and it is more than probable that others 
will see the advantages of the program. 


Visual Aids 
January IS-January 19, 1940 
504 Hot Air Heating 16 mm. Silent 
559 Bituminous Cod 16 mm. Silent 
1098 Anthracite Coal 16 mm. Silent 

1068 Digestion 16 mm. Silent 

680 Foods and Growth 16 mm. Silent 

Darkening of Classrooms. Modest be- 
ginnings will likewise prove advantage- 
ous here if the program must progress 
slowly. Start out with one room, a 
vacant one if possible. Curtains made 
up of blue denim designed to draw from 
the center and to cover the entire block 
of windows are adequate and inexpen- 
sive, about $13.00 for the average class- 
room windows. By a rotating schedule 
or the exchange of room a surprising 
number of pupils can participate. As 
the need develops ask that more rooms 
be equipped for darkening. 

The Projection Screen. Daylight 
screens are rather expensive and not al- 
ways satisfactory. In darkened rooms an 
ordinary white window shade may be 
mounted on a narrow board and sus- 
pended above the blackboard by eyelets 
and hooks. This makes a satisfactory 
screen for most every classroom purpose 
and is easily taken from room to room. 
If only one room is to be used for pro- 
jection it would be wise to use some- 
what better equipment and fixtures. 

Teachers should have a prominent 
part in shaping of the building program 

of visual aids. Any scheme superim- 
posed from above should be avoided. 
Unless teachers themselves are con- 
vinced that the aids are desirable and 
worth the effort, unless they are allowed 
to synchronize the film offerings with 
their courses of study, little will be ac- 
complished that is worthwhile. 

A partial study in Wisconsin indicates 
that the Science Departments make the 
most use of motion pictures. In plan- 
ning a visual aids storeroom it is well 
to locate it near the Science Department 
or near whatever department is likely 
to use the most equipment. The more 
accessible the aids, the more they zvill be 

The operation of mechanical equip- 
ment need offer no serious drawbacks. 
In buying equipment it is easy to in- 
sist on a demonstration or that the 
visual aids chairman or director be 
instructed in the operation of every ma- 
chine. This person can, in turn, instruct 
teachers. In one Wisconsin high school 
the director of visual aids sponsors a 
student "Projection Club." The mem- 
bers learn to operate the machines dur- 
ing club time and act as operators dur- 
ing vacant periods. It is wise to have 
one person responsible for the oiling, 
checking and minor repairing of me- 
chanical equipment. Complete overhaul- 
ing of moving picture machines had best 
be done at the factory. 

Sound equipment for classroom in- 
struction is making considerable head- 
way. Many of the larger schools are 




112 3 4 5 6 1 

M 1 1 

T 1 1 

w 1 1 

Th 1 1 

F 1 1 

Model K 

112 3 4 5 6 1 

M 1 

T 1 

W I 

Th 1 

F 1 

Bell & Howell 
Model S. T. 

|1 |2 3 |4 516 

Mil 1 1 

Til 1 

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F M 1 1 


Schedule Sheet 

Teachers : Write below your Name and the Film or Slides you wish to use on the 
Above Machine. List room if not your own. 

Week of 

January IS to 

January 19 

Period I 

Period II 

Period III 

Period IV 

Period V 

Period VI 





























Room 135 





Room 231 








March, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 107 

already using it extensively and scores 
of others plan to install it. This is con- 
siderably more expensive than the silent 
equipment and much more heavy and 
cumbersome to move. A good silent 
projector for classroom purposes lists 
around $120.00 while a comparable port- 
able sound projector will list at about 
$300.00. Sound films coss more to pur- 
chase and carry a higher rental. 

It is often said that sound film makes 
it possible to bring the master teacher 
into every classroom. While this may 
be true, seeing and hearing are only 
part of the learning process. Learning 
is the result of thinking, feeling and 
doing. The disadvantage of much sound 
film produced in the past is that while 
the subject might be appropriate, the 
accompanying talk has not been suited 
to the understanding of the listener, be- 
ing too elementary or too difficult. Only 
careful adjustment to the grade level of 
pupils by film makers or by the teacher 
can correct this error. Recently film 
makers have attacked this problem with 
considerable success. Sound film ex- 
cels where sound is an essential factor to 
the understanding of a particular film 
subject, i. e., the battle of Gettysburg. 

A recent trend among film makers 
is to make many of the new subjects for 
sound only. This trend, if continued, 
will influence many schools to purchase 
some sound equipment since sound films 
cannot be run on the silent-film pro- 
jectors. It is, however, possible to 
change over a silent-film projector so 
it can run sound film. Such alteration 
includes the addition of sound sprockets, 
the replacement of .the aperture plate, 
shuttle, shuttle cam and the film gate 
mechanism. While these alterations look 
formidable they have been expertly done 
at the factory at the cost of only $25.00. 
This enables one to use both silent and 
sound films successfully on the same 
machine if one is willing to forego the 
sound effects. This is not proposed as 
a general policy but rather as a stop- 
gap arrangement to take advantage of 
late releases of sound film. 

Large city schools may find it profit- 
able to own their own libraries. Small 
systems and individual schools find it 
advantageous to use such free films as 
measure up to their standards and rent 
the balance. Many states subsidize an 
educational film service. Where this is 
procurable it will usually be found to 
be the best and most economical rental 
agency. Such service is frequently sup- 
plemented by films from commercial 

Small schools may find it prohtable 
to investigate cooperative visual aids bu- 
reaus, especially if they operate in near- 
by territory. The cooperative system 
operating in St. Louis County, Missouri, 
is said to be efficient and successful. The 
Audio- Visual Council is another such co- 
operative which is operated by school 
people on a non-profit basis in Cook 
County, Illinois. 

One of the big problems, as I see it. 
is to get teachers to make full and in- 
telligent use of visual aids after the 
system has been set up. 

In our own city we have attempted to 
solve this problem by : 

1. Acquainting teachers with the best 
visual offerings obtainable, twice a 

2. By allowing teachers to have a 
major part in the choice of films. 

3. By having a record kept of every 
new film shown which lists such things 
ds title, source, cost, time required for 
showing, and most important of all an 
"Evaluation" by each teacher. This is 
an invaluable aid in making up the lists 
of films for the next year. 

4. By carefully synchronizing each film 
to the course of study. This is perhaps 
the most dilificult part but one which 
brings maximum returns. 

5. By ordering films, etc., far enough 
in advance to assure having the film 
on a particular day or in a particular 
week, makes it easy to arrange showings. 

6. By setting up a Visual Aids Bul- 
letin Board 3' x 6', in the General 
Office where all teachers will see it from 
two to four times each day. 

7. By listing the visual aid offerings 
for at least one week in advance. Plate 
I shows a typical week's offerings of 
film. The serial numbers at the left are 
assigned by the rental bureau. 

8. By listing each piece of available 
mechanical equipment on separate labels 
across the top of the bulletin board. Un- 
der each of these is placed mimeograph 
schedule sheets to be filled in by the 
teachers as desired. Plate II necessarily 
shows only a portion of the equipment 
and schedule sheets. 

9. Plate III shows the same schedule 
sheet enlarged to show detail. This il- 
lustrates how teachers have completed 
their list of requirements for the week. 

10. In this way the teacher can re- 
serve the time for her showing of 
visual aids, reserve the particular equip- 
ment she wants, the room, and plan her 
week's work accordingly. 

This scheme in a fifty teacher school 
has proven very advantageous. It has 
made the use of visual aids so easy and 
so convenient that there is no longer any 
excuse for not taking advantage of them. 

Problems in the Production of 
Educational Motion Pictures 


Teaching Films Division, 

Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York 

I FEEL that Dr. Hansen is entitled to 
a vote of thanks for his plan to bring 
together at this conference the producers 
of instructional films and you, who repre- 
sent the users of such films when pro- 

.Some 12 years ago there was an active 
call from the then leaders of thought in 
Visual Education, for films which should 
aid in the teaching of many of the sub- 
jects which form a regular part of the 
work as laid out by the courses of study 
in schools throughout the country. Be- 
fore our Company considered the ques- 
tion of producing such instructional films 
Mr. Eastman called for an experiment to 
determine definitely whether or not the 
motion picture film was adaptable to 
school work, and the late Dr. Thomas E. 
Finegan was called to plan such an ex- 
periment. No doubt most of you are 
familiar with what has since come to be 
known as the Wood-Freeman experiment, 
and the results it showed. 

When Edison invented the kinetoscopc, 
his first thought was that its principal 
value was the contribution which it could 
make to education. With his characteris- 
tic vision, he realized at once the extent 
to which the motion picture would modify 
the factors of both time and space. As 
late as 1928, when our division of the 
Kodak Company was organized. Mr. 
Edison — while in Rochester as a guest of 
Mr. Eastman — showed more interest in 
the plans of the Kodak Company for the 
making of teaching films than in any- 
thing else with which Mr. Eastman was 

The late Arthur Brisbane visited Ro- 
chester some years ago to address a ban- 

quet at the Chamber of Commerce. Dur- 
ing the day he spent an hour with us at 
our oflSce and expressed the desire to see 
one of our teaching films, and we screen- 
ed for him our film on Simple Machines. 

In his address that evening, in paying 
tribute to George Eastman, he said — "All 
else that he (Mr. Eastman) has done, 
may, in the future be accounted less im- 
portant than his work for education by 
motion pictures." Please bear in mind 
that the thought at that time was along 
the line of instructional films — and I 
sometimes wonder if the leaders of that 
day would approve of some of the uses to 
which the motion picture has since been 
adapted. The almost universal thought 
at that time was to take the motion 
picture out of the entertainment and 
amusement field in which it had, up to 
that time, been practically exclusively 
used, and adapt it to the teaching of the 
children. Our interest and efforts from 
the first, have, as you know, been con- 
cerned with the production of motion 
pictures for instructional use in the class- 
rooms of schools and colleges — and we 
have done nothing in other fields. 

I wonder if you, who are actively en- 
gaged in the work of Visual Instruction, 
realize the wide gap which exists between 
the plan of instructional and entertain- 
ment films. The traditional pattern of 
the entertainment film is based on the 
time-honored dramatic formula of intro- 
duction — climax — and conclusion — usually 
a conclusion which dismisses the subject 
with an air of finality. The film story 
is built on the general plan of boy meets 
girl — boy marries girl — and they live 
happy ever after. I mean by this, that 

Page 108 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

the film tells the whole story. Incidents 
of the film story are all centered around 
the characters of the story, either directly 
or indirectly, and there is little call for 
much thought on the part of the audience. 
This is all done for the on-looker. 

A friend commenting recently on one 
of the films which has received wide 
publicity of late, as teaching the life of 
the people in certain areas, remarked to 
me that any pupil seeing the film might 
easily conclude that every incident shown, 
was important only as it influenced the 
lives of the hero and heroine, rather than 
that such incidents depicted typical ex- 
periences in the lives of real people in 
such situations. 

It is imperative, in appraising the value 
of the teaching film, that we bear in mind 
that its construction pattern is in com- 
plete contrast to entertainment standards. 
The teaching film does not undertake to 
tell the whole story, as a matter of fact 
we deliberately avoid the complete con- 
tinuity that is characteristic of theatrical 
films. The idea is to present a problem 
in such a fashion that the student will be 
stimulated to inquire, investigate, and 
eventually form conclusions on his own 
initiative. The teaching film is produced 
in collaboration with competent instruc- 
tors — is correlated with the subject 
matter taught in the classroom and is de- 
signed to be used as a regular and inte- 
gral part of classroom procedure. It is 
assumed that the pupils will receive some 
preliminary instruction before viewing the 
film and that a discussion of the subject 
will follow. It is desirable for this 
reason, therefore, to avoid an air of 
finality in concluding a film. 

As the whole subject of Visual Educa- 
tion is a comparatively new one to all of 
us, it is not un-natural that many of its 
problems are not as yet fully understood. 
This was illustrated by a conversation 
between one of our representatives and 
two students enrolled for a course in 
Visual Education, which was given two 
years ago at a summer session of a lead- 
ing university, located on the shores of 
Lake Michigan. The man giving the 
course was a very keen director of Visual 
Education — whose name I shall not men- 
tion, as he was in no ways to blame — 
but I may say that he is in charge of 
Visual Instruction in a city in which is 
located a company whose name begins and 
ends with K and which company enjoys 
the reputation of being the largest manu- 
facturer of photographic goods in the 
world. After one of the class periods, our 
representative tarried to chat with some of 
the students. One very intelligent young 
lady in the course of conversation said that 
she could not see why producers of in- 
structional motion pictures had to charge 
$24.00 for a 400-foot film, as she was 
"sure" that it could not possibly cost 
more than $40.00 to produce such a film. 
A second student, much wiser than the 
first and not unwilling to admit it, inter- 
rupted the conversation and remarked 
that she was "sure" the first young lady 
student was mistaken, as she knew that 
some of the instructional films could not 
have been produced for less than $200.00. 
When you know that we often pay for 

the scenario alone more than this last 
figure, you will realize the need for some 
such a get-together as this meeting today. 
This brings us to one of the major 
problems of production — the coordination 
of pedagogical authority, and motion pic- 
ture production technique. It is a fact 
that present generation authorities in edu- 
cational matters were trained without 
benefit of the motion picture. Knowledge 
was acquired — all ideas and concepts 
were transmitted through otlier mediums 
— the textbook, the still picture, maps, 
diagrams, the black-board, etc. — all 
mediums that were essentially static in 
character. In complete contrast, the es- 
sentially dynamic character of the motion 
picture is the factor which constitutes its 
major contribution to learning. For the 
individual who has been trained to think 
and express ideas in the static and ab- 
stract form of print, it is extremely dif- 
ficult and sometiiTies impossible for hinT 
to consider a particular subject in terms 
of visual images in motion. Almost with- 
out exception, the first draft of every 
scenario we have ever produced has been 
submitted in the form of a "paper" — a 
wordy tract — authoritative, of course, but 
absolutely devoid of any dynamic qualities 
whatsoever. A recent example prepared 
on the basis of a single reel, 1000 feet in 
length, included 600 feet of title. If 
there is one point more than another in 
connection with production of instruc- 
tional films, which I consider to be our 
mutual problein, it is the desirability of 
thinking in terms of the moving image. 
There is no point in using motion picture 
film for a job that a lantern slide will do 
equally well, or in competing with the 
textbook where that medium is entirely 
adequate. Our objective is to limit the 
selection of both the theme, and the scenes 
and sequences illustrating it, to subjects 
which can be shown either to the greatest 
possible advantage, or by no other means 
than through the medium of the motion 

.'\ friend of mine some time ago called 
to see me in behalf of a college professor, 
who, through no lack of ability, was out 
of a job. I told my friend frankly that 
we had no vacancy, but that I should be 
glad to talk with his friend. The profes- 
sor called later, and I asked if he had 
ever thought of trying his hand at writing 
a scenario for an instructional film. His 
chosen field was that of Biology. He 
quickly answered that he had thought of 
such work, and had some things in mind, 
which he was sure would be well worth 
while. I gave him some type scenarios, 
to help him to understand the form in 
which such material should be submitted. 
A few weeks later he came to my office 
with a scenario on marine life — the first 
scene of which called for a photograph 
taken "on the bottom of the ocean," show- 
ing various forms of marine life swim- 
ming obligingly before the camera, and 
most of the balance of his work proved 
to be quite impossible. He saw the point 
and gave up with the remark that he was 
dealing with a technique of which he 
knew nothing. 

You, I am sure, realize what such 
people fail to realize — that the producer 

of an instructional film does not have 
access to the box-office receipts of the 
successful theatrical movie with which to 
meet the costs of production on a Holly- 
wood scale, but must rather depend on 
sales of the film at $24.00 per reel for 
even the return of the cost of production, 
not to mention any profit on the invest- 
ment. Though many of our custoiners 
may not have any conception of what is 
possible or practical in the making of a 
film, they nevertheless are often hyper- 
critical of the finished film, and in many 
cases, very unjustly so. 

We have had many such instances : One 
such case which comes to my mind, had 
to do with our four-reel picture George 
Washington, which we produced at the 
request of the George Washington Bi- 
centennial committee appointed by Con- 
gress. In Reel 1, showing the boyhood 
of Washington, he is shown packing his 
trunk — preparatory to running away from 
home to go to sea. His mother discovers 
him and persuades him to give up the 
idea — and gives him a pocket knife on 
which is inscribed, "Always obey your 
superiors." Shortly after the films were 
released, we received a very sharp letter 
from the Director of Visual Education in 
the schools of a prominent city — in which 
he said that his attention had been called 
to the scene I have just described, and 
said that anyone could tell at a glance 
that the knife was a modern make and 
not such a knife as was used in Washing- 
ton's time. We were glad to inform the 
gentleman that the knife used in the 
picture was not only such a knife as was 
used in Washington's time, but it was 
the knife ozvned by Washington and 
loaned to us by the George Washington 
Museum of Alexandria, Va., for our use 
in making the picture. 

The same gentleman wrote also that 
every history teacher in his city knew 
that it was Silas Deane, then minister to 
France, who carried back to America the 
treaty which liad been negotiated with 
France by Benjamin Franklin. It is true 
that Silas Deane was then minister to 
France — but it is true also that his 
brother, Simeon Deane, held a subordin- 
ate position in the embassy in Paris. 
Simeon was returning to America and 
the treaty was sent with him. To estab- 
lish the accuracy of this scene and check 
the entire picture for accuracy, we called 
to Rochester Dr. John C. Fitzpatrick of 
the Library of Congress, who has been 
selected by Congress to write a 20- 
volume, "Life of George Washington." 
The scenario had called for use of 
"Simeon" Deane — then, a protninent 
authority said "Silas" Dean — and we 
made over the title. When Dr. Fitz- 
patrick saw the title on the screen, he 
call out e-xcitedly, "No, no, it was Simeon 
Dean who brought back the treaty. I 
asked him if he could prove it. He replied 
that he would be back in Washington 
the following morning, and would wire 
me the exact page, or pages, in the Journ- 
al of the Constitutional Convention which 
definitely stated that it was Simeon not 
Silas, who brought back the treaty. His 
telegram was received next morning and 
the question answered. 

March, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meet: 


Page 109 

Another illustration along the same 
line was encountered in the production 
of our Science film, The Historical Intro- 
duction to the Study of Chemistry. We 
use a title, "In 1774 Joseph Priestley, an 
English Chemist, discovered Oxygen, by 
heating mercuric oxide floated on mer- 
cury." The scenario, prepared by a 
nationally known teacher of chemistry, 
called for a scene of mercury in a bell 
jar, with a vessel containing mercuric 
oxide floating on the mercury. It did 
not exactly make sense, so our Produc- 
tion Manager went to tlie University of 
Rochester library, where he found a copy 
of Priestley's own book — so precious that 
it is kept in the vault when not in use — in 
which he found that the mercuric oxide 
(a red powder) was floated on the mer- 
cury — but not in any receptacle or boat. 

Perhaps I have said enough concerning 
the difiiculties of production and now a 
word about the editorial problems. There 
has been much loose talk to the effect 
that only teachers can plan and make 
instructional films, and that commercial 
producers, such as our own company, can 
never hope to do so — as the scenarios and 
films are not submitted to teachers be- 
fore production. If such statements had 
the slightest element of truth in them, 
they might be accepted — but the truth of 
the matter is that we have never made a 
film, the scenario for which has not been 
repeatedly submitted to competent class- 
room teachers for their advice and 
criticism before the actual production of 
the film was undertaken. Obviously, we 
cannot submit material to all of the 
teachers in the country, and some of the 
people who have not been consulted 
obviously conclude that none of the 
teachers have been consulted — which may 
account for some of these false state- 

The best instructional films can be pro- 
duced only by the co-operation between 
you who know the subject and know 
what you want, and the skilled producer 
who knows how to put into the picture 
the material which \ou want shown on 
the screen. We frequently discover a 
difference in the opinion of those we con- 
sult, and, as a result, we must call in still 
other experts — and, in some cases, we 
must make compromises before the film 
meets with the approval of both sides in 
the controversy — showing that the opin- 
ion of one person, or even several persons, 
is not enough. Last year at the Cleve- 
land meeting we had an illustration of 
such a situation, when a film was pre- 
sented to this Department for its stamp 
of approval and virtual sponsorship. The 
film was shown, a free and frank dis- 
cussion followed, and the judgment of 
those present was that approval was un- 
wise. Since then, the company producing 
the film became convinced that it was 
unsuitable, and junked the entire pro- 

We continually receive letters asking 
why we do not produce films on this or 
that subject — and let me assure you we 
welcome all such suggestions — but many 
of the writers fail to realize what is 
possible in many instances — the sugges- 
tions ranging all the way from photo- 

graphing Admiral Byrd's expedition to 
the South Pole, to financing an expedi- 
tion into the heart of Africa. It is some- 
times possible to secure such material 
through co-operating with some explorer 
or traveller, who plans to visit such 
places — as was the case in the production 
of our films on Poland. Russia. Siberia, 
Japan, Manchuktto, Turkey, Germany — 
all of which were photographed especially 
for us, on the basis of film scripts which 
we had provided in advance, by Mr. 
Julien Bryan while he was visiting those 
countries in search of material for his 
own lectures. But had we been forced 
to finance expeditions into those countries 
for the purpose of doing the work for us, 
the costs would have been prohibitive, as 
we could not expect to secure the return 
of our investment. 

Another problem, vital alike to pro- 
ducers and to the success of the Visual 
Education movement, is the problem of 
promoting a better understanding on the 
part of school administrators, of when, 
where, and how a film is to be used to 
secure the best results. Many people, 
high in the ranks of school executives, 
still are not able to distinguish between 
giving a picture show, and using a film 
as an aid to instruction. A friend of 
mine was recently interested in finding 
some school architect who really under- 
stood the true function of the motion 
picture and other projected pictures in 
the classroom, and if possible to induce 
him to contribute an article for The 
Education.m. Screen, or suggest his 
name to Dr. Hansen for a place on this 
program. .\ consultant in the United 
States Government was suggested as the 
person my friend was seeking — and he 
wrote a letter to this government con- 
sultant, outlining what he hoped for. 

A reply to his letter came back prompt- 
ly, saying that the writer would be glad 
to help out, but felt she should be frank 
in stating her views beforehand. She 
went on to say that she did not agree 
that individual classrooms should be used 
for visual instructional purposes, but 
rather that one day a week should be set 
aside for this purpose, in the school 
auditoriums. She wrote that it was too 
costly to equip the individual classrooms 
with dark shades and the other facilities 
necessary to project pictures. 

I think you will be interested in the 
reply of my friend. He wrote : "What you 
advocate is contrary to what I have ad- 
vocated ever since I became interested 
in Visual Education. If you would omit 
from your recommendation all use of the 
auditorium for projected pictures as 
classroom aids. I would agree with you, 
except possibly for the disproportionate 
cost of the average new school auditor- 
ium as compared with the rest of the 
school plant. Of course, if the auditorium 
could be used as much as your plans; 
would call for, this cost might be justi- 
fied, provided such use would be profit- 
able, but I can't help taking issue with 
you or your recommendation that all 
Visual Instruction be done in the auditor- 
ium. I believe that projected pictures — 
both motion and still — should be con- 
sidered as much an integral part of the 

classroom teaching materials as maps, 
blackboards, textbooks and all other 
commonly used aids to learning, and 
available for use in the regular daily 
classroom work. Possibly I am wrong 
and you are right, but if so, then the 
leaders who have guided and directed the 
Visual Instruction movement for these 
past 10 to 20 years are on the wrong 

I have no word of criticism for any 
of the uses to which the motion picture 
have been adapted — the Motion Picture 
Appreciation courses — the Hollywood 
films made available for showing in 
schools — the feature films made for enter- 
tainment purposes and re-edited by the 
Progressive Education Association — but 
I am firmly convinced that the leaders 
of Visual Education in the schools should 
decide definitely whether they plan to use 
the motion picture as an aid to instruc- 
tion in subjects which must be covered 
in established courses of study, or to 
discontinue such use of films for such 
other film activity as they may deem more 

Unfortunately, we have only 200 days 
in the school year — not deducting holi- 
days — and the problem is to find time 
for the many things which we should 
like to do if we only had more time — 
which reminds me of a state meeting of 
Superintendents in Massachusetts which 
I attended some years ago. The first 
session was a round-table discussion after 
the evening meal. Everyone felt perfect- 
ly free to bring up any subject for dis- 
cussion. One prominent Superintendent 
arose and announced that he had a prob- 
lem to which he had given serious 
thought, and he was anxious to know if 
the experience of other Superintendents 
agreed with his. If this proved true, he 
had a formal recommendation to make 
which he hoped might be approved by 
the meeting. He said he had been 
troubled greatly by the constantly in- 
creasing so-called "drives" for the teach- 
ing of different subjects which were forc- 
ing their way into the schools — each 
subject having more or less merit, but 
the aggregate amount of time consumed 
resulting in a serious problem. He 
mentioned "Better English Week" — 
"Toothbrush Drill Week"— "Be Kind to 
Animals Week" — "Fire Prevention Week" 
— "Safety Week" — "Automobile Driving 
Week" — and literally dozens of other 
"weeks." He then advocated the setting 
aside of one week of each school year, 
which should be used for only one pur- 
pose—the teaching of the subjects called 
for in the course of study. His sug- 
gestion met with unanimous approval. 
Possibly some such suggestion that we 
should set aside one week in the year 
for instructional films might meet with 
your approval. 

We have been asked very often when 
may we expect to be able to buy instruc- 
tional films in color, and I wish I were 
able to answer the question. We have 
just completed a half reel, of a little 
over 200 feet, of a color film on Hoiv 
Birds Feed Their Young. The photog- 
raphy was done by Dr. A. A. Allen of 
Cornell University and we selected this 

Page 110 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

subject because it seemed to be peculiarly 
well-adapted to color. Further than to 
say that it is very nearly perfect, I am 
not going to comment on the film, but 
leave it for your judgment when we 
show it in a few moments. 

Frankly, there are many obstacles in 
the way of a general use of Koda- 
chrome film for school films. In the first 
place, Kodachrome film is available ©nly 
on 16mm — hence any motion picture on 
Kodachrome would of necessity have to 
be photographed on 16mm, whereas 
most of the better instructional films are, 
as you know, photographed on 35mm and 
reduced later, in printing, to 16mm. 

Second, it is not practical to make a 
duplicate negative of Kodachrome film, 
which is a positive, as this would in- 
volve two steps between the original 
and the duplicate print, which would 
result in too great a loss in color. Du- 
plicates are made directly from the 
original and as a result, there is the 
constant hazard that the original may 
be accidentally damaged in the print- 
ing process — in which case, the entire 
picture would be a total loss, as we 
would then have no original from 
which to print any additional dupli- 

Third — and not the least among the 
obstacles — is the added cost as com- 
pared with black and white film, and I 
am much interested in getting your re- 
action to the question as to whether you 
feel that you would be willing to pay 
what it costs to produce films in color. 
It now costs 10 cents a foot to get 
duplicates of Kodachrome films — which 
means $40.00 for a 400-foot reel of 
Kodachrome film. This, bear in mind, 
is merely the cost of printing each 
copy made from the original, and does 
not include a penny to apply toward 
the cost of the original photography — 
editing, sales cost, etc. The film I am 
about to show is 213 feet in length, we 
call it a half reel, and have priced it at 

I realize that, thus far, this confer- 
ence between producer and users of 
instructional films has of necessity been 
a one-sided conversation, as I have 
given you my own view of some of the 
problems with which we, as producers, 
are confronted — but, if you have in 
mind some problems which I have not 
touched I shall be glad to discuss them 
as fully as time will permit. 

(Showing of Kodachrome film, "How 
Birds Feed Their Young") 

Standards in Teacher Training 
in the Use of Visual Aids 

IN discussing standards for teacher 
training in the use of visual aids, I 
propose to select and assemble those 
recommendations on which experts in the 
field of visual instruction seem fairly 
well agreed and to summarize arguments 
which support each suggested standard. 

Any discussion of teacher training 
should have as its foundation the knowl- 
edge, skills and attitudes which an in- 
dividual should possess in order to be a 
successful teacher. Once we have de- 
termined these, we can proceed with 
some degree of assurance to the building 
up of a teacher training program to de- 
velop those qualifications. As a mimeo- 
graphed bulletin from the University of 
Ohio puts it, "What should a teacher 
know about and be able to do with visual 
aids?" After determining these requisite 
qualifications, we shall suggest standards 
for the institutional training of teachers 
and still another set of standards for the 
in-service training of teachers. These 
standards are not presented in order of 
importance, nor as ultimate standards or 
final goals. Rather, they are presented 
as what we consider to be the minimum 
requirements if we are to have teachers 
who can conduct a vital and really func- 
tional visual education program. With 
this much by way of introduction I pro- 
pose to consider desirable standards of 
teacher competance in the use of visual 

First, every teacher should have the 
necessary knozvledge and skill to handle 


State Teachers College 
Stevens Point, Wisconsin 

efficiently all the routine mechanical 
operations involved in the use of visual 
aids in the classroom. Specifically, 
teachers should be able to operate opaque 
projectors, lantern slide projectors, film 
strip projectors, silent motion picture 
projectors, and in most cases the sound 
motion picture projector. Teachers 
should be able to make minor repairs 
and adjustments such as to focus the 
picture properly, to adjust the size of the 
screen picture, to replace the lamp, to 
clean the lenses and to keep the projectors 
properly oiled. They should know how 
to pnjceed in case a film breaks, or the 
loop is lost, how to prepare a classroom 
for the use of projection equipment. 
They should know how to prepare non- 
photographic lantern slides using glass, 
cellophane, or other materials. They 
should know how to make maps, charts, 
graphs, diagrams and sketches on the 
blackboard, for bulletin board display, 
for projection, or for classroom use by 
pupils. They should know how to collect, 
mount and file flat pictures and similar 
material. They should know how to con- 
struct or improvise various types of 
bulletin boards, screens, window darken- 
ing devices, etc. They should be able to 
set up efiFective exhibits. Teachers who 
have not mastered these mechanical 
operations not only do not make plans 
to use visual aids but are apt very 
definitely to plan not to use them because 
of a feeling of awkwardness, uncertainty, 
and sometimes downright fear of mechan- 

ical contrivances. And those courageous 
souls who proceed without such knowl- 
edge and skills often encounter reverses. 
Of course in some schools older boys are 
trained to take care of projection but thii 
is at best a make-shift arrangement and 
can never equal in effectiveness the re- 
sults obtained when the teachers can do 
these things for themselves. 

Second, teachers should be skilled in 
the selection of educationally worthwhile 
insual materials. In recent years there 
has been a tremendous increase in the 
output of all sorts of visual materials. 
Newspapers and magazines, pamphlets and 
advertising materials, often contain pic- 
tures of high teaching value. There is a 
rapidly accumulating supply of lantern 
slides, film strips, and motion pictures 
available on most of the commonly taught 
units of subject matter. On a teaching 
value scale these materials range from 
some that are worse than useless to some 
that are really excellent. Teachers should 
not only know standards by which to eval- 
uate visual materials but should be skilled 
in the application of these standards. 
Various studios show that teachers today, 
as a whole, are woefully lacking in this 
skill. Without specific training in this 
field it seems teachers are as apt as net 
to use inferior materials even when ex- 
cellent materials are just as available. 

Third, teachers should have knowledge 
about, and skill in, the teaching techniques 
involved in the use of visual aids. That 
is quite distinct from the mere mechanics 
involved, discussed under standard one, 
and involves the application of the prin- 
ciples of learning to the specific type of 
teaching situation found when visual aids 
are used. Specifically, teachers should 
know the various objectives which the 
use of visual aids may help to achieve; 
in the light of teachers' objectives, the 
past experiences of the pupils, the type of 
materials to be used, etc., the teacher 
should be able to decide intelligently 
whether to use the materials as a preview, 
as a review, or during the presentation 
of a unit ; she should be able to plan an 
appropriate introduction and background 
to insure interest in the materials pre- 
sented, and their close integration into 
other teaching procedures ; she should 
know how to secure pupil activity when 
visual aids are used ; she should know 
how to bring out relationships and pro- 
mote inferential thinking in regard to 
observed situations ; she should know when 
motion pictures should be used, when 
projected still pictures will serve the 
purpose just as well or better; when 
bulletin boards, blackboards, and other 
non-projected aids will be just as effec- 
tive, or more so, than projected materials. 
This whole field of the application of the 
laws of learning to teaching with visual 
aids is tremendously important. Teachers 
can profit by a study of the experimental 
work already done but there is a crying 
need for more research in this area. 

Fourth, teachers should be familiar 
u<ith smirccs of material. This is so 
obvious I shall pass it by practically 
without comment. Teachers should know 
where to turn to find good flat pictures, 
maps and charts. They should be familiar 
with government bulletins, and other pub- 

March, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 111 

lications listing sources of pictures, 
charts, posters, samples and exhibits. 
They sliould know where to obtain cata- 
logs of film strips, lantern slides, and 
motion pictures. Of course in school 
systems having a director of visual educa- 
tion, all such materials should be avail- 
able from a central oflice. The initiative 
in bringing materials into the class room, 
however, should obviously always rest 
with the teacher, who therefore needs 
to be well acquainted with sources of 

Fifth, teachers should knozv the effect 
of the radio and theatrical motion pictures 
on children, and should have intelligent 
standards for the evaluation of radio 
programs, from the standpoint of their 
effect on children. The Payne Studies 
and other research have demonstrated 
that theatrical motion pictures are very 
definitely exerting a strong influence 
upon the attitudes and behavior of our 
young people. Comparable studies have 
not been made in the field of the radio 
but we do know that the average child 
spends from 2^ to 3 hours a day drink- 
ing in radio programs, and those of us 
closely enough associated with children 
to listen in on their intimate conversa- 
tions, and to hear the songs they sing, 
and the jokes they tell, are confident that 
the radio as an influence on our children 
cannot be ignored. A check-up in our 
training school showed that out of the 
school room the children were spending 
much more time listening to the radio 
and going to the shows than reading. I 
think that there is little doubt but that 
the .influence of the radio and the motion 
picture on children is much greater than 
the influence of the reading which they 
do out of school. Teachers have long felt 
that one of their responsibilities was to 
develop an ability in their children to 
select and appreciate the really worth- 
while in literature. Teachers should as- 
sume a like responsibility toward the 
radio and the motion picture. Teachers 
should be made aware of this problem, 
should develop intelligent standards for 
the evaluation of motion pictures and 
radio programs, and they should be 
familiar with sources of information 
concerning them. 

Sixth, and last, teachers should have 
an tmderstanding of the psycholoqy back 
of the use of insual aids — the dangers of 
verbalism in teaching and the values and 
limitations, of direct contact and observa- 
tional learning. The need of this hack- 
ground of fundamental information is so 
obvious that I shall not take time to 
discuss it further. 

The six standards for teachers just 
discussed may seem high. Certainly in 
the country as a whole we have few 
teachers in our public schools who can 
measure up to them. If the use of visual 
aids, however, is to be made a really vital 
and integral part of our teaching pro- 
cedures, the teacher standards can he no 
lower than those indicated. How, then, 
may we best train teachers to attain such 
standards ? We shall discuss first, some 
of the standards for the institutional train- 
ing of teachers and then, rather briefly, 
standards for in-service training. 

Institutional Training 

Standard One : Every teacher training 
institution should offer a general course 
in audio-visual instruction including in 
its subject matter all topics, enumerated 
above under teacher standards, and with 
provision for laboratory work to estab- 
lish the necessary skills. Arguments 
against the establishment of such courses I 
propose to present as fairly as I can, and 
then give the reply which advocates of 
such a course would probably make to 

A few educators oppose the oflfering 
of such courses on the grounds that 
visual education is so new that we are 
not yet certain how effective it really is. 
They advocate postponing the establish- 
ment of .such courses until further re- 
search has been carried on to establish 
beyond a shadow of a doubt that the use 
of visual aids increases learning signifi- 
cantly. They cite as a weakness in our 
visual education research, that many of 
the studies measured the result of show- 
ing only a film or two, often to a small 
number of children, and they point out 
that such studies oflfer little evidence as 
to the effectiveness of the regular, system- 
atic use of visual aids throughout a 
school system over an extended period of 
time. They say : "Prove to us the value 
of visual aids and we will off^er courses 
to train teachers in their use." 

The reply to this argument might be 
stated thus. We recognize that many of 
the studies made in this field have been 
over such short periods of time, and with 
such small populations, that taken in- 
dividually they are not very significant. 
The fact, however, that these small 
separate studies have almost without 
exception resulted in greater gains from 
the use of visual material, is significant. 
The consistency of the results of numer- 
ous research studies oflfers strong evi- 
dence. We should also point out that 
there have been some laree-scale. well 
financed, and carefully controlled studies 
made, extending over considerable periods 
of time and with large experimental 
populations. These major pieces of re- 
search agree with each other, and with 
the large number of smaller studies, in 
showing definite gains from the use of 
visual aids. We can point also to the 
vast literature which has grown up in 
recent years criticizing our schools he- 
cause of their extremely verbalistic 
methods and their lack of contact with 
reality. We can argue from all this, and 
from what we know of the psychology 
of learning, that the use of visual aids 
in learning should theoretically be very 
valuable — and all the research evidence 
we have bears out this theoretical con- 

Then turning from the field of formal 
education entirely, we can call attention 
to the tremendous increase in the use of 
visual materials by commercial agencies 
in carrying on their educational programs. 
Advertising agencies and publishers 
whose very existence depends on the ef- 
ficiency with which they can educate the 
public, and who spend tremendous sums 
of money in research as to the most effec- 
tive way of influencing human behavior, 
are swinging very rapidly to the use of 

visual materials. It is only necessary to 
compare magazines and newspapers of 
five years ago with those of today to be 
made very conscious of this change. If 
visual aids have been found by com- 
mercial groups to be the best approach 
to educating the masses, it is certainly 
a strong argument in favor of the school 
use of these aids. 

Lastly, we can appeal to expert opinion. 
It would be possible to quote from some 
of the most prominent educators, not 
only of this country but of other countries 
as well, to show that visual aids and the 
radio in their opinion will in the not-far- 
distant future, quite revolutionize our 
whole educational program. We feel that 
there has accumulated enough data on the 
value of visual aids so that to hold up a 
program of teacher training waiting for 
more research, is no longer justifiable. 

A second argument against the estab- 
lishment of a general course in audio- 
visual education frequently advanced, is 
the following. Visual education should 
not be a separate academic subject. 
Teachers do not go out to teach visual 
education but rather to teach history, 
geography, science, etc., and such training 
as is needed in the use of visual aids 
should be given in connection with the 
regular methods courses, rather than in a 
special course. They argue that the use 
of visual aids will probably be better 
integrated with other teaching procedures 
if it is considered along with these other 
procedures in the traditional methods 
course. They also point out that it is 
impossible for one individual to give ade- 
quate training in the use of visual aids to 
students specializing in all the diflferent 
fields of teaching. Therefore, instead 
of a general course (such as we have pro- 
posed in standard one) they would advo- 
cate the inclusion of material on the use 
of visual aids in the course on methods 
of teaching history, methods of teaching 
science, etc. 

In reply, the following facts need to 
be considered. First, that if the teacher 
of each methods course attempted to give 
the information and laboratory training 
to his students which the teacher stand- 
dards we outlined would require, it would 
mean a tremendous duplication of effort 
and of equipment. After all the science 
teacher is faced by the same mechanical 
problems as the first grade teacher in the 
operation of projectors, and will utilize 
the same general standards for the selec- 
tion of visual materials, and the same 
general principles so far as teaching tech- 
nique is concerned. The standards we set 
up were standards for all teachers and 
it would seem that training to meet these 
standards can be done much more con- 
veniently and with less duplication of 
effort and equipment if done in a special 

An additional argument in favor of a 
special course which is very convincing 
at the present time but which will, we 
hope, become less so with the passing of 
time is this : Practically none of the 
teachers in our regular methods courses 
have ever had any training or experience 
in the use of modern visual aids. It is 
tragic but true that because as a whole 
they belong to an older generation, they 
(Conclitded on page 114) 



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Page 114 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

probably know less on the average abont 
the use of visual aids in teaching than 
do experienced teachers in the public 
schools. In some institutions not more 
than one or two teachers of methods 
courses can even operate a projector. 
This may not be typical, but it is a fact 
that few methods teachers are prepared 
either by training or experience to give 
any specific instruction concerning the 
use of modern visual aids even in their 
teaching specialty. So long as this con- 
dition continues we must face the fact 
that if we are to train teachers at all 
adequately it will have to be in a special 
visual education class. 

Standard Two : In every State there 
should be at least one course in audio- 
znsual education offered on the graduate 
level. Such a course is needed to develop 
leaders in the field. It is not enough to 
train only undergraduate students who 
will go out into classroom teaching posi- 
tions. We need to have courses in which 
supervisors, principals and superintend- 
ents or experienced teachers may enroll 
for graduate credit. These individuals, 
who should form the real cornerstone of 
our visual education movement, must 
be given training in the fundamentals 
of the movement if we are to expect 
the use of visual aids to extend system- 
atically and to permeate the entire 
functioning of school systems. From 
such graduate courses we should ex- 
pect to have come from such courses, 
principals witli an added interest in the 
use of visual aids and often perhaps with 
plans for the more adequate financial sup- 
port of visual education. We should ex- 
pect to have come from such courses 
supervisors who would stimulate teachers 
to make the fullest use of visual ma- 
terials, directors of audio-visual educa- 
tion or instructors in courses in visual 
education. At present there are few in- 
dividuals trained for such positions and 
graduate courses in visual education offer 
the only solution. 

Standard Three : Third, in every 
general methods course there should be 
careful consideration given to the special 
problems ini'olved in the use of visual 
aids in the field covered by the course. 
If this were done it would help the 
student to integrate the use of visual 
aids with the subject matter of his partic- 
ular field and with other teaching pro- 
cedures. It is probably impossible to do 
this adequately in a general visual educa- 
tion course. Of course this particular 
standard cannot be expected to mean 
much until we have teachers in charge 
of methods courses who are competent 
to give this instruction. 

Standard Four: In every teacher train- 
ing institution- there should be a good 
library of visual aids. This need not 
incur a heavy expense to the institution 
if the materials were circulated through 
the public schools in its service area. 
Such a plan has many implications for the 
visual education movement but just now 
we are concerned with only the teacher 
training aspect. 

It seems almost impossible to have 
students really become familiar with ex- 
isting visual materials unless those ma- 
terials are available over a long period 

of time. If a teacher training institution 
lacks such a library, it must resort to 
rental of such materials, and the cost 
generally prohibits their being kept more 
than a day or two. Under these con- 
ditions it is practically impossible for 
students to really become familiar with 
the material in their field. If the films 
were stored in the teacher training in- 
stitution there is no reason why every 
graduate going out in the field should 
not have previewed all the films and 
slides in the library which pertained 
to his field. 

Another advantage from a teacher 
training standpoint of having a library 
of visual aids available in each teachers 
college is that it would greatly promote 
the use of visual aids througliout the 
college. And if prospective teachers 
were taught in classes where visual aids 
were used extensively, they would go 
out much better prepared to use visual 

A third advantage, and one which can- 
not be over-emphasized, is that if visual 
aids were always readily obtainable it 
would make possible the extensive use 
of visual aids in practice teaching. This 
use of visual aids in the training school 
tying up the theory learned in the general 
course with actual classroom teaching, is 
a matter of supreme importance. The 
greatest apparent weakness of these pres- 
ent courses, as often pointed out, is the 
lack of actual classroom demonstration 
and practice. If visual aids were always 
readily obtainable in our training schools, 
these problems could be solved. So long 
as films have to be rented, solution is 

Standard Five : In every teacher train- 
ing instiution there should be training in 
radio and motion picture discrimination. 
The rather rapidly increasing number of 
high schools throughout the country giv- 
ing some attention to motion picture ap- 
preciation is an additional argument in 
favor of including such materials in 
teacher training institutions. 

Few teacher training institutions in the 
country today can meet the five standards 
just suggested. We have a long way to 
go before our beginning teachers are 
given adequate training in the use of 
visual aids. This fact emphasizes the 
importance of the in-service training of 

In-Service Training 

There are a number of techniques 
which may be used in this in-service 
training of teachers. Special faculty 
meetings may be called with attendance 
optional for the purpose of calling atten- 
tion to visual material available, or to 
demonstrate the use of certain materials, 
or to give instruction in the mechanics 
of handling visual materials. Visual edu- 
cation conferences can be conducted in 
county or regional districts. Materials 
may be prepared for distribution to 
teachers which will aid them in correlat- 
ing visual aids with their courses of 
study. But perhaps the most important 
means for the in-service training of 
teachers is to make provision so that 
whenever a teacher or a principal, or a 
curriculum committee, needs help with 

any problem involving the use of visual 
aids — be it so trivial as learning how to 
operate a projector or so important as the 
outlining of a whole visual education pro- 
gram for a school system — that there be 
some individual adequately trained to give 
the help needed, and to whom the teacher 
has a right to turn for help. In other 
words, the in-service training of teachers 
is going to depend largely on the leader- 
ship which can be developed and made 
available to teachers. For that reason 
the three standards I am going to suggest 
have as their objective the establishment 
of recognized sources of leadership in the 
use of visual aids. 

First, in every State there should be 
some individual connected with the State 
educational service whose major respons- 
ibility would be that of furnishing leader- 
ship to school systems in developing pro- 
grams for the intelligent use of visual 

Second, in every school system there 
should be a full or part time director of 
visual education, one of whose duties 
would be that of promoting a teacher 
training program within the system. 

Third, in each school building there 
should be one individual in charge of 
visual materials and capable of training 
other teachers in such matters as the 
mechanics of projection, etc. 

The cost of providing the types of 
leadership just outlined would be small 
indeed as compared to the wastes which 
may be charged to the unsupervised use 
of visual materials by untrained teachers 
or by the failure of teachers to make 
use of these materials when they are 

In conclusion may I say that in Jhe 
use of visual aids, as in every other phase 
of education, the skill and ability of the j 
teacher is by far the greatest single factor 
in determining the results achieved. You 
may put projectors in every building in 
the country, you may produce materials 
that are works of art photographically 
and that are sound pedagogically, you 
may provide room outlets and built-in 
screens, but unless you have teachers with 
a fundamental understanding of the basic 
principles involved in the use of visual 
aids it will profit you nothing. 


(Concluded from page 92) 

more films, and obviously this greater ex- 
perience with films in itself enhances a 
teacher's qualifications for rendering sig- 
nificant judgment on a film's teaching 

In the near future, each present member 
of the Judging Committee will receive a 
commimication direct from this office — a 
complete printed list of present judges 
with the contribution of each to date in- 
dicated, a proposal for a somewhat new 
basis for cooperation, and a cordial invita- 
tion to continue or extend his or her par- 
ticipation in the Project as a member of 
the limited Committee of Five Hundred. 

Nelson L. Greene 

March, 1940 

Page 115 

^/lE JiitszaturE in Q/i^uaL Unihuction 

A Monthly Digest 

Conducted by Etta Schneider 

Administration of Visual Aids 

What Do High Schools Want in Films? 
— Godfrey M. Elliott, Oakvale, West 
Va. — Secondary Education, 9:21, Janu- 
ary, 19-W. 

Attention to the consumer problem 
of using educational films in the high 
school must be increasingly given, and 
some unanimity of opinion reached as 
to the kind of films producers should 
make. Film needs are now being dic- 
tated by the films available. The kind.s 
of questions which need consideration 
for the guidance of producers arc: 
What subjects need treatment in films? 
What should be the content? (Special- 
ized? Generalized? Botli?) Should 
treatment be factual, instructional, or 
documentary? What subjects lend them- 
selves to treatment of each type? On 
what basis must we assume that all fu- 
ture educational films must be sound 
films? What is the desired length of a 
film unit? It is recommended that the 
N.E.A. Department of Secondary Teach- 
ers and the National Association of Sec- 
ondary-School Principals undertake such 
a study cooperatively. 

To Own or Not to Own7~ Scholastic, 

January 22, 1940 p. IS-T 

Two letters discuss the article by 
Lewis M. Lash in the November 20th 
issue of Scholasitc. Mr. Hansen, in his 
letter, takes issue with Mr. Lash in his 
estimate of cost for owning and rent- 
ing films for a small school system. The 
second letter refutes the argument. The 
original article, together with these 
letters provides a stimulating basis for 
discussion, and one problem which can- 
not resolve itself by generalization, but 
must rather be determined by local 

New Nerves for Modern Teaching — 
Paul C. Reed, Rochester, N. Y.— 
Scholastic, January 22, 1940. p. 14— T. 

The value of radio, sound films 
(March of Time, Human Relations 
Films), and silent films for the Rochester 
Schools is reviewed. 

Rochester teachers are cooperating in 
the Ohio State Evaluation of School 
Broadcasts study, in the American Coun- 
cil on Education's evaluation of film 
project, and in the Commission on Hu- 
man Relations study. 

How Oakland Does It— Gardner L. 
Hart, Oakland, CsX.— Scholastic, Jan 
22, 1940 p. 12-T. 

The Oakland schools have access to 
desirable materials of instruction, in- 

cluding such aids as films, filmslides, lan- 
tern slides, etc. as well as apparatus of 
all kinds. A photographic laboratory 
produces material upon request. Circula- 
tion and maintenance is centralized, pro- 
viding ma.ximum material at a minimum 

Techniques of Utilization 

They Use Projected Pictures— /nf^r- 
national Journal of Religious Educa- 
tion, 16: 6 January, 1940. 
At Yale University Divinity School, 
Professor Paul H. Vieth and his classes 
in religious education, with the coopera- 
tion of the Harmon Foundation, have 
experimented for several years in making 
motion picture films suitable for church 
school use. They have also tried out 
various ways of using aids in church 
work. As these students have gone to 
their own churches they have continued 
this experimental work. 

This account is a summary of the ex- 
perience of many of them, and the values 
they have found in the use of projected 
pictures. Films have been employed tc 
good advantage in connection with Sun- 
day evening services, for recreational 
purposes at parties or children's matinees, 
to personalize mission study in a church 
school group, and present problems for 
discussion. Home-made movies and film- 
strips also aflFord many educational op- 
portunities. One minister tells of using 
film strips in color for worship service. 
The use of stereopticon slides is a well 
established custom in many churches. It 
is possible for classes to make slides 
illustrating the study which they have 
been carrying on, and to show these in 
departmental gatherings. Churche's going 
extensively into the use of projected 
pictures are advised to have a sub-com- 
mittee on visual education to undertake 
the financing and supervision of this part 
of the curriculum. 

How We Use Slides— Chester F. Leon- 
ard, Sneedville, Tenn. — Church Man- 
agement, 16: 165-6 December, 1939 
Vardy Presbyterian Community 
Church in Hancock County, Tenn., 30 
miles from the railroad in the mountains, 
has been using slides for over 11 years, 
during which time they have collected 
over 4,700 slides on various subjects, il- 
lustrating almost any thought they wish 
to make impressive. Mr. Leonard cau- 
tions against using too many slides at 
one time, or poorly selected ones. Be- 
sides the Sunday services, slides are used 
on Friday community night, and once a 
week in elementary school bible study. 
The employment of slides has resulted in 
ever increasing attendance and interest 

in the church services and work, people 
coming from three and four miles dis- 
tance in order to attend. Mr. Leonard 
invites questions and will be glad to 
give all the information he can. 

Visual Teaching Aids — M. F. Foss, 
Washington, Penn. — Industrial Arts 
and Vocational Education, 29:26 Jan- 
uary, 1940 

Describes the use of modeling clay, 
models and a blackboard as visual aids 
for the teaching of mechanical drawing. 

Research and Evaluation 

Visual Aids and Safety — Nathan 
Doscher, Hygiene Department, Brook- 
lyn College, N. Y.— Safety Education 
19:200 January, 1940 
This article is based on a two-year 
study culminating in a doctor's disserta- 
tion at New York University on "A 
Critical Analysis of Some Visual Aids 
Used in Teaching Pedestrian Safety." 

The study was made with 750 fourth 
grade pupils, typical of the student popu- 
lation of New York City. They were 
divided into four groups equal in intelli- 
gence. One was taught by the presenta- 
tion of a silent film; the second by 25 
slides accompanied by oral comment and 
the third through the display of a series 
of 25 posters. The fourth was given no 
formal teaching in safety at all and 
served as control group. 

A pre-test on safety was given to all 
groups. The same test was given im- 
mediately after the safety lesson; and a 
recall test of the same test was given a 
month later. The results showed that the 
three groups with special instruction 
made significant improvement in safety 
knowledge. But, to the question of the 
relative effectiveness of any of the three 
visual methods, the answer is that there 
is no difference. They all showed equal 
improvement. If better habits depend on 
knowledge, these aids are valuable. 
There seemed to be no improvement in 
habit or knowledge regarding traffic 
lights, showing that none of the experi- 
mental devices are effective for that. 
Children of low intelligence gained more 
from the visual aids than did those of 
highest intelligence. The films were no 
more effective than the slides and posters. 

Photographic Method for Studying Dis- 
crimination-Learning in Children — 
T. A. Jackson, Columbia University — 
Journal of Experimental Psychology. 
26:116 January, 1940 

Images (stimuli) are photographed 
on 3Smm. filmstrips and projected on a 
screen before a group of 10 to 20 sub- 

Page 116 

The Educational Screen 

jects. The subjects in the reported ex- 
periment were children from second and 
third grades. The children are csked to 
indicate their choice by dropping tickets 
(Hat check stubs) into one of two boxes 
provided. The children mav then be rated 
on the discrimination responses to the 
projected images. 

School-Made Visual Aids 

High School Movie Production — A. P. 

Smith, Hugh Morson High School, 

Raleigh, N. C.—Jo%tmal of the N.E.A., 

29: 23 January, 1940 

The purpose of this program of ama- 
teur motion picture production was to 
ascertain whether anything of educational 
value could be accomplished. With the 
help of a camera company representative 
and local camera shop the necessary 
photographic equipment was secured for 
the project. A 200-foot comedy was first 
made as an experiment. Work was 
divided among members of the photog- 
raphy club, each having his own definite 
responsibility. After investing $35.00 a 
show was put on and 5c admission 
charged. After this encouraging success, 
they undertook a real task — making a 
picture that would permanently record 
major constructive activities of the school. 
Events were filmed as they might occur 
through a typical day. 

Moving pictures should be used to 
further the educational program of the 
school and interpret the school's policies 
to the community. Further, the pictures 
sell the school to its own students. To 
make successful movies of educational 
value the program should last through- 
out the school year. Especial advice 
is given on the problem of lighting and 
purchase of proper film. 

Book Reviews 

Modern Methods and Materials for 
Teaching Science — Elwood D. Heiss, 
Teachers College, East Stroudsburg, 
Pa. ; Ellsworth S. Obourn, Clayton, 
Mo. ; C. Wesley Hoffman, Blairstown, 
N. J.— The Macmillan Co., N. Y., 
1940 $2.50 

This is a valuable publication to be 
added to all bibliographies in visual edu- 
cation. These science teachers or rather 
teachers of science teachers — have pro- 
vided an analysis of the place of mechani- 
cal aids to instruction, the psychological 
justification, basic principles of use, a 
simple, clear-cut description of projection 
machines and what makes them work, 
and an evaluated list of sources of all 
types of science visual aids. 

The first section of the book expounds 
the philosophy of science education held 
by the authors, and draws upon other 
points of view currently held. An ade- 
quate treatment of the whole problem of 
evaluation of outcomes brings together 
much valuable material, from experi- 
mental and other sources. The import- 
ance of the field of reading, social studies 
and creative expression in the successful 
teaching of science are all described 

Of extreme importance to visual edu- 
cationists, however, are Sections 2 and 

3. "Materials and Devices for Teach- 
ing Science — Visual and Other Sensory 
Aids," includes first a discussion of 
tlie psychology of learning by the use 
of visual aids, and then proceeds to a 
discussion of the school journey ; flat 
pictures and stereographs ; photography ; 
objects, specimens and models ; designed 
materials (creative expression) ; the 
microscope, telescope; projection ma- 
chines. For each topic abundant anec- 
dotal and photographic illustrations are 

The last section, "Sources of Ma- 
terials for Teaching Science" indicates 
the same effort of the authors as shown 
in previous sections at being practical. 
They have gone further than a dis- 
cussion of the types and value of visual 
aids, and have compiled a fully-annotated 
and evaluated listing of science aids, 
such as flat pictures, models and speci- 
mens, charts and posters, 16mm films, 
and a bibliography of periodicals and 
books for students and teachers. 

Teachers of science are indeed for- 
tunate in that this long-felt need has at 
last been met. Modern Methods And 
Materials For Teaching Science provides 
a sound springboard from which any 
science instructor may proceed in the use 
of audio-visual aids. It remains for him 
to heed the excellent advice given in 
the book, and to adapt the source ma- 
terials to his own needs. Similar 
volumes in many of the other curriculum 
areas are sorely needed. 

Visual Review, 1940— Published annual- 
ly in February by the Society for 
Visual Education, Inc., 100 E. Ohio St., 
Chicago. 64 pp., 6% x9l^. Free upon 

Each edition of this splendid annual 
publication adds immeasurably to the 
literature on the visual field, as indicated 
by the title and writers of the twelve 
interesting articles presented. 

"Colored Photography as a Visual Aid 
in the Art Department," by H. Rueben 
Reynolds, Utah State .Agricultural Col- 
lege, Logan, suggests filmstrips and color 
slides that a teacher can produce to use 
in classes in art and architecture. "Geog- 
raphy Made Interesting through Pictur- 
ols," by Esther M. Bjoland, Classroom 
Foundation Materials, Chicago; "Film- 
strips as an Educational Aid," by Theo- 
dore R. Wright, Birmingham, Alabama ; 
and "Instruction with Filmslides in 
Adult Education," by Ellis G. Rhode, 
WPA Educational Program, California 
State Department of Education, are con- 
cerned with the visual aid indicated by 
titles of the three articles. Broader visual 
programs are described in "Visual Aids 
in Instruction in the Secondary Schools of 
Jackson, Mississippi" by I. F. Simmons, 
"Using Visual Aids in Teaching Voca- 
tional Agriculture." by C. S. Hutchison, 
Department of Agricultural Education, 
Ohio State University, and "Visual Aids 
in Safety Education," by L. G. Christer- 
son of National Safety Council, Chicago. 
The visual program of the First Corps 
Area of the CCC is outlined in "A Film 
Service at Work," by John A. Fox. 

"Production of a Motion Picture for 
Parent Teacher Showings," by Alta Mc- 
Intire and J. Kay White, reports on movie- 
making at the Pershing School in Berwyn, 
111. Advice on "Organizing and Utiliz- 
ing Visual Materials in the Typical 
School" is given by Alex. Jardine of 
Evansville, Indiana, Audio- Visual Depart- 
ment. "Audio-Visual Education in South 
Carolina," by Charles S. James of the 
University of South Carolina Audio- 
Visual Bureau, and "Unique Visual Pro- 
gram Given in Cincinnati" afford further 
evidence of the national growth of the 
visual field. 

Memo on the Movies: War Propaganda, 
1914-1939— Winifred Johnston — Co- 
operative Books, Series I. No. S 1939. 
Norman, Oklahoma. Subscription to 
12 numbers in Series I, $2.00. Single 
copy, 50c. 

This is one of the most important 
publications currently available. It is 
important to teachers all over, and it 
has especial significance for those of 
us who are aware of the power of the 
screen as a medium for propaganda. 

The author is particularly well 
adapted for the task of unearthing the 
many careful plans which caused the 
steady flow of newsreels, "educational" 
films and feature films during the pe- 
riod which preceded the last World 
War, for she was in the employ of the 
Chief Signal Officer in the War Depart- 
ment during our intervention in the 

The book is brief, well-written and 
inexpensive and is therefore to be pre- 
ferred to any review of it. It brings 
into sharp focus the importance of the 
screen in swaying public opinion in the 
direction desired by those who control, 
not only the movies, but all other ave- 
nues of propaganda and — as the author 
reveals — usually control many of the 
vital industries of our nation. Memo on 
the Movies successfully illustrates how 
important is the period before a war, and 
how carefully a free, democratic people 
must guard their right to know what is 
actually transpiring in their interest — ■ 
and not be contented with the sifted, 
well-regulated propaganda machine which 
surrounds them. 

Persons with special interest in "edu- 
cational" films will find the description 
of their contribution to the war scare an 
important revelation of the pre-1917 
days. Positives of films from large in- 
dustrial manufacturing companies, in ad- 
dition to 'nature stuff' turned out by the 
Bureau of Parks, scientific farming pic- 
tures from the Department of Agriculture 
and 'sanitation stuff' were all dressed up 
and inserted into newsreels with scenes 
of patriotic celebrations, women voting, 
seashore scenes, baby contests and the 
like. These pictures were designed to sell 
America to the world — and they did. 

Memo on the Movies brings us almost 
as far as the morning headlines, in its 
strong warning about the kind of films 
to which we are now exposed. Whether 
or not we permit these films to lead us 
again to war is a challenge we must now 

March, 1940 

Page 117 


The Story of American History in Copy and 

Suggestions for Original Handmade 

Lantern Slides 

Cartoons from Unit I — Exploration and Discovery 


It provides the values implied in pupil activities. 

It simulates the action of motion pictures. 

It brings the powerful influence of humor into the learning process. 

If interested in further information, fill in and mail the coupon below. 

Keystone View Company 


Keystone View Company, 
Meadville, Penna. 

You may send me, without charge, a copy of your prospectus of American History on Parade. 




Page 118 

The Educational Screen 


THIRTY-EIGHT reports on recent films produced 
by schools have been received in response to 104 
cards mailed during the past month. From the returns 
it is evident that schools already in the producing field 
are continuing their work and that other schools are 
beginning to make their own films. 

It is planned to send out 150 more check cards to 
obtain information on new films produced by schools. 
Readers of Educational Screen may aid in the 
sending of these check cards by suggesting names of 
schools that have produced or are producing films. 

Schools may report their production activities to 
the editor for possible inclusion in a future list of films. 
In the report, the following would be very helpful: 
name of school, address, title and subject of film, date 
completed, length, width, made by, brief summary of 
or unusual facts about the film, and name of individual 
reporting the film. 

Again a list of "newsreel" and activity films is pre- 

A Production Crew with its equipment 

(Greenwich, Conn., High School — Miss Eleanor Child, 

production director) 

sented. The films reported this month have been made 
on 16mm film and, unless otherwise specified, are silent 
on black-and-white. 

Florida — Shots of students on the campus and in 
the classrooms of the Ponce de Leon High School, 
Coral Gables, are found in two films (700 and 750 feet), 
described by Elmer L. Day, dean of boys. 

Indiana — School Dental Service (400 feet), Lincoln 
School (800), And So to School (1200), are three 
activity films produced by the Evansville Public Schools 
Audio-Visual Department. Alex Jardine is the depart- 
ment's director. 

Massachusetts — A Visit to Brookline High School 
(400 feet) shows the visit of two eighth grade pupils to 
high school and follows them from their entrance to 
the principal's office, the dean of girls, registrar, director 

Conducted by HARDY R. HNCH 

Head of English 

High School, Greenwich, Conn. 

Member Commiltee on Standards for Motion Pictures and 
Newspapers of the National Council of Teachers of English 

of guidance, an auditorium period, etc. The film was 
used to acquaint eighth grade students with the high 
school. John V. Jewett, director of guidance, was the 

New Jersey — Adult Education is the subject of a 
film produced at the Edison Junior High School, West 
Orange. Vincent Geiger is the school's principal. 

A film used as a means of informing the public about 
the home economics work in a school, is reported by 
Miss Grace Hadley, supervisor of home economics. 
Junior Fligh School, New Brunswick. It is entitled 
How We Relate Home Economics to Everyday Living 
(400 feet). 

New Mexico — F. S. Church of the Los Alamos 
Ranch School, Otowi, reports the making of 200 feet 
of film showing school activities, and 800 feet showing 
outdoor life. 

New York — The Camera Club of East View Junior 
High School, White Plains, has produced The Eyes of 
East View, a newsreel of school activities (800 feet). 
F. T. Mathewson is the club's advisor. 

A 400-foot film of a June festival, an outdoor physical 
education demonstration, is noted by W. B. Weyant of 
the Solvay Public Schools. 

Pennsylvania — A 3-reel film (approximately 1200 
feet) dealing with the activities program of the East 
High School, Erie, has been shown before many local 
civic groups, according to Miss Miriam B. Booth of the 
English Department. 

Editor's Note — A notable questionnaire survey, re- 
cently completed by William G. Hart, located over 90 
school-made films, with full data on each, most of them 
available on loan to other schools. The films are listed 
in two groups, "Specialized Subjects" and "News 
Reels." The first group is reprinted in full below. The 
second group will appear in the April issue. (16mm 
footage given after title. All are black and white unless 
otherwise specified. Loaned free unless charge is 

Specialized Subjects 

1. Health (600) Pupil health examinations; Cactus 
Courageous — Eighth grade class studies cactus, draws 
maps, explores; Football-Basketball. Loan. T. L. 
Alexander, Supt. of Schools, Haines, Fla. 

2. Sports Band (Sound) Football game, crowd and 
marching bands; color film. Margaret Ross, Director 
Visual Education, Wilmington, Del. 

3. Early Denver (500) Story of a complete school 
activity, all grades contributing, and culminating in an 
entertainment for parents. Loan. E. H. Herrington, 
Director Motion Picture Project, Denver Public 

4. Crippled Children's Room (100); High School 

March, 1940 

Page 119 


16min Sound, 16mm Silent and 8mm 


. . . An Invaluable Guide, Published Monthly tor Those Who 
Are Interested in Buying, Leasine: or Renting Films. 

NU-ART FILMS, INC. - i1w*"o/"" n""T 

L E A D I N a FILM D I S T k I B U T o'« S 

T. B. Testing Program (100). Loan. J. W. Prim- 
rose, Irving School, Quincy, 111. 

5. Special Education (800) Corrective speech, or- 
thopedic, sight saving, oral deaf, open air, therapeutic 
work. Supt. John Alemmer, Public Schools, Escanaba, 

6. Campus Personalities (400) Pictures of promi- 
nent personalities on the Iowa State College Campus. 
Loan. H. L. Kooser, Director Visual Instruction Serv- 
ice, Iowa State College, Ames, la. 

7. May Festival Review (350) Folk dances in 
costumes ; color film. Loan. C. J. Miller, Supt. of 
Schools, Ecorse, Mich. 

8. Nursery School (100) A day in Nursery School 
from the time mother says goodbye at her door until 
he reaches home again. Loan. Fred E. Pitken, Supt. 
of Schools, North Andover, Mass. 

I 9. Busy Hands (400) Survey of handwork in 
school; Reporting through Movies (450) Illustrated 
outline of possibilities for public relations films, pro- 
duced for the 1939 A.S.S.A. Both films in black-and- 
white and color. Loan. Godfrey M. Elliott, Prin. 
Oakvale Schools, Oakvale, W. Va. 

10. One Hundred Years of Educational Progress in 
aumee (1600) History of school up to present time, 
iwith narration on records to accompany the film. Loan. 
H. H. Sibling. Supt. of Schools, Maumee, O. (An- 
nounced in February issue) 

I 11. Historic Akron (450) Historic Indian spots, 
canal ruins, John Brown remains, early homes, ani- 
mated growth of city showing additions; color film. 
Loan. J. Ray Stine, Prin. Central High School, 
Akron, O. 

12. High School Opportunities in Illinois; Our 
Children's Opportunities; Modern Schools at Work — 
First two show contrast in educational opportunities 
oflfered in elementary and high schools of state; third 
shows modern schools and modern teaching methods in 
state. Small rental charge. Illinois Education Asso- 
ciation, Springfield, 111. 

13. Spring Festival at School 51 (800) School en- 
tertainment involving 900 children. Loan. Alan H. 
Nicol, Director Visual Education, Board of Education, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

14. Battle Creek Junior High Schools Visit Green- 
field Village; Verona School Kindergarten Circus; 
Verona Junior High School Physical Education Acti- 
vities; Battle Creek Annual Elementary Play Day; 
The Outdoor Classroom in Battle Creek. Keith Elliott, 
Prin. Verona School, Battle Creek, Mich. 

15. Federal Inspection and Governor's Day (400) ; 
Commencement at Iowa (400). L. W. Cochran, Su- 
pervisor Dept. of Visual Instruction, University of 
Iowa, Iowa City, la. 

Electrical Transcriptions for Schools! 

Ask for list of recorded programs, 
used successfully in the schools. 


Hollywood Blvd. at Cosmo, Hollywood, Calif. 

16. Introducing Your Library (650) The facilities 
and proper use of the library; color film. Loan. 
Lucille Walsh, Fordson High School, Dearborn, Mich. 

17. Our Children Learn to Read (400) The methods 
used in a modern school to teach reading; Junior high 
follow-up; color film. Physically Handicapped Chil- 
dren (450) A trip through the department for physi- 
cally handicapped in the Lowrey School. Loan. Wil- 
liam G. Hart, Lowrey School, Dearborn, Mich. 

18. School (400, sound) A day at school; 10 year- 
old group with the "school store as their project." Rec- 
ording of voices of children as they go about their 
tests. Small rental charge. Elizabeth Moos, Direc- 
tor Hessean Hills School, Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

19. Making Moline More Beautijid (1200) Results 
of city beautification program, yards and gardens ; 
Some Results of Our City Beautification Program 
(1200) Flowers, new bridges, water fronts, improved 
streets; Moline Cares (1000) Work of Community 
Chest in Moline. All three color films. C. R. Crakes, 
Prin. Senior High School, Moline, 111. 


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The new 16 mm all-sprocket projector illustrated 
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Amplifier furnished with 
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up to 1000. Volume can be 
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classrooms, if desired. 


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Page 120 

The Educational Screen 






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Standards of Geographical Film 

(_ConcIurJcd from page 96) 

correct application of a title to a small unit of geography 
of the northwest United States. This title corresponds 
to a common unit in the course of study and it is given 
an exact placement for its use. 

The Portraits of Portugal has an indefinite title which 
could well be changed to Wine Making in Oporto. 
Yellowstone Park in color is excellent as a picture of a 
physical phenomenon but the title should be more defi- 
nite as to the aspect of the park that is presented. 

Titles of films are as important as headings in book 
chapters. A correct title covering the contents of the 
film is Holland in Tulip Time. It is localized and it 
pictures in color man's specialized activities in a 
particular environment. Roaming in Holland is a 
poor title as it is indefinite as to its content. Children of 
Holland is a clear title of a presentation of family life 
in Holland. Argentine Argosy is a fancy title that 
would be more appropriate as Argentine Wheat and 
The Length 

At present 400 feet is a standard film length in 16mm 
sound or silent. This is a convenience to the producer 
and it fits well in the regular school work as a fifteen 
minute part of a class lesson. A longer film is not yet 
approved for the elementary school. However, in this 
experimental stage, it is not wise to set an arbitrary 
length. A series of 100 foot subjects might make a 
400 foot reel ; each subject in the series to lead to a 
succeeding lesson. A 400 foot subject of appro.xi- 
mately 15 minutes gives ample opportunity for the 
teacher's introduction of the subject to the class, fre- 
quent stops for questions by the pupils and at the end 
a follow-up which ties in with tlie other work of the 
unit. Films in 1200 and 1600 foot lengths are too long 
for class work and when shown are likely to become an 
entertainment feature rather than study material. Some 
teachers "show a series of 400 foot films, making a pro- 
gram of an hour or more but this is not an intelligent 
use of a learning technique. 

There should be series of geographical films, each 
distinct in its content and bound together as units of the 
geography of the United States. These can be shown 
throughout a semester as the study develops for each 
unit, perhaps one or two each week. 

The 400 foot film brings ample material for elemen- 
tary and junior high school classes but in lower pri- 
mary grades and the pre-primary there should be ex- 
periments with 100 foot length for simple subjects to 
be shown repeatedly to give full experience in recogni- 
tion of fundamental geographical ideas and concepts. 

The length of each film scene should be such as to 
give the pupil clear recognition of the objects and of the 
action. No studies have as yet revealed the type of 
material most suited to the short interest span of the 
second and third grade. The simple geographical ob- 
jects presented in the film with the synchronized spoken 
words of a tested vocabulary would be fully as valuable 
as beginning books in geography. The use of high 
standard geographical material, in short film lengths for 
these repeat lessons would promote interest and ideas 
more readily than a picture book in geography for the 

March, 1940 

Page 121 

film has the power of centering the interest of the entire 
group and the screen material is large enough so that 
all of the group may see the desired object. 

Film Content 

The pictorial content of a geographical film is more 
than a series of scenes. The geography film should 
not be a continuity of landscape stills ; rather a con- 
tinuity of action scenes within a selected environment. 
This pictorial presentation must have a clear sequence 
of closely related scenes, with a continuity of action 
which has a distinct and moving center of interest. 
The motion picture lesson is laboratory material that 
creates ideas not otherwise obtainable by most pupils. 
Irrigation presents to fifth grade pupils plenty of ma- 
terial and experience relative to the needs of water on 
the land and the types of irrigation used to meet the 
different problems. New England Fisherman is a defi- 
nite part of the fishing unit of man's work in New 
England. It is an indispensable tool for giving pupils 
real experiences and worthwhile ideas. 

Thei-e should be few maps and diagrams. Those 
that are used must be animated to make clear relation- 
ships which cannot be shown in scenes. Expansion of 
Germany uses maps eiTectively. All maps are to be 
especially drawn to emphasize the ideas pictured. No 
photographing of dim detailed wall maps or hazy globes. 
Maps are used to present simple concepts of distribu- 
tion, place, comparative size, distance, etc. 

Geographical facts for observation in the classroom 
must be truthfully shown. This means that geographi- 
cal scenes must be taken on location and not faked. 
jVaikiki Beach is near Honolulu, not in a Hollywood 
udio. Geographical films are not synthetic deception 
made in Hollywood but a truthful presentation that 
is made on a location. The Good Earth is a synthetic 
subject giving ideas of rural China in which the destruc- 
tive locusts are cofl^ee grounds bouncing over a minia- 
ture hill and destroying six pounds of needle grass 
(wheat) mounted on a roller. 
Wild animals should be filmed in their native en- 
ronment as those of Martin John.son or Robert 
Flaherty and not in the Hollywood wilds. The great 
value of geographical animal films is that the actual life 
is shown for laboratory observation of herds of elk, 
schools of fish, flocks of birds, swarms of insects, etc. 
The clear accurate commentary by Lowell Thomas 
in Colorado, his home state makes it a pictorial presen- 
tation that provides good material for school geography 
of the United States. The central theme of each film 
must be man in an environment which may be physical 
or cultural. Such films bring pupils into close touch 
^with the daily life of native people and their problems. 
j^H| Pictures of the physical environment may be wonder- 
^^1 but if a man's activities are absent then the point of 
modern geography is missed. The New South is a 
broad subject that presents ideas of the United States 
in a manner for the fifth grade level. It binds to- 
gether the phy.sical environment and man's activities 
so as to be good laboratory material. 

The alert teacher no longer conducts the geography 
lesson with strict adherence to the paragraph of the text. 
The basis of the lesson is carefully chosen pictures of 


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Page 122 

The Educational Screen 


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the facts of work and living in a particular situation. 
What an opportunity for the geographical film to pro- 
vide truthful laboratory material suggesting the various 
problems and observations of how people live! Such 
films are not made by just shooting scenes or putting 
together miscellaneous negatives but are as skillfully 
photographed as text books are written and printed. 

To this writer the sound film is a tool that brings 
a remarkable laboratory method into elementary geog- 
raphy instruction. School geography has forsaken 
simple observation for too many generalized concepts 
that become memory exercises ; it needs refreshing new 
tools. It is not visionary to predict for the near future 
a series of films for giving pupils basic experience in 
elementary geography. 

Each scene presented must be of such length that 
its contents are clearly impressed on pupils' minds. The 
familiar is carried by a smooth transition to the new 
idea. In doing things, in manipulations and in all 
processes there should be a clear close-up observation 
and a correct sequence. Each film has its facts pur- 
posely arranged to give experience, to gain understand- 
ing and to create ideas or attitudes. The pictorial 
composition should always be simple ; a few distinct 
objects in natural situations rather than stiffly posed 
or dressed up as in many Holland pictures, with 
wooden shoes and a flaring white bonnet which are 
worn only on special occasions. 

Film editing is as important in geographical films as 
editing geographical texts. No excess scenes should 
be added to make a reel complete. 

The Photographic Technique as an Aid to Learning 

The photographic technique is closely interwoven 
with the ideas to be presented and there are certain 
technical qualities which should be maintained in all 
motion pictures. 

(1) Sharpness and clearness is a basic quality of 
all scenes ; no deep shadows. In geographical films 
there is a necessity for showing enough of the sur- 
roundings to fix the local of the picture. This requires 
ample footage so as to permit the pupil to grasp the 
situation of the geographical action. The film must 
not be marred by scratches, grain, or other imperfec- 
tions so often present in "duped" films. 

(2) Lighting must give clear outlines of the objects 
to be observed. Light and shade should balance in 
each scene throughout the entire film. The tone of 
light and shade should not change markedly from scene 
to scene. Fade-ins and outs should not be so promi- 
nent as to interfere with the smooth flow of thought. 

(3) Accuracy and reliability in each scene is essen- 
tial. Freak shots are out of place. Pictorial compo- 
sition must build up observation and events to hold 
interest. Elementary pupils in geography require 
many close-ups as in Live in the Sahara where the 
camel is traveling on the desert sand. It shows his 
feet, knees, and nose in scenes of sufficient length for 
pupils to recognize his equipment for living in the 
desert. For the beginner there should be no extensive 
general landscape, footage devoted to sunsets, or roll- 
ing clouds, and weird effects ; no rapid montage, which 
is confusing to the young pupil. 

(4) Color is preferred in simple elementary films 

March, 1940 

Page 123 


New Horizons ]n Art Appreciation! t ! 

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New Tork City 


where this medium is required in presenting the con- 
cepts involved in close-ups of flowers, fruits, and ani- 
mals. There are many technical difficulties connected 
with the use of color, especially in production. To 
name only one which will illustrate ; due to the greater 
amount of light required in photograpliing scenes in 
color the lens aperture often has to be opened so wide 
that "critical" focus is difficult to secure except in ex- 
treme "close-ups." Often "medium close-ups" and 
"long .shots" are out of focus or present a fuzzy scene 
without the depth to provide necessary orientation and 
perspective. Again the problem of expense must be 
considered for the color film is two to three times the 
cost of a black and white. While black and white is 
a cheaper medium, it is not always the most impressive. 
Research has indicated that color scenes stimulate the 
emotions but the black and white seem to permit more 

To stain ditTerent scenes in diiiferent colors is poor 
technique but when color film is used the pastel shades 
are more suitable than vivid reds, yellows, and blues 
which are unnatural. 

(5) Animations are excellent aids when used to 
explain simple relationships. Such diagrammatic pres- 
entations must be free from jumps, and must be clear, 
simple, and correct. In Snow White there are whirl- 
ing, falling and spiralling eflfects that are confusing to 
sensitive children. 

(6) Each scene must be a definite photographic 
presentation to create ideas that build up the theme of 
the film to a definite purpose. 


The radio is considered to be a powerful tool of in- 
formation and a creator of ideas. It is restricted as to 
time and place. A sound picture in 16mm form has 
the power of a radio plus a definite picture in action. 
The sound picture is not limited as to time or place. 
It can be used and repeated many times and at many 
different places. It can be selected and adapted to 
different levels of learning and an important item is that 
it is always ready; the radio is not. 

There is no question that the clearest understanding 
comes from direct contact with reality as in the field 
trip, but failing this, the film is a faithful substitute 
which without sound is not complete. In sound film 
there is an opportunity to give the pupil a complete 
experience with natives of a far distant land as well 
as the activities of his own country. 

It is important to determine the sound most valuable 
to aid instruction in each unit. It is a practice coming 
from the theatrical film to fill in with music the spots 
where the commentator is silent. Heavy fanfare at the 
beginning of an educational film is distracting. Some 
of the following sound qualities of the film should be 
considered carefully by the instructor: 

(1) Speech. Good speech is vital to a school film. 

The diction and clearness of a film make it valuable 
or useless in a schoolroom. The voice must be natural, 
not dramatic or affected but clear and distinct. A 
pleasing tone with warmth and interest is an esset to 
any film. The vocabulary must be checked with word 
lists and words must be so spaced as to give pupils a 
chance to absorb them and pauses to apply the ideas 
to the picture. The synchronization of the speech 
with the picture is of greatest importance. The dia- 
logue must be clear, natural, and pointed. Hop-pick- 
ing in Kent has a good dialogue between the native 

(2) Musical introduction is inappropriate in most 
instructional films. No musical undertone when words 
are being spoken. Music should be used at the appro- 
priate time and place and never as a filler for the silent 

(3) All sound eflfects should be true; ducks should 
be ducks, not good imitations. Such sounds as water- 
falls, plows at work, passing trains, boats, etc. ,are 
excellent when used in proper relation to the scene. 




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DepL E-3 

New York 

Page 124 

The Educational Screen 


16 mm. Sound Film, One Reel. Rental $2.50 

Newest edition to our current events library. 
Civilians fleeing Helsinki; the first Russian air 
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General Science, 11 rolls, $20 
Principles of Ph-ysics, 7 rolls, $12 
Principles of Chemistry, 8 rolls, $14 
Fundamentals of Biology, 4 rollB, $9 
Order on approval or send for iree folder and sample 

VISUAL SCIE1VCES, Suffem, New York 





from Ilriiee Bnrton'M Famous Book 


A eoniplete iiiotnrizntion of the life of Christ. 

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ECV± c 

Midwest Forum on 
Visual Teaching Aids 

The second annual Midwestern Forum on Visual Teaching 
Aids will take place again at the Hotel Morrison in Chicago, 
April S-6, 1940. After several meetings, the committee has 
prepared a splendid program, as follo-ws : 

Friday, April 5 

10:00 A. M. — First General Session (Mural Room) 

Purpose of the Second Forum 

William C. Reavis, Chairman of Forum Committee 
Where Are IV e Going in Visual Education? 

J. E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual Instruction, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

10:30 A. M. — First Meeting of Classroom Clinics 

Elementary School Clinic (Embassy Room) 

Harry O. Gillct, Principal, University Elementary School, 

University of Chicago, Chairman ; James P. Fitzwater, Lake 

View High School. Secretary. 

How Living Things are Conserved and Protected — Nature 
film demonstration with fifth grade class, conducted by Miss 
Dorothy Burns, Cicero Public Schools. 
High School-College Clinic (Roosevelt Room) 

Noble J. Puffer, Supt. of Schools, Cook County, Chairman; 

Lee Cochran, University of Iowa, Secretary. 

F"ilm demonstration on Astronomy unit — Dr. Walter Bartky, 
University of Cliicago. 

12:00 — Luncheon and Round Table for Directors of Visual 
Education — Monte Carlo Room ($1.00) 

J. E. Hansen, Chairman; Samuel N. Stevens, Northwestern 

University. Secretary. 
Topics for Discussion : The Budget and the Visual Program ; 

Problems in Visual Instruction Confronting the Schools: 
-Advantages and Disadvantages of University, County and 
Sectional Libraries of Visual Aids. 

2:00 P. M. Second Session of Clinics 

Elementary School Clinic (Embassy Room) 

The Preparation and Use of 2x2 Slides in Classroom Teach- 
ing — J. B. MacHarg, Eastman Kodak Company. 

The Effective Use of Lantern Slides in Teaching Geog- 
raphy — Discussion leader, Ruth Weaver Mikesell, DePaul 
University ; class demonstration by Laura Watkins, Cicero. 
High School-College Clinic (Mural Room) 

"Town Hall" Type of Meeting Built around a film — Dr. 
Irving J. Lee, Northwestern University. 

Pageant of American Lantern Slides — demonstration ar- 
ranged by Dr. John A. Bartky, President, Chicago Normal 
College ; elementary class conducted by Martin Lowry. 
6:30 P. M. — Annual Banquet— Terrace Casino 

Recordings, still pictures, motion pictures, slides. 

Saturday, April 6 

9:30 A. M. — Final Session of Classroom Clinics 

Elementary School Division (Embassy Room) 

Demonstration of Films Prepared by United States 
Film Service — discussion of activities by Arch A. Mercey, 
Assistant Director. 
High School-College Clinic (Mural Room) 

Visual Aids in Industrial .'\rts Courses^W. R. Cleveland, 
Director of Visual Instruction, Downers Grove, 111. 
11:00 A.M. — Final General Session (Mural Room) 

Dr. \\illiam C. Reavis, Presiding. 

Demonstration by Conunission on Human Relations of Pro- 
gressive Education Association — James P. Mitchell, Member of 
Commission, and social science class of Elgin High School. 

What Has Been Accomplished in the 1940 Forum 

Reports from Classroom Clinics 

March, 1940^ 

Page 125 



Visual Sessions at Progressive's Meeting 

The Annual National Conference of the Progressive 
Education Association, held in Chicago February 19-24, 
included a morning and afternoon session on Audio- 
Visual Aids in Education. J. E. Hansen, University 
of Wisconsin, acted as Chairman, ably assisted by a 
committee of Resource Leaders : Donald G. Cawelti, 
Winnetka Public Schools ; Etta Schneider, Editor, 
Visualized Curriculum Series, New York City ; Ella C. 
Clark, Winona, Minnesota. State Teachers College, 
Luella Hoskins, Chicago Radio Council ; Clark Cell, 
Winnetka Public Schools. 

The committee suggested problems for discussion 
by the group as a whole, evoking thereby reports of 
individual experiences in the vise of visual aids. In 
discussing the question of specialization, introduced by 
Miss Schneider, Mr. Hansen stated "the time may come 
when the visual instruction specialist will become cur- 
riculum specialist as well" because of the complete 
knowledge he must have of the curriculum in order to 
get the films which will correlate closely with the topics 
studied. Another question raised was "how can large- 
group instruction by visual aids be reconciled, or ap- 
plied to Progressive Education ideals and procedures, 
which stress individual instruction?" The problem of 
booking films in advance is concerned here. In answer, 
Mr. Cawelti described the working of the visual pro- 
gram in the Winnetka schools. There, many films are 
used for more than one purpose and for more than 
one grade or class ; many creative activities result 
from film use ; and many studies cover a period of time 
at any point of which the film may be appropriately 
used as background for a given project. Mr. Hansen 
brought up the desirability of short length films with 
a running time of approximately four minutes for units 
needing also slides or filmstrips for eflfective teaching. 
The question of the adequacy of present ready-made 
visual materials for use by progressive schools was 
discussed. The consensus of opinion seemed to be that 
commercially-produced materials unquestionably saved 
time, but that school-made materials — films, slides, 
photographs, etc. provide peculiar fitness to the local 
situation, and pupil-teacher activization, to a greater 
degree than the professional material. Another major 
topic of discussion was that on the use of "free" ma- 
terials. The general opinion of the group was that the 
contents of film or other "free" visual material was 
a more important criterion than their cost. Exhibits 
of silk and cocoons are in no way compromised by the 
fact that they do not cost a rental fee. The distinction 
between this type of inanimate realia, and the highly- 
dynamic motion picture with all its possibilities for 
propaganda, was pointed out as well as the responsibil- 
ity of the teacher for properly judging the suitability 
of the "free" materials offered. Portions of two after- 
noons were devoted to the showing of 16mm school- 
made films, primarily in the public relations area, in- 
cluding: Living and Learning in a Rural School, sound, 


and 25 Foreign Lands' 


Such world-wide acceptance and use of Erpi Classroom 
Films can be explained in one way only: They have 
proved their value as teaching tools— suited to the needs 
and hudgets of thousands of schools, small and large. 

Sound films are so effective because of their complete- 
ness. Presenting subject matter through a combination 
of both sight and sound, they make a clearer, more 
lasting impression than is possible through either alone. 
Further, they make possible the use of much material 
that can be presented in no other way. 

Erpi Classroom Films Inc. now offers your school a 
comprehensive library of 141 instructional films— with 
24 more to be released in 1940. There are films for 
use in Primary Grades, Social Studies, Biological and 
Physical Sciences, Music, Art, Athletics, Child Psych- 
ology, Vocational Guidance and Teacher Training. 

Ten years' experience has proved that ERPI sound films 
are economical to use. Because: They last for years — 
may be used for a variety of purposes— may be used in 
several different grade levels — may be correlated with 
a number of different courses. Send the coupon for 
full details. 

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ES 3-40 


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in a number of different courses. 


Page 126 

The Educational Screen 

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produced by Teachers College of Columbia University ; 
School, sound, showing progressive education at work, 
in the Hessian Hills School, Croton-on-Hudson, New 
York ; Education in California, sound and color ; De- 
sign for Education, sound, produced by Sarah Law- 
rence College. Bronxville, New York ; Dynamic Educa- 
tion, silent, showing utilization of community resources 
by the schools of Santa Monica, California. The meet- 
ing also provided showings of three outstanding motion 
pictures on conservation of human and natural re- 
sources : The City, The River and Housing in Our 

A group meeting on Motion Pictures as a Resource 
was conducted by James P. Mitchell and included the 
showing of the Progressive Education Association's 
Human Relation Films, followed by discussion b}' high 
school students who have viewed the films. 

Wisconsin Visual Conference 

The Wisconsin Visual Instruction Conference took 
place at Madison February 9 and 10, sponsored by the 
Extension Division of the University. Dean Frank 
O. Holt, J. E. Hansen and F. D. Brown, all of the 
University staflF, spoke at the Friday morning .session. 
The afternoon was devoted to a joint meeting with the 
Radio and Visual Instruction Section of Southern Wis- 
consin Educational Association, at which Edgar Dale 
of Ohio State University was one of the speakers. Other 
features of the two-day program were the showing of 
new educational films Friday evening, two panel dis- 

cussions on visual problems and the state program 
Saturday morning, followed by a luncheon meeting at 
which Joseph Rohr summarized the state visual pro- 
gram of the WPA, and Mr. Dale discussed "Where 
Are We Headed in Visual Instruction?" 

New England Section Meets 

The New England Section, Department of Visual 
Instruction of the N. E. A. held its annual business 
meeting recently at the Copley Square Hotel, Boston. 
Reports showed that the number of members had in- 
creased over two hundred percent in the last two 
years. In order to more effectively serve New England 
teachers, it was voted to organize branches in each of 
the six states. 

The officers elected for 1940 are: President, Mr. 
Burdette Buckingham, Quincy, Mass. ; Vice-Pres., Mr. 
Edward F. Wheeler, Bristol. Conn.; Sec.-Treas.. Mr. 
Howard A. Smith, High School, Milton, Mass. 

The Board of Directors for 1940 consists of Abra- 
ham Krasker. Chairman, Leland H. Chapman, Fred- 
eric J. Christiansen, Carleton W. H. Erickson, James 
A. Moyer, Paul Z. Rummel. 

The Annual Conference on Visual Education, which 
is opened to all interested persons, will be held on 
Saturday, March 30, 1940 at the Boston University, 
School of Education, 84 Exeter Street. Boston. 

Spring Quarter Visual Course 

The University College of the University of Chicago 
announces a credit course entitled "Introduction to 
Visual Instruction" for the Spring Quarter commenc- 
ing March 9. The class will meet Saturdays from 
11 :00 to 12:45 in order to make pos.sible attendance by 
teachers and administrators who live considerable dis- 
tance from downtown Chicago. The class has been set 
up for the Spring Quarter so that it can serve as an in- 
service laboratory or work,shop course for teachers now 
on the job. and also afford students in special methods 
course or tliose engaged in practice teaching the oppor- 
tunity of utilizing audio-visual aids in their own sub- 
jects. The course will be given by Mr. Wesley 
Greene, foriuerly an instructor in social sciences at the 
University of Chicago High School and Director of 
Activities at the International House, and now director 
of the College Film Center. 

Non-Theatrical Association to Meet 

To commemorate its first year of activity in its field. 
Allied Non-Theatrical Film As,sociation members will 
gather in New York City on April 26 for their annual 
meeting and banquet. It is expected that several hun- 
dred film distributors, equipment manufacturers, 
laboratory men, visual education specialists, and others 
connected with the non-theatrical film field will attend. 
Leaders of the industry will discuss current problems 
affecting the field while officers will report on the 
activities of the organization during the past year. 
Election of officers for the ensuing year will also occupy 
a place on the program. 


March, 1940 

Page 127 

Edited by Arch A. Mercey 

Assistant Director, U. S. Film Service, 
Washington, D. C. 

Census Training Films 

The motion picture as a training device will have its 
greatest test when the U. S. Census Bureau begins 
the 1940 census. Four one-reel motion pictures are 
being used in the training designed to expedite and 
simplify the work of the 130,000 field enumerators. 
The enumerators are located in every state in the union 
and in the U. S. Territories and possessions, and will 
begin work April 1, 1940. They are expected to com- 
plete their assignments in thirty days. The films will 
not be used outside continental United States. 

Census experts have designed a comprehensive set 
of instructions which include manuals and detailed di- 
rections on each phase of the census work. For the 
first time the motion picture is being used for purposes 
of orienting the enumerators in their problems and 
illustrating, in a standardized fashion, the functions of 
certain broad areas of the census work. The films 
include : 

1. A reel on orientation which is designed for ex- 
hibition to all enumerators. This reel will outline 
the growth and purposes of a Federal Census. 

2. A reel on the census of agriculture. 

3. A reel on the census of population. 

4. A reel for the housing census. 

The latter three films are "how to do" subjects, de- 
signed to standardize the methods of census taking. 
All reels will be shown to all enumerators. 

These films are being made by the motion picture 
division of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in co- 
operation with the Census Bureau. Films will be sent 
out to district census offices for exhibition to the field 
workers. A detailed schedule of showings is being 
arranged in about 950 cities for the census workers 
in order that the films will be utilized intensively as 
part of tlie preparation and training before the national 
count actually begins. Census experts hope that through 
motion pictures they can demonstrate that visual means 
of instruction can play an extremely important part 
in a great national campaign such as that of taking 
a Federal census. 

Of particular interest to students of the film is the 
production of a housing reel. The Census Bureau feels 
that the interest and importance of this general subject 
makes such inclusion particularly timely. 

The Census films are for training the census field 
enumerators only and are not for distribution of any 
sort. Please do not write requesting bookings. 

Health and Safety Films 

The Office of Health Education of the U. S. Public 
Health Service has prepared a list of films on safety 
and health education for schools and adult education 
groups. This list is available to schools without cost 
from the United States Film Service. 

Vocational Guidance 

by Spencer O. Benbow, Ast't O'r Vocational Schools 

and Gardner L. Harf, O'r Visual Inttrueflon 

Public Schools, Oakland, California. 



especially produced for 

More than 200 panels, each picture preceded by 
a fully descriptive title. No manuals required. 


DEPT. V.G. 4703 W. PICO BLVD. 


Finland - - Sweden 

Every teacher will want to use Finland and 
Sweden, two new "Educational Films of Merit" 
produced under the direction of Dr. William G. 
Campbell, Ph.D., Professor of Education, University 
of Southern California. 

Timeliness in presentation of scenes of the cities, 
farms, people, and activities of these countries make 
the films particularly valuable in social studies, 
social science, history, and political science classes. 
Photographed only this last year, from an educa- 
tional point of view, they are the newest available 
pictures on Finland and Sweden. 

Each is 200 feet silent at $12.00; in color $30.00 
— also for rent. Soon to be released are similar 
subjects on Norway and Denmark. 

For preview prints and complete sale or rental 
catalogs, write Dept. E-7 today! 


1651 Cosmo St. Hollywood. Calif. 

' £dnceif'i&na.E yi^mA of Ine^it' 


Page 128 

The Educational Screen 

Whether you seek 




is the BEST WAY! 

You can educate while you enter- 
tain, just as you entertain while you 
educate — with Universal's outstand- 
ing selection of motion pictures. 

Here are pictures that should be on 
everybody's MUST list: 

DEANNA DURBIN In "Three Smart Girls Grow Up" 

BING CROSBY, Joan Blondell and Mischa Auer in 
"East Side of Heaven" 

Tomorrow Comes" 

DEANNA DURBIN in "That Certain Age" 

Gilbert and Sullivan's "The Mikado" in gloriaus 
technicolor, with the D'Oyly Carte Players and 
London Symphony Orchestra 


You Can't Cheat an Honest 

McCarthy in ' 



Doug. FAIRBANKS Jr. and Basil RATHBONE in "The 
Sun Never Sets" 

"The Family Next Door" with Hugh Herbert and 
Joy Hodges 

Don't miss these. Write to Universal's 
IS on-Theatrical Department for further 
information regarding short-subjects, 
travelogues, animated cartoons and 
other feature length pictures. 



Rockefeller Center New York, N. Y. 

CIRCLE 7-7100 

International Film Bureau, Inc. 

59 East Van Buren Street, Chicago, III. 

Separate nim lists uvaihible on PYenoh, 
German, Historical, and Art subjects. In 
writing:, specify in whicli you are interested. 


School-Made Motion Pictures 

(Concluded from page 100) 

"Service clubs and organizations were glad to have 
the films shown." 

"Board of education bought visual equipment mostly 
as a result of seeing school-made pictures." 

"Disputes about the construction of new buildings 
were settled. (Made shots of various stages in con- 
struction of new building.)" 

"Our community believes in boosting the schools 
probably due to their knowledge of the schools through 

Chapter VIII 
Conclusions and Interpretations =•• 

Why does the school-made motion picture stand 
out as one of the best methods of gaining the public 
support and cooperation for the school? One reason 
is that the motion picture is almost always on the 
level of concrete experience and verbalism is practically 
non-existent. Of course, each individual interprets the 
pictures for himself, but the gap between individual 
interpretations is not nearly so great as it would be if 
just the spoken word or printed page had been used. 
However, this does not mean that the motion picture 
should not be supplemented by the printed or spoken 
word. For example, many school films attempt to 
show how children learn, but it is possible to show only 
the setting in which learning takes place. In such a 
situation the printed or spoken word is necessary to 
relate the physical activity or setting to the learning 

Another reason the motion picture is such a power- 
ful public relations medium is because of its abilitv to 
show many of the activities of the school within a 
relatively short space of time, and to a large number of 
people. If these people were to visit the school in an 
attempt to get the same information, it would require 
weeks of continuous attendance. The average parent 
or member of the public would be hard pressed to visit 
the school more than five or six times during the year. 
The motion picture then, with its ability to record 
significant parts of the school's activities in their proper 
relationship to the whole program, seems to be the most 
practical means of interpreting certain phases of the 
school for the public. 

The school film may do the best single job of inter- 
preting many phases of the school to the public, but it 
should not be depended upon to do it all. The school- 
made motion picture should be but a part of a balanced 
and continuous public relations program which uses 
every available method to interpret the school for the 

*In the complete thesis, this Chapter VIII includes a de- 
tailed summary of all points previously covered, and a full 
Bibliography, both of which are omitted here. 

March, 1940 

Page 129 

Available Electrical Transcriptions 

Radio Transcription Company of America, Ltd.. 
Hollywood. California, offers several educational radio 
programs for school use, each series consisting of 39 

"Frontier Fighters" is the title of a dramatic series 
presenting important historical events and outstanding 
characters in the development of the West. Historically 
correct, these dramas are enacted by a cast of outstand- 
ing artists. In "That Was the Year" news headlines 
of the jiast. important accomplishments of well known 
men and women, and the march of progress in science 
and arts are dramatized. The period covered is from 
1896 to 1934. An added feature is the presentation on 
each program of the popular song success of the year 

For music and music appreciation classes, two series 
are available. "The Story behind the Song" tells of 
the events surrounding the composition of favorite 
songs of our country, including many of Stephen Fos- 
ter, as well as the old hymns and National Anthems of 
France, Great Britain and the former Austrian Empire. 
At the close of each drama the song is presented by a 
vocal ensemble accompanied by the organ. "Thrills 
from Great Operas" (in English) record the favorite 
scenes and arias from operas of the masters, each pro- 
gram presenting the dialogue of the opera leading up 
to the rendition of the aria. The orchestra of twenty 
men. selected from the Los Angeles Philharmonic Or- 
chestra, is under the direction of Frederick Stark. 

For classes in English literature, they have "Tht 
Lindsley Readings." dramatic presentations of the 
famous works of Dickens. Poe, Scott, O'Henry, Mark 
Twain. Riley and others. Mr. Lindsley also presents 
"Leather Stocking Tales." Classes in agriculture and 
gardening will find "Gardening the Luther Burbank 
Way" a valuable aid. 

All material in these series have been carefully au- 
thenticated. Complete details regarding the programs 
may be obtained by writing to the Hollywood office of 
Radio Transcription Company, Hollywood Boulevard 
at Cosmo Street. Audition samples are available, at 
a nominal charge, for the purpose of selecting features 
which will fit in with the school curriculum. 

A series of 26 fifteen-minute recorded radio pro- 
grams are available now for school use from the Insti- 
tute of Oral and Visual Education, 101 Park Avenue, 
New York City. The title of the series is "Lest We 
Forget" and the programs "graphically dramatize the 
establishment and preservation of the four American 
absolutes — freedom of speech, freedom of press, free- 
dom of religion, and freedom of assembly." There are 
two historical episodes on each record. Episode 1, "A 
Cameo of American Civilization," and episode 2, "The 
Virginia Colony," are on the first record, episodes 3 
and 4, "The Massachusetts Bay Colony" and "Roger 
Williams and Rhode Island," on the second record, and 
so on up to "The Worid War and Its Results" and 
"The Post- War Period to the Election of Franklin D. 
Roosevelt" on Record 13. 




provides apparatus 

for many departments 

and uses 

Central Radio System 

With the new Victor Animato- 
phone Sound Motion Picture 
Projector, teaching reaches a 
new high in simplificafion and 
effectiveness. Victor's exclu- 
sive Multiple-Use features 
offer utility, flexibility and 
economy never before at- 
tained in Visual Education. 
Yet the cost is surprisingly 
low! Investigate this remark- 
able New Sound Projector 

Check These Victor 

Each projector Is the basis for serv- 
ing 30 or 3000 students with silent 
and sound movies, public address 
Facilities, central radio, phono record 
reproduction and complete record- 
ing facilities. 


New-type shutter and intermittent 
movement eliminates all "flicker." 


Exclusive Victor Film Trip absolutely 
prevents mutilation of film. 


Full, natural tone qualify rs assurecJ 
by Victor sound equipment. 

For Catalog No. 40, 


^ Dept. D-l, DAVENPORT, iOWA 

Distributors throughout the World 

Page 130 

The Educational Screen 

Cux^Ent ^iLm <:J\[t 

Geography Filmsets 

K uniquely planned service of educa- 
tional films on Geography has just been 
introduced on the market by Filmsets, 
Inc., New York City. "Filmsets" are 
complete libraries of short, silent motion 
picture films to be owned by individual 
schools, making it possible for such a 
school to have unrestricted access to the 
material whenever it becomes pertinent 
to the lesson. This is the basis of effec- 
tual use of study films. 

This Geography Filmset consists of 48 
units, and covers the more important 
aspects of the entire curriculum for 
geography in elementary and junior 
grades. Each unit is one-quarter of a 
reel (100 feet, 16mm), or approximately 
four minutes running time, and is de- 
voted to one specific topic. Because of 
their brevity, they concentrate interest on 
essentials only, thus helping the teacher 
to keep the lesson within definite limits. 

Every unit is complete within itself, so 
that units may be assembled in whatever 
order the teacher desires. For example, 
they may be used to approach the study 
of geography from the standpoint of 

Showing teacher's handbook and 
film case 

human needs, or regional relationships, 
or common environments, or historical 
developments. There is no over lapping 
of scenes in the various units. The in- 
dustrial units are made, so far as possible, 
without any refence to locale, just as the 
regional units refer to products but do 
not expand upon them when such prod- 
ucts are covered by units of their own. 

A Handbook accompanies the units, 
three copies being furnished with the 
purchase of the complete Filmset of 48 
units, thereby permitting the use of the 
Handbook by more than one teacher in 
the school at the same time. It is an 
elaborate teacher's manual, suggesting the 
proper technique for the use of the units, 
and containing fourteen illustrations from 
each covering the highlights of the film 
content. These pictures are a valuable 
feature of the manual as the teacher can 
prepare the lesson in advance from them. 
Titles of supporting units are appended 
tg each unit. 

For further information and purchase 
price, write to Filmsets, Inc., 52 Vander- 
bilt Avenue, New York City. 


Harmon Foundation Inc., 140 Nassau 
Street, New York City, announce the 
release of two motion pictures show- 
ing life in the Congo, filmed in Africa 
during the past year and a half, under 
the auspices of the Africa Motion Pic- 
ture Project, by Mr. and Mrs. Ray 
Garner : 

Children of Africa — 2 reels, 16mm 
silent — Planned especially for children 
from six to twelve years of age, with 
titles and editorial approach adapted 
to these age groups by two children's 
publication editors, Miss Pearl Rosser 
of the .'\merican Baptist Publishing 
Society and Miss Nina Millen of the 
Missionary Education Movement. This 
film is also made to meet the require- 
ments of the school curriculum study 
of Congo peoples. The subject matter 
is concerned with the work, play, and 
home life of the African child. Each 
reel is a distinct unit and may be used 

A Day in an African Village — 2 1-reel 
units, 16mm silent — Suitable for study 
in the later grades. Typical activities 
and routine matters of village life from 
sunrise to sunset are depicted, covering 
work, recreation, methods of prepar- 
ing food, building homes, etc. 

The Africa Motion Picture Project 
was sponsored by the Foreign Mission 
Boards of ten Protestant Churches, the 
Phelps Stokes Fund, the American Mis- 
sion to Lepers, and the Harmon Founda- 
tion. The expedition was unique in that 
all filming was done to meet definite 
subject requirements. The completion 
of these two subjects makes a total of 
five of the Project's films which are 
complete. The first three to be done 
were "Ngono and Her People," "The 
Story of Bamba," and "Song After 
Sorrow," all of which show mission 
activities against the background of 
African culture. Five more are yet to 
be edited. All of these films are being 
distributed through the Division of 
Visual Experiment of the Harmon 

Garrison Film Distributors, Inc., 1600 
Broadway, New York City, have just 

Men and Dust — 2 reels, 16mm and 
35mm sound — A factual film dealing 
with the silicosis and tuberculosis 
stricken Tri-State lead-and-zinc mining 
area (at the juncture of Kansas, Mis- 
souri and Oklahoma), based on a study 
by the Tri-State Survey Committee, 
Inc. The picture was filmed by Sheldon 
Dick, former photographer for the Fed- 
eral Security Bureau and commentary 
was directed by Lee Dick, producer 
and director of "School," the film on 
progressive education made for the 
American Film Center. J. V. D. Bucher, 
editor, also worked on "The City." 

Arthur C. Pillsbury, 640 Arlington 
Avenue, Berkeley, California, well- 
known lecturer, is offering his edu- 
cational films on plant life in natural 
color and sound. Four one-reel pic- 
tures are now ready, as follows : 
Story of Pollen — K picture of the 
pollen of the Spider Lily, Hybrobrising, 
and lapse-time pictures of the Hibiscus. 
The Flowers of Your Garden — In- 
cludes a microscopic picture of the 
Tradiscantia, and lapse-time of com- 
mon flowers. 

California Wild Flowers — Presents 
the wonderful Snow Plant, having 32 

Flowers of Hawaii — Rare and won- 
derful flowers, including the Silver 
Sword, and lapse-time of the Night 
Blooming Cerus. 

These four subjects make a 1600-foot 
feature reel. Another such reel will be 
ready soon, also a lecture set of 2400 

Audio Film Libraries, 661 Bloomfield 
Avenue, Bloomfield, New Jersey, have 
added to their collection of films on 
timely subjects : 

Finland Fights — 1 reel, 16mm sound, 
available for rental. This movie docu- 
ment shows all of the outstanding inci- 
dents that have gripped the world : evac- 
uation of civilians, Russian air attack on 
Helsinki, massing of Finnish defense, 
Finns ("estroying homes to hamper enemy, 
fightinr? on the Mannerheim Line, Reds 
landing troops by parachutes. Finnish 
ski troops in action, capture of Russian 
supplies and prisoners, dramatic scenes 
of Finland's heroes defending their home- 
land against overwhelming odds. 

Bailey Film Service, 1651 Cosmo 
Street, Hollywood, California, offer 
three vital new films among their 
"Educational Films of Merit :" 

Finland and Sweden — each Vi reel, 
silent — ^Two timely subjects produced 
under the direction of Dr. William G. 
Campbell, Professor of Education, the 
University of Southern California; and 
edited by Miss Mary Clint Irion, for- 
merly Assistant Director of Visual 
Education, Los Angeles County Schools, 
now Educational Advisor for Bailey 
Film Service. Intimate scenes of cities, 
farms, people, and activities of these 
Scandinavian countries are presented. 
Produced only this last year the films 
are up to the minute in subject matter. 
Available for sale or rent in black-and- 
white or color. 

China — 1 reel, silent — Produced by 
Dr. Herman H. Chrisman, formerly of 
Stanford University, and edited by Miss 
Irion. Not only are general views of 
China shown, but many close-ups of 
people at their daily work, types of 
dress, and the contrast between the old 
and the new. For sale or rent in 1 reel 
black-and-white, or Yz reel color. 

Also included in the latest Bailey 

releases are two prize-winning British 

(Continued on page 133) 

March, 1940 

Page 131 

Important additions to the 
Eastman Classroom Films 

THE first of the new films is 
devoted to the antineuritic 
vitamin, B,, and its role in the 
maintenance of health... the sec- 
ond, to the mechanics of seeing 
and the conservation of eyesight, 
presented in terms so simple as 
to be easily grasped by students 
in the elementary grades. Both 
reels have been carefully prepared, 
and are fully authoritative. 

Eastman Classroom Films on 


the general subject of Health also 
include one or more reels on 
each of the following: Bacteria . . . 
Modern Basketball Fundamentals 
... The Blood ... Body Framework 
. . . Breathing . . .The Living Cell . . . 
Child Care . . . Circulation . . . Cir- 
culatory Control . . . Cleanliness . . . 
Digestion . . . Diphtheria . . . The 

Feet . . . First Aid . . . Food and 
Growth... Modern Football Fun- 
damentals. ..Good Foods ...Home 
Nursing . . . The House Fly . . . 
Mold and Yeast... Muscles. ..Pos- 
ture . . . Safety Series (Safety at 
Home, Safety at Play, Vacation 
Safety)... Sewage Disposal. ..Skin 
...Teeth.. .Tuberculosis and How 
It May Be Avoided. Write Eastman 
Kodak Company, Teaching Films 
Division, Rochester, N. Y. 

Page 132 

The Educational Screen 

czrfmona tfiE iJ^%oduaE%± 

Where the commercial 
lirms announce new products and developments of interest to the field. 

New Picture Series 
for Classrooms 

A collection of 700 carefully selected 
documentary still pictures illustrating 
many of the persistent modern problems 
involved in "Living Together in the 
Modern World" has been placed on the 
market by the Creative Educational So- 
ciety, Mankato, Minnesota. Each picture 
is Syi" X 11" in size, and is printed by 
the Optak process on a durable mount. 
The text material and questions on the 
back of each picture have been directed 

The seven teacher's manuals 

to children of elementary school age, 
ranging in suitability from primary 
through upper elementary grades. 

The materials of Visualized Ciirricu- 
LUM Series, as the picture collection is 
called, have been organized to meet the 
needs of modern schools with ample op- 
portunity for adjustment to local needs. 

Classified picture file 

The pictures have been arranged in log- 
ical sequence around the theme of the 
respective problems. For example : the 
Transportation pictures are filed under 
the sub-headings : early land transporta- 
tion, journey by train, water transporta- 
tion, air transportation, journey by plane, 
local transportation, and transportation 
for fun. Human Resources, another of 
the problems in the series, includes 
health, safety, cultural heritage, govern- 
ment, education, and recreation. An al- 
phabetical index, however, permits the 

use of the pictures in any other sequence 
dictated by local needs. 

Seven teachers' guides to accompany 
each of the seven large problems (Food, 
Shelter, Clothing, Transportation, Com- 
munication, Conservation of Human Re- 
sources, and Conservation of Natural 
Resources) have been prepared in col- 
laboration with outstanding authorities in 
elementary education. These guides rep- 
resent a great advance in professional 
guidance for teachers. 

The Managing Editor for Visualized 
Curriculum Series is Etta Schneider, 
formerly on the staff of Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, and an of- 
ficer in the Department of Visual In- 
struction of the N.E.A. 

Film Slides on the Art 
of the World 

Through recent developments in the 
field of color photography it is now pos- 
sible for schools to procure light, durable, 
colored film slides for art appreciation 
classes which are not only faithful in 
color to the original work but priced 
within the reach of all. This material is 
offered by Art Education, Inc., 35 W. 
4Sth St., New York City. They can fur- 
nish a wide selection of slides from their 
own large collection of copyrighted sub- 
jects extending from the Cro-Magnon 
Period to the Moderns with Matisse 

Complete classified lists of available 
subjects have been prepared by this firm 
so that the teacher can select those best 
suited to her needs without the necessity 
of following any prescribed course in art 
appreciation. Or the Service Bureau will 
suggest subjects in sculpture, architecture 
and painting of any period of art his- 
tory required. This service is not limited 
to the fine arts alone, but examples of 
historic design in crafts such as frag- 
ments of Coptic and Peruvian textiles, 
Athenian pottery and Indian baskets are 
available in color slides. 

For Social Science classes there is a 
series of 108 slides in black and white 
entitled "Little Journeys in Eastern 
States" with an accompanying manual 
for teachers by John T. Faris. Half-tone 
illustrations of this series are to be had 
for notebook work. There is also a set 
of 117 half-tone prints with a chart and 
manual for the teacher entitled "The 
American Renaissance" picturing the 
genesis and development of art in Amer- 
ica from 1607 to 1814. Each successive 
Colonial period is treated in turn with 
illustrations of its characteristic archi- 
tecture and furniture. The whole pre- 
sents a graphic story of life in Colonial 

Days based upon authentic material. Film 
slides are available for all subjects in 
this series. 

An added advantage to the use of 
Masterpiece Color Film slides is the indi- 
vidual color miniatures and 8x10" color 
prints as well as individual art instructor's 
texts which are available for many of 
the subjects listed. Progressive schools 
are sending the work of gifted graduat- 
ing students to Art Education, Inc., to 
be made into color film slides in order 
that a permanent record can be kept of 
their work. 

Mechanical Movements 
on Film Slides 

Visual Sciences, Suffern, New York, 
announces the first roll in a new film 
slide series for shop teachers. This series 
also supplements the required work in 
general science and physics, and will be 
found especially valuable in automotive 
and aeronautical schools. 

Consisting of i7 key diagrams, "Me- 
chanical Movements" clearly illustrates 
the principles involved in transmitting 
various types of motion — such as rotary 
to rectilinear and reciprocating to ro- 
tary — and in changing direction through 
the use of wheels, pulleys, gears and 
shafts. The use of eccentric, rachet, 
escapement, universal joint, differential 
and car gear shift, so difficult to draw 
on the blackboard or otherwise present, 
are here depicted with great clarity and 

This roll, costing less than six cents 
per frame, may be used thousands of 
times, rendering the original cost very 
nominal. Educators may order on ap- 
proval for twenty days without obliga- 

RCA Victor Book of 
Audio- Visual Aids 

The 1940 edition of "Audio-Visual 
Service for Schools," a widely-read pres- 
entation of sound products and services 
developed especially for educational use, 
has been announced by Ellsworth C. 
Dent, Director of the RCA Victor Edu- 
cational Department. Presenting radio 
and related equipment of a wide variety, 
the booklet may be obtained without 
cost from Mr. Dent's office at Camden, 
New Jersey. 

Equipment designed to aid in class- 
room instruction and extra cnrricular 
activities, as well as general adminis- 
trative problems, is illustrated and de- 
scribed. Emphasis is placed on practical 
applications, rather than on lengthy tech- 
nical descriptions of the equipment. New 
radio and Victrola instruments, instan- 

March, 1940 

Page 133 

' taneous recorders, sound amplification 
I systems, two complete sound systems 
|i providing radio and Victrola reproduc- 
'' tion, and a new 16mm. sound motion 

picture projector are shown. 
A brief history of RCA Victor's 30 

year background in bringing schools the 

benefits of recorded aids to instruction, 

is presented. 

"Mighty Midget" Photoflash Bulb 

Development of the world's smallest 
practical photoflash lamp, called the 
"mighty midget" because of its man- 
size flash, and designed for use with all 
cameras except focal-plaiT^ •shutter 
types, was announced recently by 
General Electric's lamp department at 
Nela Park. Cleveland. Ohio, on the oc- 
casion of the tenth anniversary of the 
photoflash lamp's debut in .Xmerica. 
So small is this little flash bulb that 
more than two dozen of them can be 
carried in the pocket of a suit coat, 
more than three dozen in an overcoat 
pocket, or in a lady's handbag. Besides 
being the world's smallest flash bulb, 
the "mighty midget" is also claimed to 
be a much more efficient producer of 
light for photoflash photography. A 
wide range of pictures taken by its 
powerful flash proved to be as sharp 
and clear as shots of the same subjects 
taken with much larger flash lamps. 

Bulb compared to walnut and golf ball. 

Unlike all other flash bulbs which 
are equipped with the conventional 
type of screw base, the "mightv midget" 
No. 5 employs the bayonet-type base, 
like the base of many a lamp used in 
atitomobile service. It is designed for 
rapid-fire loading and unloading in 
reflector equipments. Owing to its 
compactness, the lamp lends itself to 
use in smaller lens cumbersome reflector 
equipments and in spot-type projectors 
for long-range night-picture "takes" 
outdoors as well as for sp^"* lighting 
effects indoors. The midget flash bulb 
fits into the trend in photographv toward 
miniature cameras, films of postage 
stamp size, and smaller equinmcnts. 

Current Film News 

(Concluded from page 130) 

documentary films by H. A. Burnford : 
Harvest of the Forest — 1 reel, silent 
— shows logging operations, conversion 
of logs into lumber, uses of lumber; 
emphasizes the importance of men in 
the creation of the material we use 
every day. 

Cement — 1 reel silent — Employs 
close-ups to emphasize important steps 
in the making of cement. 

Dr. David Bennett Hill, First National 
Bank Bldg., Salem, Oregon, has pro- 
duced three new 1-reel health films 
in silent and sound, making a set of 
five films covering the field of child 
health and character building from 
pre-natal care through high school. 
The new ones are: 
Before the Baby Comes — Stresse: 
food, exercise, care of the body, medi- 
cal and dental attention, etc., for the 

Baby's First Year — Continues the 
series, to the baby's first birthday. 
Mother's care, baby's regular schedule, 
food, habits, and medical attention are 

Growing Up — Shows the activities of 
the normal child from one to six, em- 
phasizing habit training, proper play 
and equipment for developing mind and 
body, nursery school, food, physical ex- 

These films are sold and rented by 
the Bell & Howell Company, 181S 
Larchmont Avenue, Chicago. 

Bell & Howell Co., 1801 Larchmont 
Avenue, Chicago, have added many 
new subjects to their silent rental 
library, as shown in their new 24- 
page silent film catalog. A number of 
them are Bray films, carefully se- 
lected for their technical quality and 
educational applicability, and the 
latest Castle productions. Other ad- 
ditions are: 

Pottery Making— 2 reels — Produced 
by the Art Department of the Univer- 
sity of California, under Mr. Boyd 
Rakestraw's supervision. This film, 
employing modern technique in cine- 
matography, shows in close-up the im- 
portant steps in making pottery by the 
cast method. 

Marsh Birds You Should Know — 1 
reel — Uncommon scientific close-ups of 
common northern marsh birds : bitterns, 
gallinules, black-birds, coots, herons, 
terns and other species. 

Seeing the Universe — 2 reels — A pop- 
ular astronomy treatment and con- 
densed version of Ruroy Sibley's illus- 
trated lecture. First the astronomer's 
"tools" are considered, then the Sun, 
Moon, Planets, and the stars and gal- 
axies of outer space. 

Nation Builders — 2 reels — Grand 
Prize winner in the documentary class, 
American Cinematographer contest 
1938. Gives an authentic presentation 
of Australian historical development, 

showing that settlement of "new" coun- 
tries parallels our own early history. 

The King and the Scullery Maid— 2 
reels — A whimsical fairy tale of inter- 
est to youngsters ; includes an example 
of puppet technique. 

Erpi Cl.'Vssroom Films, Inc., 35-11 35th 
Avenue, Long Island City, New York, 
have prepared a group of new 16mm 
sound films for intermediate and 
higher grade levels on modern agri- 
culture in its various phases. These 
include : 

The Truck Farmer — Shows in detail 
crop planting, irrigating, spraying, har- 
vesting, packing and shipping. 

The Corn Farmer — An insight into 
life in the great corn belt. 

Science and Agriculture — Traces the 
soy bean from its cultivation in China 
through its culture and use in the 
United States. 

Irrigation Farming — Illustrates man's 
ingenuity in using the forces of nature 
to improve his environment. 

The Orange Grower — A story of the 
living and working conditions of peo- 
ples engaged in citrus growing, show- 
ing how crops are planted, nurtured, 
harvested and transported. 

Int-irnational Film Bureau, 59 E. Van 
Huren St., Chicago, announces the re- 
lease in 16mm of the following German 
language film : 

Concert in Tyrol, a sequel to The 
Orphan Boy of Vienna. Both pictures 
feature the Vienna Choir Boys. The 
Bureau also announces the availability 
of a short classroom version of Emil 
und die Detektive, a film based on the 
text published by Henry Holt and 
Company. In addition to its list of 
films in German, the International Film 
Bureau offers free lists of documentary 
films and French features. 

Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc., 35 W. 45th 
Street, New York City, distributors 
of 16mm sound and silent film, an- 
nounce the publication of the 9th edi- 
tion of their catalog of entertainment 
films. This edition is by far the 
largest of the Gutlohn catalogs and 
contains a wealth of detailed informa- 
tion in its 112 pages, profusely il- 
lustrated with over 70 pictures. A 
copy may be had without cost upon 
request to Gutlohn. 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., Koda- 
scope Libraries Division, 356 Madi- 
son Avenue, New York City, have 
issued a new sound film rental cata- 
log, 8th edition, 24 pages. A distin- 
guishing new feature of the book is 
the classifying of certain films — car- 
toons, comedies, features, featurettes, 
westerns — to show which are suitable 
for children of various ages, and 
which are for adult audiences. Other 
subject classifications are: music, 
musical classics, sports, adventure, 
history, travel and miscellaneous. 
Most of the subjects offered for 
rental can be purchased. Additional 
information will be furnished upon 

Page 134 

The Educ»ti*nal Screen 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Cxirrent Theatrical Films 
(A) Discriminating Adults (Y) Youth (C) Children 

Date of mailing on weekly service is shown on each film. 

All Women Have Secrets (Virginia Dale, Jo- 
seph Allen) (Para) Thoroughly mediocre and 
absurd little drama about struggles of student 
scientist and student wife married on slight 
income. False, shallow imitation of college and 
marital life. Plot feeble, acting poor. Utterly 
valueless production. 2-27-40 

(A) & (Y) Stupid (C) No 

Balalaika (Eddy, Ilona Massey)(MGM) Lavish 
musical comedy melodrama. Masquerading 
prince falls in love with lovely communist. 
Action in court, countryside, opera house, war, 
cabarets. Lightsome mixture of overwhelming 
ingredients but fine cast, sprightly humor, and 
ideal musical-comedy heroine. 2-13-40 

(A) & (Y) Entertaining (C) If not too exciting 

Beware Spooks (Joe E. Brown, Mary Carlisle) 
(Colum) Futile attempt at mystery-detective 
farce. Hero cop, fired from force for bungling, 
chases criminal through crazy obstacles, slap- 
stick spook-house, to grim killing. Brown's 
usual antics and labored comedy so unfunny 
as to be pitiful. 2-20-40 

(A) Stupid (Y) & (C) No 

Black Friday (KarlofF, Lugosi) (Universal) An> 
other pseudo-scientific horror thriller told in 
flash-back. Surgeon's operation to save friend 
by brain-graft results in dual personality, now 
a confused professor, now a ruthless killer. 
Hokum personality changes. Pretentious, but 
ridiculous stuff. 3-5-40 

(A) Depends on taste (Y) No value (C) No 

Blondie on a Budget (Singleton, Lake) (Co- 
lumbia) Efforts of Blondie and spouse to 
squeeze fur coat and fishing-club fee out of 
budget complicated by "another woman," add- 
ing a note of mild sophistication to the 
usual comico-silly antics. Fifth in Blondie 
series. 3-5-40 

(A) Hardly (Y) & (C) Mostly amusing 

Geronimo (Foster, Ralph Morgan) (Para) U. S. 
forces under cold, rigid General, attempt to 
quell famous Apache Geronimo who, aided by 
contemptible politician, is ravaging the west. 
Indian thriller in new dress. Brutal tortures, 
killings, inconsistencies, impossibilities, horror 
and tension. Valueless "history." 2-20-40 

(A) Harrowing (Y) & (C) No 

Grapes of Wrath (Fonda, Darwell, Carradine) 
(Fox) Powerful novel masterfully filmed. Staunch 
sharecropper family driven from land, lured to 
California by promises of work, find only unem- 
ployment, exploitation by labor racketeers, vio- 
lence, injustice, starvation. Vivid social docu- 
ment. Splendidly acted, photographed. 3-5-40 
(A) Somber and superb (Y) Mature (C) No 

He Married His Wife (Nancy Kelly, McCrea) 
(Fox) Nauseating, senseless, humorless marital 
comedy in excessively bad taste. Horse-race- 
mad ex-husband tries to marry off divorced 
wife to save himself alimony. Situation ab- 
surd, dialogue daffy, acting forced, characters 
overdrawn. 3-5-40 

(A) Stupid (Y) No (C) No 

His Girl Friday (Russell, Grant, Bellamy) (Co- 
lumbia) "Front Page" hilariously screened. 
Editor tries by fair means or foul to keep his ex- 
wife star reporter from marrying again. "Hot 
story" and crooked politics figure strongly. Riot- 
ous, fast-moving action. Snappy, witty dialogue. 
Clever, complex situations. Diverting. 2-20-40 
(A) Entertaining (Y) Very exciting (C) No 

Honeymoon Deferred (Lowe, Lindsay) (Uni- 
versal) Usual sophisticated murder-mystery. 
Man-about- town insurance investigator and 
his few-hours bride get involved in murders 
and solve mystery despite police. Usual hus- 
iDand-wife cheerful but blase' banter. More 
or less entertaining. 2-27-40 

(A) Depends on taste (Y) Passable (C) No 

Little Old New York (Faye, MacMurray, Greene) 
(Fox) Old New York waterfront as spectacular 
background for frankly glamorized, melodramat- 
ic tale of Fulton's struggle to build steamboat. 
Emphasis on romance, costumes, settings. Ele- 
mentary but pleasing humor supplied by 
feminine tavern keeper and beau. 2-13-40 

(A) & (Y) Entertaining (C) Possibly 

Marines Fly High (Dix. Morris, Lucille Ball) 
(RKO) Formerplantation supervisor of heroine's 
ranch, leader of revolutionaries and bandits, 
sets trap for Marines stationed to protect country 
population. Dix and Morris as hard-boiled Ma- 
rines provide trite rivalry and horseplay. Thor^ 
oughly mediocre and rich in absurdities. 2-20-40 
(A) Poor (Y) & (C) No 

Married and in Love (Alan Marshall, Barbara 
Read, Helen Vinson) (RKO) Unpretentious, quit* 
convincing little tale. Happily-married hero, 
aided to success by loyal devotion of fine little 
wife, nearly succumbs to lure of a former love. 
Situation cleverly averted by wife who makes i 
husband realize his real love is for her. 3-5-40 I 
(A) Fairly good (Y) Mature (C) No ! 

My Son is Guilty (Cabot, Jacqueline Wells) I 
(Columbia) Ordinary, morbid, utterly valueless 
crime film. Worthless ex-convict son exploits 
policeman-father's confidence, gets police radio 
job and aids criminals. Finally father, repre- 
senting law and justice, traps and kills son. 
Acting mediocre. 2-13-40 

(A) Poor (Y) & (C) No | 

Nick Carter, Master Detective (Walter Pidgeon, 
Rita Johnson) (MGM) Anothersabotagefilm,with 
hero Nick Carter and his comic ubiquitous fol- 
lower as detectives, working on mysterious dis- 
appearance of important airplane plans. Usual 
thrill stuff. Airplane crashes, battle between air- 
plane and cruiser and Hollywood tricks. 2-13-40 
(A) Depends on taste (Y) No value (C) No 

Night of Nights, The (O'Brien, Olympe Brad- 

na)(Para> Trite plot slightly redeemed by con- 
vincing acting, good direction, and effective 
photography. Successful playwright and actor 
noes on rocks after wife's disappearance. Com- 
ing of daughter 20 years later reawakens him. 
Some pleasant moments. 3-5-40 

(A) & (Y) Fair (C) No 

Northwest Passage (Tracy, Young) (Metro) Part 
of famous novel, powerfully filmed. Rogers' 
Rangers' epic thrust through wilderness, evad- 
ing enemies, pushing north to destroy ruthless 
Indian tribe, and finally home again. Grim, 
blood-curdling warfare and gruesome scenes in 
ranks. Tracy fine as dauntless Rogers. 2-27-40 
(A) Fine of kind (Y) Very strong (C) No 

Castle on the Hudson (Garfield, Sheridan. O'- 
Brien) (Warner) Another prison drama with no 
new angles. Arrogant, tough, rebellious little 
gangster imprisoned for crime. Later per- 
mitted leave by warden on his honor to see 
dying girl. Usual gang killings and prison 
breaks. Decidedly unedifying. 3-5-40 

(A) Depends on taste (Y) Valueless (C) No 

Honeymoon's Over, The (Stuart Erwin, Marjorie 
Weaver) (Fox) Familiar theme of young couple 
trying to keep up with the Joneses. Parasitic 
friends, irresistible salesman and their own lack 
of common sense plunge elemental hero and 
his wife into debt and out of job - — with 
artificial happy ending ! 
(A) Hardly (Y) Perhaps (C) No 

Rasputin (Harry Baur) (French-Eng. titles) 
Fine interpretation of Rasputin, the lusty 
peasant prophet and healer who came to in- 
fluence Royal family after curing invalid 
heir. Church nobles and army plot against 
him and finally kill him. Somber, dramatic. 
engrossing. 2-13-40 

(A) Good of kind (Y) & (C) No 

Charlie Chan in City in Darkness (Toler, Lynn 
Ban) (Fox) European war situation with Paris 
in blackout is setting for very inferior Chan 
mystery. Story is loose- jointed, crazily complex 
and largely incoherent, leaving audience still 
baffled at end. Sound and fury from Harold 
Huber far less funny than intended. 2-13-40 

(A) & (Y) Poor (C) No 

House of Seven Gables, The (Lindsay, Vincent 
Price) (Univ.) Famous Hawthorne novel exquis- 
itely filmed. Avaricious son of old New England 
family, to get estate has brother convicted of 
father's murder. Melodramatic plot well done by 
fine cast, Lindsay outstanding. Fine dramatic 
and artistic unity. Superb photography. 3-5-40 
(A) & (Y) Excellent (C> Mature 

Reno (Dix. Gail Patrick. Anita Louise) (RKO) 
Mediocre yarn of small dramatic worth offered 
as history. Reno lawyer, when silver-mining 
died out. started the easy divorce game, got 
caught himself, turns gambler, saves own 
daughter from divorce-court-aotion and is 
freed himself, etc., etc. 2-20-40 

(A) Feeble (Y) & (C) No 

Cisco Kid and the Lady, The (Romero, Weav- 
er) (Fox) Fairly amusing "good old western" 
adventures of outlaw, cross between Don Juan 
and Robin Hood. He tricks partner, makes 
love to his gal, is caught, escapes and dodges 
law. Gay, fast-moving, entirely fictional, with 
ethics badly jumbled. 2-20-40 

(A) Depends on taste (Y) Doubtful (C) No 

Ireland's Border Line (Irish cast) (Wm. Alex- 
ander) Farce comedy. Two identical bags, one 
with stolen jewels and one belonging to cough 
medicine salesman, cause complications. Acting, 
continuity, photography frequently amateurish 
but vivid, human and amusing throughout. Good 
humored rivalry between North & South. 2-13-40 
(A) Depends on taste (Y) Perhaps (C) No 

Shop Around the Corner, The (Sullivan. Stewart) 
(Metro) Absorbing, human, delightful drama, in 
quiet dialogue of intertwined fates of blustering 
Budapest shopowner, his trusted first clerk cor- 
responding with unknown girl, kind, timid father 
of family, ingratiating clerk, pert, naive sales- 
girl. Outstanding character portrayals. 2-27-40 
(A) £ (Y) Excellent (C) If it interests 

City of Chance (Lynn Bari, C. Aubrey Smith, 
Donald Woods) (Fox) Hectic melodrama. Girl 
reporter goes to gambling resort for story, 
falls in love with owner, cleans up at tables, 
turns over resort to D. A., and departs 
with money and owner. More or less trashy 
excitement. 2-27-40 

(A) Mediocre (Y) Objectionable (C) No 

Joe and Ethel Turp Call on the President 

(Sothern, Gargan, Stone) (Metro) Filming of 
Damon Runyon tale, symbolic, saccharine, tire- 
some. Joe and Ethel, cloddish caricatures of 
"supposed" average Americans, visit President 
to defend their mailman whose sentimental 
story is told in flash-back form. 2-27-40 

(A) & (Y) Doubtful value (C) No 

Swiss Family Robinson (Thomas Mitchell. Edna 
Best) (RKO) Famous novel of family shipwrecked 
on remote, uninhabited island. Creative home- 
making, despite obstacles, guided and inspired 
by father. But conflict between happy father 
and sorrowful mother adds a heavy note. Good 
acting by capable cast. 2-27-40 

(A) & (Y) Interesting (C) Unless too mature 

FaUl Hour, The (Karloff. Grant Withers) 
(Monogram) Murder mystery drama. Karloff 
good as Mr. Wong, oriental detective who solves 
murders and gem smugglings aided by hard- 
boiled, bulldozing offensive police captain, and 
ubiquitous girl reporter. Plot weak, action thin, 
suspense poorly sustained. 2-20-40 

(A) Mediocre (Y) Valueless (C) No 

Light That Failed, The (Colman, Huston, Lu- 

ptno) Kipling's famous sombre novel notably 
filmed. Arrogant young artist, wounded at bloody 
Sudan, wins money and fame before his sight 
goes. Hazy in continuity, plot and character rela- 
tionships, but excellent cast, fine photography 
and settings. Ida Lupino superb. 2-13-40 

(A) Fine of kind (Y) & (C) No 

Vigil in the Night (Lombard, Aherne) (RKO) 
Somber, absorbing drama. English nurse sacrifices 
position for inefficient sister who finally atones. 
Heroine's courageous devotion helps bring much- 
needed hospital. Expert, finely pictorial photog- 
raphy. Fine background music. Excellent act- 
ing by cast. I^ombard outstanding. 2-20-40 
(A) Fine of kind ( Y) Too somber (C) No 

Also for the Visual Field 


. "1000 and ONE" The Blue Book of Non-Theatrical Films, 
published annually is famous in the field of visual instruction 
U the standard film reference source, indispensable to film 
uers iB the educational field. The new edition lists and de- 
scribes over 5,000 films, classified into 147 different subject 
fTOups (including large group of entertainment subjects). An 
additional feature this year is a complete alphabetical list of 
«very film in the directory. Other information includes designa- 
tion of whether a film is available in 16mm, or 35mm, silent 
ior sound, number of reels and sources distributing the films, 
with range of prices charged. 
128 pp. Paper. Price 75c. (25c to E. S. subscribers) 

By Albert E. Osborne. 

A stimulating, wide-range view of the higher potentialities 

! of visual instruction in promoting world harmony by a "more 

humanity-centered education." A pertinent reply to H. G. 

I Wells' dictum that "the future is a race between education and 


124 pp. Cloth. Price $1.25. 


By C. F. Hoban, C. F. Hoban, Jr., and S. B. Zisman. 

Presents in theory and in practice the basic methodology of 

visual instruction in relation to classroom procedure. Through- 

. out the text the theory of visual aids is applied to textbook 

illustration. "Visualizing the Curriculum", itself a splendidly 

"visualized text", provides an abundance of technical guidance 

in the form of illustrative drawings of photographs, reports of 

I school journeys, suggestions for mounting materials, for mak- 

i tng slides, film strips, etc. It incorporates up-to-date material, 

; provides a fine balance in the treatment of various teaching 

I aids, evaluates various types of aids, and defines the functions 

I and values of each in the learning process. 

320 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $3.50. 
(20% discount to schools) 

By Ellsworth C. Dent. 

Presents in convenient form, practical information for those 
interested in applying visual and audio-visual aids to instruc- 
tion. The six chapters include discussions on "The Status of 
Visual Instruction," "Types of Visual Aids and Their Use," 
"Types of Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction," "Types of Sound 
Aids for Schools," "Organizing the Audio-Visual Service,' 
"Source List of Materials and Equipment." 

212 pp. Illus. Cloth. Price $1.50. 

By Joseph J. Weber, Ph. D. 

An important contribution to the literature of the visual field. 
Presents in unusually interesting form the results of extended 
investigations on the teaching values of the lantern slide and 
stereograph. 156 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $1.00 

(67c to E. S. subscribers) 

By Joseph J. Weber, Ph. D. 

The first published work of authoritative research in the 
visual field, foundational to all research work following it. Not 
only valuable to research workers, but an essential reference 
work for all libraries. 
131 pp. Cloth. Price $1.00 (67c to subscribers of E. S.) 

Full Proceedings of the Midwestern Forum on Visual 
Aids (Held in Chicago, May 1939) 

The most complete record ever printed and on one of the 
livest visual meetings ever held. Numerous addresses by leading 
figures in the visual field, a notable Directors' Round Table 
and three complete recordings of classes taught by sound films 
are among the rich contents of the 80-page booklet. 

80 pages, Paper. Price 50c. 
(25c to subscribers of Educational Screen) 

By G. E. Hamilton. 

Simple directions for making this economical and increas- 
ingly popular teaching aid. 24 pp. Paper. Price lOc. 

INSTRUCTIONAL USE. By Lelia Trolinger 

A full presentation of the latest piece of research on de- 
termination of teaching values of pictures. Development of 
the Score Card and elaborate experiment in use of same. Full 
documentation, tabulation of results, and appendices. The 
latest, most complete and scholarly investigation of a problem 
in the visual teaching field that has long needed such a 
solution- 48 pp. Paper. Illus. Price 50c. 

By Frederick L. Devereux. 

Presenting preliminary solutions of some of the more im- 
portant problems encountered in adapting the talking picture 
to the service of education. The first six chapters deal with 
the development of fundamental bases of production, with the 
experimentation which has been conducted, and with suggested 
problems for future research. The remaining chapters discuss 
the effective use of the sound film in teaching. 
220 pp. Cloth. Illus. Price $2.00. (20% discount to schools) 

By M. R. Brunstetter, Ph. D. 

Discusses the utilization of the educational sound film, and 
lists and illustrates techniques for placing the film into effective 
service in the classroom. The procedures suggested are based 
upon extended experience in studying teachers' use of sound 
films and in helping to organize programs of audio visual in- 
struction in school systems. Two valuable Appendices and 
a full index. 
175 pp. Cloth, Illus, Price $2.00. (20% discount to schools) 


A report of the instructional use and indirect educational in- 
fluence of motion pictures in this country, divided into nine 
units. Treats the motion picture (1) as an educational influence; 
(2) in service of health and social hygiene; (3) in governmental 
service and patriotism; (4) in vocational guidance; (5) in in- 
ternational understanding; (6) Motion picture legislation; (7) 
technique of production and distribution ; (8) systematic intro- 
duction of films in teaching ; (9) general educational problems 
of films in teaching. 

106 pp. Paper. Price $1.00 (20% discount to schools) 

IN EDUCATION. By G. E. Hamilton. 

The most comprehensive discussion yet published. 

47 pp. Paper. Price 15c. 

TO ORDER, Check Material Desired and Fill in Blank Below 

To subscribers 

Price of E. S. 

"1000 and One" Film Directory $ .76 D J .25 Q 

All Alternative for Revolution and War... 1.25 Q 1-25 D 

Visualizing the Curriculum 3.50 3.60 n 

(To Schools) 2.80 n 2.80 n 

The Audio-Visual Handbook 1.50 P 1.60 D 

Picture Values in Education 1.00 n .67 D 

Comparative Effectiveness of 

Some Visual Aids 1.00 D .67 

Proceedings of Mid-West Forum on 

Visual Aids 60 .26 

■valuation of Still Pictures ,50 D ,60 D 

The Educational Talking Picture 2.00 2.00 

(To Schools) 1.60 O 1.60 n 

How to Use Educational Sound Film 2.00 O 2.00 O 

(To Schools) 1,60 1.60 D 

Motion Pictures in Education in 

The United States 1,00 O 1.00 D 

(To Schools) 80 D -SOD 

Stereograph and Lantern Slide in Education .16 D .15 O 

Haw to Make Handmade Lantern Slides .10 D .10 


U. S. 1 year, $2.00 D 2 years, $3,00 D 
Foreign 1 year, $3,00 D 2 years, $5,00 D 
Canada 1 year, $2,25 D 2 years, $3.50 D 

Educational Screen 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

I have indicated items desired and enclose check for $ 


School or Street, 


Page 136 

The Educational Screen 

T TT—JT^^^ 'T'TJTI'^7 H T3C* A Trade Directory 

XXuXvU X X±U X iT^XxU for the Visual Field 


Akin and Bagshaw, Inc. (3) 

1425 Williams St., Denver. Colo. 

Audio-Film Libraries (2) 

661 Bloomfield Ave., Bloomfield, N. j. 

(See advertisement on page 124) 

Bailey Film Service (3, 4) 

1651 Cosmo St., Hollywood. Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 127) 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago 
(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Castle Films (3) 

RCA Bldg., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 89) 

College Film Center (3, 5) 

59 E. Van Buren St., Chicago. 

DeVry Corporation (3, 4) 

1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on pages 112-13) 

Dudley Visual Education Service (1) 

736 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 

4th Fl., Coughlan Bldg. 

Mankato, Minn. 
Eastin 16 mm. Pictures (3) 

707 Putnam Bldg., Davenport, la. 

Burns Bldg., Colorado Springs, Colo. 
Eastman Kodak Co. (1) 

Teaching Films Division 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 131) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 
356 Madison Ave., New York City 
Eastman Kodak Storees, Inc. (3) 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Edited Pictures System, Inc. (3) 

330 W. 42nd St.. New York City 
Erpi Classroom Films, Inc. (2, 5) 

35-11 35th Ave., Long Island City, 

N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 125) 
Films, Inc. (3) 

330 W. 42nd St., New York City 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

314 S. W. Ninth Ave., Portland, Ore. 
Frith Films (1) 

P. O. Box 565, Hollywood, Calif. 
(See advertisement on page 124) 
Garrison Films (3, 6) 

1600 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 122) 

General Films, Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 
156 King St.. W. Toronto 

Walter O. Gutlohn, Inc. (3) 

35 W. 4Sth St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 123) 

Harvard Film Service (3, 6) 

Biological Laboratories, 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Guv D. Haselton, Travelettes (1, 2, 4) 

7936 Santa Monica Blvd., 

Hollywood. Calif. 
David B. Hill (3) 

Salem, Ore. 

(See advertisement on page 122) 

J. H. Hoffberg Co., Inc. (2, 5) 

1600 Broadway, New York City 
Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St.. Chicago. 111. 

(See advertisement on page 122) 

International Film Bureau (3, 5) 

59 E. Van Bnren St.. Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 128) 

Lewis Film Service (3) 

105 E. 1st St., Wichita. Kan. 

(See advertisement on page 124) 

The Manse Library (3) 

1521 Dana Ave., Cincinnati. O. 

(See advertisement on page 120) 

Nu-Art Films, Inc. (3) 

145 W. 4Sth St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 119) 

Pictorial Films (2) 

1650 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 124) 

Arthur C. Pillsbury (2) 

640 .Arlington Ave., Berkeley, Calif. 
(See advertisement on page 120) 

Post Pictures Corp. (3) 

72i Seventh .Ave., New York City 
United Educator Films Co. (2) 

State Theatre Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

107 South Court, Sq., Memphis, Tenn. 
United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Universal Pictures Co., Inc. (5) 

Rockefeller Center, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 128) 

Visual Ji^ducation Service (3) 

131 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 

Wholesome Films Service, Inc. (1, 6) 
48 Melrose St., Boston, Mass. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau (3, 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago 
351 Turk St.. San Francisco. Cal. 


The Ampro Corporation (3) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 90) 

Bell & Howell Co. (3) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

DeVry Corporation (3, 6) 

1111 Armitage St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on pages 112-13) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave., New York City 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. (3) 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
General Films, Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

156 King St., W. Toronto 
Hirsch & Kaye (3) 

239 Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. 
Holmes Projector Co. (3, 6) 

1813 Orchard St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 119) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 122) 

Jarrell-Ash Company 

165 Newbury St., Boston, Mass. 
RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc. (2) 

Camden, N. J. 

(See advertisement on page 94) 

S. O. S. Cinema Supply Corp. (3, 6) 

636 Eleventh Ave., New York City 
United Educator Films Co. (2) 

State Theatre Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

107 South Court, Sq., Memphis, Tenn. 
United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 

228 Franklin St., BuflFalo, N. Y. 
Universal Sound Projector (2) 

1917 Oxford St. Philadelphia. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 126) 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (3) 

Davenport, Iowa 

(See advertisement on page 129) 

Visual Education Service (3) 

131 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Da Lite Screen Co. 

2717 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 121) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Motion Picture Screen & 
Accessories Co., Inc. 

351 W. S2nd St., New York City 
Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Art Education, Inc. 

35 W. 4Sth St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 123) 

Eastman Educational Slides 

Johnson Co. Bank Bldg., 

Iowa City, la. 
Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

330 W. 42nd St., New York City 
Friends of the Western Mountains 

.Areata, Calif. (2:^2 "Kodachromes") 
Ideal Pictures Corp. 

28 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 122) 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 117) 

Radio-Mat Slide Co., Inc. 
1819 Broadway, New York City 

(See advertisement on page 120) 

Society for Visual Education 

100 E. Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Stillfilm, Inc. 

4703 W. Pico Blvd.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 127) 

Visual Education Service 

131 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 
Visual Sciences 

Suffern, New York 

(See advertisement on page 124) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 117) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

DeVry Corporation 

1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on pages 112-13) 

Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

Kodascope Libraries 

356 Madison Ave., New York City 
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. 

1020 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

606 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
General Films Ltd. 

1924 Rose St.. Regina, Sask. 

156 King St., W. Toronto 
Hirsch & Kaye 

239 Grant Ave., San Francisco, Cal. 
Jarrell-Ash Company 

165 Newbury St.. Boston. Mass. 
Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 93) 

Williams, Brown and Earl, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Radio Transcriptions Co. of America 
Hollywood Blvd. at Cosmo, 
Hollywood, Calif. 





















sound an 

d silent. 



















sound an 

d silent. 

Continuous insertions under one heading, $1.50 per issue; additional listings under other headings, 75c each. 



Kansas City, Mo. 
Teachers Library 


'niL, 1940 



tried Experiment in 
i\ ducation in 
61 Science 

tl Silent Film in 
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ir Films for 
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s t Situation in 
>ov1ade Public 
til IS Films 

ti! for School-Made 
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W)f Visual 

ij' on 

d gs of the St. Louis 
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la Gardens, Palace of 
R<il Governors, Colonial 
linsburg, Virginia — 
"> city restored to its 



Whether your visual education pro- 
gram requires a projector for class- 
room, small assembly hall or auditor- 
ium use, there is a DeVry Projector 
(silent and sound) for your needs. 
And regardless of what DeVry Pro- 
jector you buy, you are sure of su- 
perb performance equalled only by 
that in the better theatres. 

It stands to reason that a manufac- 
turer which since 1913 has produced 
35 mm. equipment for theatres, is 
more admirably situated to produce 
motion picture equipment compar- 
able with true theatre quality. DeVry 
16mm. projectors are designed by the 
same skilled engineers who create the 
preferred DeVry Theatre Equipment. 
Among the people who kno^r 16mm. 
projectors, DeVry is recognized as 
the standard of quality. 

ABOVE . . . The DeVry 
Model "Q" with Its 
lly detachable self-con- 
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I'E . . . The model "Q" 
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LEFT . . . The DeVry Model "O" 
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A Complete Movie Series of Historical Events 
that have made Today's History! Will Prove of 
Invaluable Assistance to Teachers and Pupils ! 

"News Parade ol 1937" 

(ROME-BERLIN AXIS!) Mussolini visita 
Hitler in Berlin. Civil War paralyzes 


"Germany Invades Austria" 

(AUSTRIA INVADED!) Schuschnigg falls! 
Hitler's triumphant entry as troops take over 
country! Other nations' reactions. 

"News Parade ol J 938" 

PACT!) Chamberlain flies to Berchtesgaden. 
Benes firm. Four leaders at Munich. Nazis 
occupy Sudetenland. 

"War in Europe" 

(POLAND INVADED!) War ruins Poland 
after Nazi demands rejected. Red pact 
signed. Allies declare war — mobilize. 

"News Parade ol 1939' 

(AT MAGINOT LINE!) French guns at 
front. British Tommies cross Channel. War- 
saw under German air bombs. 

Graf Spee Scuttled" 

(WAR AT SEA!) British convoy merchant- 
men. Actual sea raid by Graf Spee. Battered 
warship blown up by captain. 


For You to Own at These Low Prices: 

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16 MM (Sound-on-Film Edition) 350 ft S17.50 

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16 mm 




Eiurope's current struggle traced. 
The relentless March of Events that 
turned into a March of Men. Causes! 
Crises! Invasions! Actual War . . . 
on land ... at sea ... in the air! Study 
and review of these drama-packed 
films will reveal all the causes, di- 
rect and indirect, of the present 
holocaust — make the teaching and 
understanding of current events 
easier for instructors and pupils. 

^' -"3: 



"Finland Fights" 

(FINLAND INVADED!) Helsinki bombed. 
Finns stand against great odds. Red Division 
trapped. Ski patrols in action. 

. . . Above Are Pertinent 
Excerpts from the Seven 
Complete, Event - crowded 
Films Which Together Form 
A Great and Living Pro- 
jection of Current History 

Page 138 The Educational Screen 


in the 

The First of a Series of Economic Geography 

Units for Eighth-Grade or High-School 

Classes in Geography 

- - Pictorial Subjects, Maps, Charts, and Graphs - - 
30 Lantern Slides and a Teachers Manual 

to Each Unit 

Unit! Nations as Neighbors 

Unit II We and the World 

Unit III The Importance of Agriculture in the World and in the United 

Unit IV The Cotton Industry of the United States 
Unit V The Wheat Industry in Its World Relations 
Unit VI The American Corn Belt in Its World Relations 
Unit VII Our Live-Stock and Meat-packing Industries in Their World 

Unit VIII The Commercial Apple and Dried-Fruit Industry 

If interested in further information, please fill in and mail the coupon below. 

Keystone View Company 


Keystone View Company, 
Meadville, Penna. 
Gentlemen : 

Please send me, without charge, a sample Teachers Manual from your new series of Advanced 
Geography Units. 






Nelson L. Greene - - - Editor-in-Chief 
Evelyn J. Baker - Advertising Manager 
Josephine Hoffman - Office Manager 

Camilla Best - - - 
WiLBER Emmert - - 
Hardy R. Finch - ■ 
Ann Gale - - - - 
Charles F. Hoban, Jr. 
Josephine Hoffman - 
F. Dean McClusky - 
Arch A. Mercey - - 
Etta Schneider - - 

New Orleans, La. 
- - Indiana, Pa. 
Greenwich, Conn. 

- - Chicago, 111. 
, Washington, D. C. 

- - Chicago, 111. 
Scarborough, N. Y. 
Washington, D. C. 

New York, N. Y. 

Editorial Advisory Board 

Ward C. Bowen, Chief, Bureau of Radio 
and Visual Aids, State Education De- 
partment, Albany, N. Y. 

Marian Evans, Director, Visual Instruction 
Center, Public Schools, San Diego, 

W. M. Gregory, Director, Educational Mu- 
seum, Public Schools, Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. E. Hansen, Chief, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

J. A. Hollinger, Director, Department 
of Science and Visualization, Public 
Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Boyd B. Rakestraw, Assistant Director, 
Extension Division, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Berkeley, Calif. 

Paul C. Reed. Director, Department of Ra- 
dio and Visual Education, Board of 
Education, Rochester, N. Y. 

W. Gayle Starnes, in charge of Audio- 
Visual Aids, Department of University 
Extension, University of Kentucky, 
Lexington, Ky. 

Lelia Trounger, Secretary, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

W. W. Whittinghill, Director, Depart- 
ment of Visual and Radio Education, 
Board of Education, Detroit, Mich. 





SelecHng Projection Equipment Lelia Trollnger 141 

A Con+rolled Experinnent in Visual Education in 

General Science Max C. McCowen 143 

Proceedings of the Winter Meeting of the Departnnent 

of Visual Instruction 147 

Use of the Silent Film in Study of Finland Alma B. Rogers 147 

Producing Films for Instruction in the Social 

Studies V. C. Arnspiger 148 

The Use of the Sound Film "Colonial Children" 

in the Third Grade Ruth Livermon 

The Present Situation in School-Made Public 

Relations Films V^illiam G. Hart 

The Future for School-Made Public Relations 

Films Godfrey Elliott 

Local Production of Educational Films William F. Kruse 




The Cost of Visual Instruction W. M. Gregory 154 

Where Are We Headed in Visual Instruction? 

A Panel Discussion 155 

Among Ourselves — Notes from and by The Department of 

Visual Instruction Conducted by Charles F. Hoban, Jr. 156 

Summer Courses in Visual and Audio-Visual Instruction, 1940 157 

Frogs and Toads — In Hand-Made Lantern Slides ..Ann Gale 159 

The Literature in Visual Instruction — 

A Monthly Digest Conducted by Etta Schneider 160 

School-Made Motion Pictures Conducted by Hardy R. Finch 164 

In and For the Classroom Conducted by Wilber Emmert 166 

News and Notes.. Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 170 

Film Estimates 1 74 

The Federal Film Edited by Arch A. Mercey 175 

Current Film News 1 76 

Among the Producers 1 78 

Here They Arel A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 180 


Domestic $2.00 

Canada $2.25 

Foreign $3.00 

Single Copies 25 

The EDUCATIONAL SCREEN published monthly except July and August by The 
Educational Screen, Inc. Publication Office, Pontiac, Illinois; Executive Office, M 
East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Pontiac, Illinois, as 
Second Class Matter. 
Address communications to The Educational Screen, 64 East Lalte St., Chicago, III. 

Page 140 

The Educational Screen 

Filmosound "Academy," one of 
the complete Bell & Howell line of 
sound and silent film projectors. 

WHEN your school chooses a Bell & Howell Pro- 
jector, you get the finest cineinachinery that master 
craftsmen can create. Yet these superior projectors cost 
little, if any, more originally, and cost less per projection 
year. Years of use have proved their longevity, their lo^v 
maintenance cost, their ever-readiness for use. 

You'll benefit from Bell & Howell's lasting concern 
about the service your projector gives. For our interest in 
schools goes beyond the sale of a projector . . . includes 
renting and selling films from a constantly growing 
library of thousands of subjects . . . includes providing 
cameras which schools use for making their own films 
. . . includes a here-to-stay, full-line manufacturer's desire 
to merit your future patronage. 

This enduring interest in school buyers gave rise to 
the Bell & Howell staff of Visual Education Specialists, 
one of whom is near you. He is fully informed about 
motion picture equipment, about school films, and about 
the application of motion pictures to teaching needs. 
Mail the coupon today to secure his help. No obligation. 
Bell & Howell Company, Chicago; New York; Holly- 
wood; London. Established 1907. 

New Film Catalogs 

SOUND — Catalog Supplement 
1940-A. Free to all registered 
sound projector owners. Stand- 
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reference, in connection with 
big, 92-page Filmosound library 

SILENT— New 1940 revision of 

catalog of 16 mm. silent &Ims for 
rental and sale. Contains many 
new releases. 

BRAY FILMS-Now available 

from Bell & Howell is the 
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! 1817 Larchmont Ave.. Chicago, 111. 

! Pleaschaveyournearest Visual Education Speclal- 

2 ist call to help tne with this problem : 


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I Name 




April, 1940 

Page 141 

Selecting Projection Equipment 

No claims are made in this paper for originality, 
freshness of approach, or even revision of old 
ideas. The suggestions here offered are re-hashed 
for the hundreds of thousands of amateurs — rank 
amateurs — who are unknowingly wasting money on 
equipment which either is not worth what they are pay- 
ing for it, or is not suitable for their purposes. Those 
who have used visual aids to any extent will find 
nothing new here. They have already learned by grim 
experience what to accept and what to reject. How- 
ever, unless the subject is presented periodically, the 
new-comers in the field lack knowledge of sources of in- 
formation that are unbiased and practical. It is to these 
new-comers that this paper is addressed. 

The Committee on Scientific Aids To Learning ha.s 
been working on standards for judging motion picture 
equipment, and that report will be ready soon. It is 
a study of considerable magnitude. Many technical de- 
tails are included there that are not even considered 
here. We recommend that teachers and officials study 
that report carefully for technical information. The 
object of this short article is to point out a few of the 
pitfalls that beset the average teacher or official in rural 
and village schools, who has not had access to the more 
technical information given in the larger studies. 

Only the most common types of projectors* are con- 
sidered here — the filmstrip and filmslide machine, glass 
lantern slide projectors for standard size slides, opaque 
projectors, and motion picture machines. These are the 
projectors which are constantly being offered to schools, 
and the salesman for each type impresses upon the 
teacher or principal that his particular machine is the 
last word in modern equipment for an up-to-date school, 
and makes claims which in some cases cannot be sub- 
stantiated. Because of the enthusiasm and sometimes 
high-powered salesmanship, frequently a contract is 
closed before the school official actually realizes what 
he or she is buying. If one is allergic to salesmen, all 
that can be said probably will be of no avail; but to 
others may we ofier this advice. Do not sign a con- 
tract for a projector without at least twenty-four 
hours delay to think it over. During those hours, try 
to find out something about projectors in general and 
that particular type specifically. 

*— No specific projectors are listed here by name, since a com- 
pany which by chance might have been omitted, would have 
sufficient cause to feel that it had been discriminated against, 
when no such discrimination had been meant. We suggest that 
you write to your own state Bureau of Visual Instruction, or 
ii your state has none, to the nearest Bureau and ask for a 
list of approved makes of projectors of the type in which you 
are interested. Every Bureau has that information and will be 
glad to furnish it to you. 

Written exclusively for the multitude of schools 
whose brief experience in visual instruction renders 
them liable to error in the purchase oi equipment. 


Bureau of Visual Instruction 
University of Colorado, Boulder 

When filmstrips were first made available to schools, 
the projectors were far from perfected. At present 
great strides have been made in the improvement of 
these. In general one cannot economize too much in 
buying equipment that is to stand up under normal 
school work. Good workmanship is essential. Several 
good filmstrip and filmslide projectors are now on the 
market at reasonable prices. The old machines were 
equipped with lOO-watt lamps ; the modern ones have 
up to 300-watt lamps, and the lighting system is much 
more efficient. Nearly all the modern filmstrip pro- 
jectors now have a slide carrier for the two by two 
inch slides — filmslides they are frequently called. There 
is much less danger of scratching the surface of the 
filmstrip in the new machines, hence the filmstrips last 
longer and give more satisfactory service throughout 
their lifetime. When buying a filmstrip projector, 
check the size of the lamp, and whether or not it can 
be used for either the strip or the individual filmslides. 

Lantern slide machines are old, tried, and trusted 
essentials in the group of school equipment. Fortunately 
for schools, most of these projectors are standardized 
to the point where there is not much danger of getting 
inferior machines. There are a few cheap machines on 
the market, but really good machines cost so little more 
than cheap ones, that there is less likelihood of exploita- 
tion here. One or two features must be watched, how- 
ever. Any good lantern slide projector is practically 
speaking a daylight machine. That is, a school room need 
not be darkened completely for good projection. Direct 
light on the screen should be eliminated, but the room 
can be light enough for note taking with good projec- 
tion, if the inachine has a large lens. For that reason, 
it is well to consider very carefully before buying a 
"combination machine," for one or the other machine 
in the combination suffers when they are joined. For 
example, the most common combinations are the slide 
and opaque projectors. In those cases, instead of the 
large lens, two and a quarter inches in diameter, the 
lens in the slide machine is cut down to one and five- 
eighths inches in diameter to avoid the great contrast 
in the projected pictures. This lens will not give as good 
slide projection and also requires a darker room. The 
amount saved does not compensate for the loss in the 
resulting pictures, and also it halves the actual use of 
the machine, inasmuch as it can be used for only one 
purpose at a time, either opaque projection or slide 
projection. For a small difference, two separate ma- 
chines can be bought and hours of use doubled if need 

Of all types of projectors, if conditions are right, 
there are none which can give a school greater use at 
so small cost as the opaque projector. Since many types 

Page 142 

The Educational Screen 

of paper pictures can be used in these machines, the 
source of material is ahnost unlimited and the cost 
practically nothing. Pictures that have a dull finish do 
not project well even under ideal conditions and ma\' 
cause eye strain, but there are many pictures which do 
project well. However, since the picture is projected by 
reflection, much of the light is lost. Therefore the 
room should be almost totally dark in order to assure 
a projected picture that is strong and clearly defined. 
In some cases, "daylight" screens are used satisfactorily 
with semi-dark room conditions, but here actual trial 
in the room in which the machine is to be used is 

Motion picture projectors present special difficulties. 
In addition to the companies which make good, stand- 
ard machines for school use, there are many companies 
which are offering semi-toy machines. These cheap pro- 
jectors will not stand the constant use (and sometimes 
abuse) that is given to them in schools, and since they 
are not built with the necessary precision, they are hard 
on films. In fact, some film centers will not supply pic- 
tures if they know that the films are to be run on these 
cheap machines. Also it should be mentioned that the 
lack of precision in construction makes for jerky and 
flickering pictures, the machines are noisy, difficult to 
repair and keep in condition, and the optical system is 
poor. The poor projection may cause eye strain and 
the noise bothers both teacher and students. Even the 
best projectors do not project a rock steady picture, 
and a cheap machine may be very unsatisfactory after 
a short time. Some of the companies which make the 
better machines are also making less expensive ones, 
designed for home use, and when funds are limited and 
competition becomes strong, schools are tempted to buy 
the inexpensive machines. Usually they prove to be 
poor economy, in the long run. Generally speaking, 
good, silent projectors that will last a school for years 
can be purchased for sums varying from $100.00 to 
$150.00. A few satisfactory machines are offered for 
less than that, although they have certain handicaps. 
At present few satisfactory silent machines can be 
bought for less than $50.00 unless they are turn-ins. 

In buying a movie projector, check carefully to see 
how the mechanism engages the film. An intermittent 
movement on a silent projector which engages the 
sprocket holes on both sides of the film (double claw) 
will often give good projection when the type which 
engages it only on one side will not. Practically all the 
cheaper types of machines have only the single claw 
and since they are not precise, the film frequently i^ 
slightly damaged on that one side. The damage i? 
sometimes too slight to be detected in a casual in- 
spection, yet will cause a flicker on the screen if run 
through another machine with an engaging claw on 
only one side, while it will project a perfect picture 
when run through the machine with the double claw. 
In some cases, the intermittent movement is so con- 
structed that several claws engage the film at the same 
time, although on just one side of the film. In such a 
machine, if the entire film is slightly damaged, there 
may still be a flicker, but if only one or two sprocket 
holes in the film are damaged, there will be no difificulty. 
There are other criteria which should be considered 
in buying any type of projector whether it be lantern 

slide, opaque or motion picture equipment : 

1. Check the source of materials to be used in the 
projector. For example, unless a school plans to buy 
its own library of material, it is foolish to buy a film- 
strip projector when there is no library within rea- 
sonable distance. 

2. Check the illumination before buying the ma- 
chine. Sometimes it pays to also check the model as 
shown by the serial number on the machine. If a school 
has waited for months or years to buy a projector, ii 
can afford to wait a week or two to investigate an ex- 
pensive purchase. Unscrupulous dealers have been 
known to put higher wattage lamps in old model ma- 
chines than the machine was built for, with a resulting 
brilliant light for a short time, but that sort of step-up 
means very short life for the lamp. The same thing re- 
sults from using an under voltage lamp (for example, 
a 90 volt lamp on a 110 volt circuit). A new paint job 
which obliterates serial number and make of a machine 
at least leaves room for suspicion. 

3. Cost and ease of replacement of parts should be 
considered when buying new equipment. An "orphan" 
machine may be good to start with, but replacements 
are impossible, and the life of the machine may be 
greatly shortened because of this. The cost and ease of 
leplacement for even standard machines should be con- 
sidered. With some machines, the repair costs are high, 
and the service both poor and very slow. 

4. It has been assumed in the preceding paragraphs 
that electric current is available. Transformers and stor- 
age batteries may overcome the lack of electric current, 
but if a school plans to use them, the cost should be 
investigated before the projector is purchased. Some- 
times the cost of operation in this case is excessive and 
after a few showings, the projector lies idle. 

5. Good screens are always desirable. Makeshift 
screens may be satisfactory in some cases, but do not 
invest in an expensive projector until the matter of the 
screen has been investigated. 

6. Do not take the word of others about the cost 
of machines. If you are near a large city, there will be 
representatives of several types of projectors in that 
city. Check costs of several before making any selec- 
tion. A few hours spent in comparison of cost may 
mean dollars saved on a purchase. Reputable companies 
welcome these comparisons. 

7. Above all, insist upon demonstration of the ma- 
chine in the schools in which they are to be used. In 
a large school system, arrange for all demonstrations 
from several firms the same day, with the same film 
(secured from an independent source), and with all 
representatives present. Then no tricks will be played — 
using under voltage lamps, wrong types of lenses, 
claiming devices which supposedly guarantee against 
film damage (such devices work under certain condi- 
tions but nothing can take the place of care in thread- 
ing the projector), making undue claims for other 
special devices or gadgets on a particular make of ma- 
chine. See that the machine being demonstrated is the 
one on which the bid is being submitted. There have 
been cases of demonstration of a more expensive model 
when the model bid upon and delivered has been a less 
expensive machine. It is a splendid idea for the person 

{Continued on page 168) 

April, 1940 

Page 143 

A Controlled Experiment in Visual 
Education in General Science 


Edison Jr. High School 
Hammond, Indiana 

First Procedure 

THE data for this study were collected from two 
7-A General Science classes in the Laboratory of 
Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute. 
The study was conducted over a period of about 
thirteen weeks. The classes were equated upon the 
basis of the student's I. Q. rankings by Otis Tests of 
Mental Ability. There was a very close I. Q. correla- 
tion between the two groups, the median for both 
groups being 102.5. The group hereafter to be known 
as the experimental group will be spoken of as the 
X-Group and the control group will be spoken of as 
the C-Group. The X-Group was composed of 21 stu- 
dents and the C-Group consisted of 20 students. Both 
groups will be discussed in 
relation to the first unit which 
will be known as Unit A. This 
unit was entitled "Life on the 
Earth." Each group was given 
the same pre-test of the work 
to be covered during the dura- 
tion of the unit. The work as- 
signed to each class was the 
same, except that the X-Group 
was allowed to see motion pic- 
tures ( 16 mm. ) and lantern 
slides related to their General 
Science lessons.^ The writer 
discussed the films and slides 
as they were shown to the 
class so as not to leave any 
misunderstandings in the minds 
of the students. Each class 
was given laboratory work as 

was needed to explain a science concept. In order that 
the X-and C-Groups might cover the same material 
in Unit A, a study guide was prepared to cover each 
to])ic in the unit. After the work of Unit A was com- 
pleted the same pre-test was given as a poSt-test. (Both 
Guides and Tests are given in full below). The same 

This is a partial reprint of a Master's thesis 
accepted by Indiana State Teachers College. 
Necessary omissions have been as follows: 
Chapter One entire, containing introduction, 
statement of problem, and a comprehensive sum- 
mary and analysis of previous research; detailed 
annotation of contents of all films and slides 
used in the experiment; statistical tables and 
extended account of statistical procedure for 
obtaining final figures; and the general bibliog- 
raphy for the study. 

Presented here are a full description of the 
set-up and teaching procedure, and a brief ex- 
position of results attained. A chief feature is 
the reprinting in full of the elaborate and ex- 
cellent "Study Guides" and "Tests" for Units 
A and B in the experiment. Thorough prepara- 
tion of material is the essential foundation for 
significant results. — Editor. 

length of time was allotted for the unit in both groups 
witli the exception of the class study periods of the 
X-Group which were proportionally reduced to allow 
for showing the motion picture films and lantern slides. 
Lantern slides were shown to review the topics that 
were discussed in the unit. 

Unit A — Life on the Earth 

Topic 1 Our Smallest Living Things 

1. Understand what bacteria art, and the conditions under 
which they grow and reproduce. 

2. Know in what ways bacteria aid us. 

3. Know in what ways l)acteria are our enemies. 

4. Understand the relationship 
of bacteria to human di- 

5. Know how to guard the 
human body against inva- 
sion l)y disease producing 



What are bacteria ? How 
many kinds are there? How 
large are they? 
How do bacteria grow 
and reproduce ? Under what 
conditions do they grow 
and reproduce t>est? 
.\re all bacteria harmful? 
How do liacteria aid men 
in industry, in food manu- 
facturing, and in maintain- 
ing soil fertility? 
What is the relation of 
bacteria to disease ? 
How do persons become 
immune to a disease ? 

How do i)actena enter ilie human body? 

What can an individual do to lielp his 

body resist 

Words you 


1 — Used in the experiment were 

Six Keystone View Company slide sets of 20 slides each: 
The European Corn Borer — The Fly — Development of 
Plant and Animal Life — Living Things — Farm Sani- 
tation — Health. 

Fifteen Eastman Teaching Films entitled: 
Tuberculosis and How It May Be Avoided — Diptheria — 
Life in a Drop of Water — Life History of the Yellow 
Fever Mosquito — Potato Enemies — Cotton Growing — 
Wild Flowers — From Flower to Fruit — Mold and 
Yeast — Planting and C^are of Trees — Frogs, Toads and 
Salamanders — New Y'ork Water Supply— Irrigation — 
Water Power — Drinking Health. Contents of all the 
above fully annotated in the original thesis. 

need to know 
environment bacteriology disinfectant antitoxin 

antiseptic toxin spore immune vaccination epidemic 
Laboratory Study — One-celled Plants and Animals 

1. Bring to class a small bottle of stagnant water and 
leave it for us to study. 

2. Prepare a slide from one of tlie cultures of bacteria 
and study it through a microscope. 

3. Make a drawing of what you see. 

4. Prepare a slide from the stagnant water that you 
l^rought in a few days a^^o and study it tlirough the 

5. Make a drawing of what you see. How does this 

slide diflfer from the first? 

Special report : Louis Pasteur 

References : Davis and Sharpc. .SViciu r. Caldwell and 
Curtis, SciciHC for Today. Clement. Collister, and 
Thurston, Our Surroundings. Lake, Harky, and W'el- 
ton. E.rploring the World of .Scicmr. Piepcr and Beau- 

Page 144 

The Educational Screen 

chanip, Everyday Problems in Science. Powers, Neuner, 
and Bruner, This Changing World. Powers, Neuner, 
and Bruner, Man's Control of His Environment, Skil- 
ling, Tours Through the World of Science. Watkins 
and Bedeli, General Science for Today. Wood and 
Carpenter, Our Environment : How We Use and Con- 
trol It. Conn, Bacteria, Y'easi, and .Molds in the Home. 
Stephenson, The World of Invisible Life. 
Topic 2 Other Enemies of Man 

1. Reasons why the house fly is our most dangerous house- 
hold pest. 

2. The life history of the house fly and mosquito. 

3. Methods used to exterminate insect pests. 

Animation shows how a pollen tube penetrates a lily ovule. 

(From the Eastman film "Flower to Fruit.") 


1. Why is the house fly a deadly enemy of man? 

2. What is the life history of the house fly. 

3. How can we protect ourselves from flies? 

4. What is the life history of the mosquito? 

5. How can we control mosquitoes? 

6. How are insect pests controlled? 

Words you will need to know 

maggot wriggler anopheles culex crop rotation 
References: Davis and Shstrpe, Science (418-421). Cald- 
well and Curtis, Science for Today (564-565) (632-633). 
Clement, Collister, and Thurston, Our Surroundings 
(541-545). Lake, Harley, and Welton, E.xploring the 
World of Science (671-673). Pieper and Beauchamp, 
Everyday Problems in Science (284-289). Powers, 
Neuner, and Bruner, This Changing World (235-241). 
Watkins and Bedell. General Science for Today (483- 
485). Wood and Carpenter, Our Environment: How 
We Use and Control it (636-640). Peabody and Hunt, 
Biology and Human Welfare (498-511). Gre^g and 
Rowell, Health Studies (438-462). 

Topic 3 The Origin and Development of Living Things 

1. Have a clear understanding that all living things come 
from living things. 

2. Have a knowledge of how flowering plants reproduce. 

3. Have an understanding of how higher animals reproduce. 

1. What are living things made of? 

2. What is the structure of cells, tissues and organs? 

3. Does life always come from life? 

4. What is the structure and function of a flower? 

5. How are seeds formed? 

6. What is pollination? What are some different agencies 
of pollination? 

7. How do higlier animals reproduce? 
Words you will need to know 

egg sperm protoplasm fertilization pollination 

Laboratory study 

1. Observe t!ie frog eggs and walcli for any changes. 

2. After you have .-studied a flower, dissect the structure 
that we have discussed in class. 

References : Caldwell and Curtis, Science for Today 
(524-536) (581-586). Powers, Neuner, and Bruner, 
77II.S- Changing World (Chapter 21). Watkins and 
Bedell, General Science for Today (427-437) (160-161). 
Wood and Carpenter, Our Environment : How We 
Use and Control It (769-776). Davis and Sharpe. 
Science (347-367). Clement, Collister, and Thurston, 
Our Surroundings (312-317). 

Topic 4 ' Improvement of Living Things 

1. What do we mean by the term heredity? 

2. Why do you resemble your parents? 

5. Who was Gregor Mendel and for what is he noted? 

4. Have animals been improved by man? How? 

5. Have plants been improved by man? How? 

6. Who was Luther Burbank and for what is he noted ? 

7. How can man be improved? Explain. 
References: Caldwell and Curtis. Science for Today (587- 

595). Watkins and Bedell, General Science for Today 
529-551). Wood and Carpenter. Our Environment: 
How We Use and Control It (686-702) (776-790). 
Davis and Sharpe, Science (438-453). Hunter and 
Whitman, Problems in General Science (609-627). Van 
Buskirk and Smith, Science for Everyday Life (480- 

Unit A— Life on the Eaith 

L Multiple Choice 
Directions : Each question will consist of several answers. 
For each question you are to decide which is the best answer, 
then write the number corresponding to this answer in the 
space to the left of the number. 

1. The metliod by which diseases are transferred is 

of (1) no (2) great (3) slight importance in 
determining the method of prevention. 
2. The most dangerous period of life is (1) babyhood 

(2) middle age (3) old age. 

3. (1) red (2) white corpuscles destroy germs. 

4. Cells reproduce by (1) expanding (2) contracting 

(3) dividing (4) increasing, 

5. Bacteria which are shaped like a sphere are known 

as (1) cocci (2) spirilla (3) bacilli (4) leguines. 
6. Bacteria grow best in a place which is (1) dark 

(2) light (3) cool (4) dry. 

7. Bacteria in milk converts the sugar into ( 1 ) sour- 
ing (2) tubercle (3) lactic acid (4) hydrochloric 

8. The science of improving the heredity of future 

generations is known as (1) genetics (2) logic 

(3) biology (4) eugenics. 

9. Laws of heredity were discovered by (1) Edison 

(2) Burbank (3) Mendel (4) Reed. 

10. All living matter within a cell is called (1) pro- 
toplasm (2) chlorophyll (3) corpuscle (4) nucleus. 

11. The transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of 

flowers is called (1) pollination (2) diffusion (3) 
transpiration (4) fertilization. 

12. The pollen of the flower is made by the ( 1 ) 

pistil (2) style (3) stamen (4) stigma. 

13. The statement that "all life comes from life" is 

(1) false (2) partly triie (3) true (4) true only 
of plants. 

14. The larva of a fly is called a (1) Cocoon (2 1 

caterpillar (3) maggot (4) wriggler. 

15. The genus of mosquito that carries malaria germs 

is called (1) anopheles (2) culex (3) stegomyia 

(4) wriggler. 

16. The number of stages in the life history of a fly 

or mosquito is (1) two (2) four (3) five (4) three 

(5) six. 

17. The larva of a mosquito is called (1) worm (2) 

maggot (3) caterpillar (4) wriggler. 
18. Mosquitos lay their eggs on (1) grass (2) mud 

April, 1940 

Page 143 

(3) stagnant water (4) garbage (5) manure. 
19. The best way to get rid of flies is by (1) fly 

traps (2) destroy breeding places (3) fly paper 

(4) swatting them {S) poison. 

20. The best way to get rid of mosquitoes is by ( 1 ) 

citronella (2) poison (3j swatting them (4) pour 
oil on breeding place. 

21. Disease bacteria in the liunian body give off a 

poison called (1) (2) toxin (3) insulin 
( 4 ) enzymes. 

22. The agent used in treatment of diphtheria is (1) 

vaccine (2) toxin (3) insulin (4) antitoxin. 

23. A person who does not contract a disease when 

exposed to the disease genns is said to be (i) 
vaccinated (2) inoculated (3) immune (4) in- 

24. The process of introducing antitoxin into the blood 

of people is called (1) vaccination (2) metabolism 

(3) germination (4) assimilation. 

25. Bacteria are (1) animals (2) plants (3) insects 

(4) larvae. 

26. The passing on from generation to generation of 

similar traits in living things is called (1) varia- 
tion (2) evolution (3) heredity (4) pollination. 

27. .A disease carried by drinking water is (1) measles 

(2) mumps (3) diphtlieria (4) typhoid fever. 

28. Living organisms in water may be killed by (1) 

filtering (2) freezing (3) boiling (4) shaking. 

29. .^11 living matter must contain (1) bones (2) 

seeds (3) wood (4) protoplasm. 

II. True and False 
Directions : Write the letter T or F on the line before the 
number to indicate whether the statement is true or false. 
1. In order to prevent the spread of contagious 

diseases, persons with dangerous diseases are placed 

under tiuarantine. 
2. Louis Pasteur sacrificed his life to discover the 

cause of yellow fever. 

3. All bacteria are harmful. 

4. Diphtheria antitoxin is obtained from the blood 

of a horse. 
5. An animal or plant which lives in or on the body 

of a living thing from which it takes its food is 

known as a parasite. 

6. Colds are not harmful to people. 

7. When a disease spreads rapidly among a large 

group of people it is known as an epidemic. 



One of the slides in the Keystone unit on Health 

. . . . 8. The pollen of flowers is made by the pistil. 

. ... 9. "All life comes from life." 

. . . . 10. A person can protect himself during an epidemic of 

typhoid fever by boiling his drinking water. 
....11. A fuzzy-like growth on old exposed foods is mold. 
12. Scarlet fever is caused bv sore throat. 

13. Germs live in clean places. 

14. Molds destroy food easily in dry atmosphere. 

15. Bacteria arc animals. 

16. To live and to grow, animals must have sunlight. 

17. Common disease germs may have the form of a 


III. Completion 
Directions : Write in the sjace the correct word or words 
that will make the statement true. 

1. When a frog reproduces, a cell called the 

imites with a cell called the The process is 


2. One-celled animals are called 

3. Yeast plants reproduce by sending out stuall outgrowths 

4. With what part of its body does the fly carry germs? 







W'hen germs enter the body or get into a cut, they are 

immediately attacked by the 

Germs which get into the body reproduce by 

Most of the damage done by germs is due to the 

formation of poisons called 

The disease conmionly caused by contaminated milk 

and water is 

When a person can ward off an attack of a disease, 

the person is .said to be 

What chemical may be placed in garbage cans or open 

toilets to kill larvae of flies 

Single-celled plants germs are called 

Pneumonia is a disease of the 

The disease most often contracted from contaminated 

water is 

Heating milk to kill bacteria is known as 

IV. Matching 
Directions : The following terms are to be matched. You 
are to write in the space at the left of Column A the number 
of the item in Column B that describes the item in Column A. 

- A- 







contaminated water 




sour milk 


similar group of 


Fuzzy-like growth 

tissue (cells) 






mosquito, larvae 


tuberculosis germs 


an organ 








larva, fly 




union of egg and sperm 










tvphoid fever 






adult, mosquito 




good sleep 


living tuatter 


malaria fever 




helps to resist disease 



Results from the First Procedure 

The unit tests were scored by the writer marking 
only the correct items on the tests. The scores of the 
unit tests were condensed into tables (oiriitted here) to 
show the conipari,son of the X-and C-Groups in the 
pre-test and post test for Unit A. The highest possible 
score was 75. To summarize: 

The post-test means of the X-and C-Groups were: 
X -Group 47.28 
C-Group 41.95 
The means of the gains of the X-and C-Groups were: 
X-Group 25.95 
C-Group 19.20 


Page 146 

The Educational Screen 

A General Science film lesson 

To measure reliability of the Unit A tests, the 
standard error of the mean for each Group was found 
both for the post-test and the difference between the 
pre-test and post-test. By usual statistical procedure 
were derived ( 1 ) a critical ratio for the post-tests 
showing that the X-Group will surpass the C-Group 
94.52 times nut of 100. and (2) a critical ratio for 
the gains showing that the X-Group will surpass the 
C-Group 99.81 times out of 100. 

Second Procedure 

A second unit, which shall be known as Unit B, 
was taught in which the previous control group became 
the new experimental group and the previous experi- 
mental group became the new control group. These 
new groups will be spoken of as X-and C-Groups in 
relation to Unit B. This unit was entitled "The Re- 
lation of the Water Supply to the Welfare of the Com- 
munity." The X-Group was composed of 19 students 
and the C-Group consisted of 20 students. The same 
techniques that were used in the first procedure were 
used in the second procedure. This second procedure 
was used to serve as a check upon the first. 

Unit B — The Relation of the Water Supply to 
the Welfare of the Community 
Topic 1 Methods of Purifying Water 

1. A knowledge of what water is made up of. 

2. A knowledge of common methods in use to purify water. 

3. A knowledge of how to purify water in your own home. 
Questions ; 

1. What is water? 

2. What is the universal solvent? 

3. What imi)urities are commonly found in water? 

4. How are clietnical impurities removed from water ? 

5. How is water purified in the home? 

6. How is water purified by distillation? 

7. How are temporary and permanent hardness removed 
from water? 

Words you will need to know 
sterilize bacteria solvent hard water 

soluble in- 

Laboratory experiment 

1. What is water made up of? 

2. How can water be purified by filtration? 
References: Caldwell and Curtis, Science for Today {Ti- 

92). Clement and Collister and Thurston, Our Sur- 
roundings (45-67). Hunter and Whitman, My Oxvn 
Science Prol>lems (79-102). Lake, Harley, and Walton, 
Exploring the Jl'orld of Science (69-99). Peiper, and 
, Beauchamp, Everyday Problems in Science (176-215). 

Watkins and Bedell, General Science for Today. (50- 
68). Davis and Sharpe, Science (117-139). Gregg 
and Powell, Health Studies. (496-510). Wood and 
Carpenter, Our Environment : Its Relation to Us (8- 
43), How We Adapt Ourselves to It (185-281), Hoiv 
We Use and Control It (181-234), Van Buskirk and 
Smith, The Science of Everyday Life (81-104). 

Topic 2 //oil' Communities Obtain Pure Water 

1. A realization of the importance of a pure water supply. 

2. A knowledge of how various types of communities ob- 
tain an adequate supply of pure water. 

3. .\ knowledge of the types of impurities found in water, 
their sources and dangers and the methods used in re- 
moving them from water on a large scale. 


1. How do persons who live in the country or in a small 
town secure an adequate water supply ? 

2. How are the inhabitants of large cities supplied with . 
pure water ? 

3. Of what importance is pure water to the health of the 
communities ? 

Words you will need to know : septic tank antiseptic 
References (Same as for Topic 1) 

Topic 3 Using Water in the Home and Community 

1. How is water distributed in your home? 

2. How does water enable us to get rid of sewage? 

3. What are the dangers of improper sewage disposal ? 

4. What are the modern methods used for sewage dis- 
posal ? 

5. How is sewage disposed of in your community? 
Words you will need to know: septic tank antiseptic 
References (Same as for Topic 1) 


Unit B— The Relation of the Water Supply to 

the Welfare of the Community 

L Matching 
Directions : The following terms are to be matched. You 
are to write in the space at the left of Column A the number 
of the item in Column B that describes the item in Column .■\. 
-A- -B- 

1 Contains mineral 1 Channel for carrying water 

matter 2 Water 

2 Water 3 Contains bacteria 

3 Aqueduct 4 Sterilize water 

4 Sewage 5 Hydrogen & oxygen 

5 Rivers and lakes 6 Used to dispose sewage 

6 More pressure 7 Hard water 

8 Universal solvent 8 Greater the depth of the 

7 Septic tank water 

9 Chlorine 9 Sources of water supply for 

10 Reservoir a city 

11 Deep driven well 10 Whirlpools 

11 Lefs the depth of the water 

12 Storage for water 

13 Source of pure water 

II. Completion 
Directions : Write in the space the correct word or words 
that will make the statement true. 

1 atom plus atom 

will combine to make water. 

2. Water is a 

3 can be used to purify impure water. 

(Continued on page 172) 

April, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 147 

/^toceectin^3 of the Winter Meeting of 

the Department o£ Visual Instruction o£ 
the National Education Association 

(Concluded from March issue. This completes all Proceedings avail- 
able from the St. Louis meeting, held February 27 and 28, 1940) 

Use of the Silent Film in Study of Finland 

ONE day last December a 5-A teacher 
found two boys poring over the top 
of a floor globe, and heard them saying, 
"Gee, it's a little country," and "Look at 
all the lakes!" It was Finland. The 
children had been hearing their parents 
talk about the invasion and the defense 
of the Finns. "Ski troops and white 
coats so the soldiers won't show against 
the snow !" "And guns hidden under 
the snow." The other pupils coming in 
joined in the eager conversation. "I 
never heard of such fighters !" "Who is 
this guy Mannerheim?" "How do the 
Finns get that way?" 

Such enthusiasm was not to be denied, 
and the wise teacher quickly decided to 
push aside the scheduled study of the 
Great Lakes Region and go into the very 
live topic of Finland. 

Q. What do you know about Finland' 

A. She pays her debts to the United 

A. She has fine athletes. 

A. She is going to have the 1940 

Q. What should we know in order to 
understand the Finnish people? 

A. How they earn a living. 

A. Something about their history. 

A. The kind of government they have. 

A. Why do they have so many fine 
athletes ? 

A. Who is General Mannerheim? 

The Teacher's Objectives: — 

To give an appreciation of Finnish cul- 
ture and love of country. 

To help the children understand how 
the Finnish people have built a sturdy, 
respected nation against an unfavorable 
geographical background. 

To try to keep the study from becom- 
ing too much a study of the war alone. 

Materials Used: — 

Geography texts and Britannica Junior, 
National Geographic Mayaniiic, Life, 
Time, newspaper & magazine pictures 
and clippings. 

.Articles from Finland from the Chil- 
dren's Museum, consisting of boy and 
girl dolls, wood-carving of a reindeer 
and sled wth a Lapp driver, some Lapp 
dolls, some Finnish hand-weaving. 

Mounted pictures of Finland. 

Lantern slide map of Finland, made by 


Director of Visual Education 
St Louis County Schools 

the teacher to save time, and projected 
frequently during the study. 
Eastman Teaching Film — Finland. 

History: — 

The children learned through reading 
and discission that the Finns came from 
Central Russia ( originally from Asia ) 
to the land between Sweden and Russia 
about 700. The> were wild, barbaric, 
pagan tribes. When they began making 
laids on the Swedish coast, the Swedes 
conquered them and converted them to 
Christianity by force. They were con- 
quered by Peter the Great of Russia in 
the early 18th century, and re-conquered 
by Sweden under Charles XII. In 1809 
Finland was again seized by Russia and 
made a Grand Duchy, with her own semi- 
independent government. Thus, Finland 
was a battleground for her powerful 
neighbors. But, between times she was 
left alone and her Fundamental Law was 
recognized by txjth Sweden and Russia. 
Repressive measures were imposed by 

Ice breakers keep Finnish harbors open 

(F'rom the Eastman film "Finland") 

Czar Nicholas II. and Finnish skiers 
went secretly all over the country and 
got a half-million names signed on a peti- 
tion to present to the Czar to restore 
their freedom. It failed, and in the 
World War many Finns went to Ger- 
many to fight against Russia. Finland 
was freed by the Bolsheviks in 1917 and 

Mannerheim, who had been a general in 
the Czar's armies, came back home to 
help build up his country and free it of 
German influence. 


The children learned of the Finnish 
architect Saarinen, who built the beauti- 
ful railway station in Helsinki, and now 
ha;^ an art school at Cranbrook, near De- 
troit. They heard of the Finnish epic 
Kalevala, the rhythm of which Longfel- 
low used in Hiawatha. 

Geography: — 

They learned that Suomi (the Finnish 
name of the country) means "land of 
10,000 lakes." With the map they 
learned of the glaciation which caused 
the lakes. They learned that more than 
half of the country is forest, and that 
the industries are agriculture (mostly 
on the west-coast plain), and those con- 
nected with the forests, that is, lumber- 
ing, wood-pulp and papci-making. 

Use of the Film: — 

The teacher postponed the use of the 
film until this point in order to develop 
a good background of knowledge. She 
might have used it as an introduction to 
rouse interest, bi:t it was not necessary in 
this case, as the inter- 
est was already there. 
She previewed the 
film in order to learn 
its content and to 
adapt it to the grade 
level. She studied the 
Teacher's Guide in 
order to point out 
processes in industries, 
and scenes and names 
already encountered in 
reading. Before show- 
ing the film she asked 
the children to get out 
their pads to jot down 
questions they would 
want to ask after- 
wards. (This can be 
done with practice 
even in a darkened 
room.) Then .she told 
the children what the 
film would show : — scenes in cities, fine 
public buildings by the architect Saari- 
nen, types of people, forests and farms, 
wood-pulp and paper-making, athletics 
and sports. While running the film she 
interrupted the showing to stress im- 
portant points and made brief comments 
during the showing. That the children 

Page 148 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

watched the film with intelligent interest 
was shown by the questions which they 
jotted down and asked afterwards: 

Why are there rapids in such a fiat 
country ? 

Is tobacco raised in Finland ? 

Do all Finns have large families? 

Who was Ilkka (whose statue was 
shown) ? 

Why aid the man take out the long 
plug of butter? 

What was the thing that caught the 
salmon ? 

WHiy don't we have canals in our 
country ? 

What kind of a boat is an ice-breaker? 

Why is Helsinki called Helsingfors? 

Who are some Fu'.nish athletes ? 

These questions and some which the 
ttrcher took from the Guide (to the film) 
sent the children off for further reading. 

The next day was given to answering the 
questions. The following day the film 
was shown again, this time for apprecia- 
tion, for a broader understanding after 
further reading and discussion, and in 
order to digest it. There were no com- 
ments this time and no stops. After this 
iinal showing the teacher asked, "Now, 
why do you think the Finns ha\e made 
such a brave show?" 

A. The glaciated land makes them in- 
dustrious and saving. 

A. Their hard life makes them physi- 
cally strong. 

.\. Their history has made them brave 
and patriotic. 

A. Mannerheim has taught them how 
to fight in their kind of country. 

And one sensitive child said, "I hope 
some day the Finns will live again as the 
film shows." 

Producing Films for Instruction 
in the Social Studies 

I have been asked to discuss the subject 
"Educational Film Production" but 
this subject is much too broad. One of 
the purposes of this meeting is to dis- 
cuss certain aspects of film use in the 
lower grades. Therefore, I have limited 
my subject to the production of films 
on this level, and specifically, a film 
presenting certain aspects of the social 

One of the problems of instruction on 
this level which has always confronted 
teachers has been how to present subject 
matter in such form that it can be com- 
prehended by pupils who have little read- 
ing ability and whose backgrounds of 
understanding are much narrower than 
those of pupils on the upper levels who 
have had the advantage of many more 
types of experiences. Attempts to do 
this have led teachers in many instances 
into assuming that children in the pri- 
mary and elementary grades do not have 
the ability to comprehend many concepts 
which therefore have ordinarily been 
postponed to later grades. Experience 
during the past decade, in the use of in- 
structional films designed to present these 
more advanced concepts, has led us to 
realize the error of this assumption. 

Some si.x years ago, following an ex- 
periment with sound films in the bio- 
logical sciences, we were surprised to 
realize that certain biological concepts 
which are ordinarily withheld even until 
high school could be presented under- 
standingly to boys and girls before they 
had learned to read. Fortified with this 
experience, we were encouraged to apply 
what we had learned in this experiment 
to the problem of presenting social con- 
cepts on this level. In other words, we 
asked ourselves this question. Cannot 
primary grade pupils who, through the 
••"e of the films, have been able t 
formulate generalizations in the bio- 
logical sciences regarding the struggle 


Erpi Classroom Films, Inc., 
New York 

for existence, balance in nature, propaga- 
tion, tropisms and the like, be led also 
to formulate generalizations in the social 
area involving an understanding of 
human inter-relationships, the effect of 
environment upon man and in turn man's 
effect upon his environment, the opera- 
tion of economic factors and in general 
the adaptations made by man in an ef- 
fort to live comfortably and happily in 
his world? 

Early experimentation was indeed 
promising. We came to realize that 
genuine learning requires a rich back- 
ground of experience on the one hand 
and an adequate interpretation of that ex- 
perience on the other. Hitherto, restricted 
environment has limited experience and 
traditional tools of learning have not 
been adequate in their interpretation. 
Through the use of the sound film, how- 
ever, richly varied e.xperience can be- 
come the common possession of all, and 
the significant interpretation of that ex- 
perience can be achieved without depend- 
ence upon the mastery of reading. We 
all know that the so-called subjects — 
"reading," "writing," and "numbering," 
have held the center of the stage in 
primary instruction through the years. 
Experimentation with sound films, how- 
ever, in the lower grades has led us to 
realize that maturation which in the past 
came only with the passage of years of 
time, can now be accelerated by using 
the film to present fundamental concepts 
whicli formerly were withheld until read- 
ing skill had been developed to the point 
where these concepts could be acquired 
through wide reading. 

Another error into which we have 
fallen has been the assumption that be- 
cause of their complex nature, certain 
ideas and concepts fundamental to an 
understanding of society could not be 
added to the primary curriculum because 
they were too difficult to learn on that 

level. Wlicn we analyze this assumption 
in the light of our experimental program, 
we can realize that this means, again, 
that these concepts cannot be presented 
successfully through the traditional de- 
vices of communication. Many teachers 
have recognized this and have introduced 
the social studies by having pupils read 
;ibout people of other communities and 
reproduce what they have learned through 
the construction of miniature houses, 
doll dresses, transportation devices, and 
the like. This reading and pictures of 
these things at best are almost entirely 
static and devoid of the more vital 
aspects of living. Too often this leads 
to an over-simplification of the common 
problems of human existence. Such prob- 
lems cannot be analyzed effectively by 
being taken out of their natural setting 
and studied in isolation. .\ clear under- 
standing of these problems can come only 
through an appreciation of their inter- 
relationships. For example, the food 
eaten by a people depends upon the type 
of soil available for tilling, upon the 
climate, upon modes of transportation, 
upon refrigeration, and other technologi- 
cal de\elopments. The clothing they wear 
likewise depends upon many other fac- 
tors. Their recreational life may exhibit 
patterns handed down by their ancestors 
through long periods of history often 
reaching backward into antiquity. There 
is also the ever present element of change 
in ways of life which has come to be so 
prominent during the past fifty years ; 
for example, the jungles of Africa are 
regularly crossed by modern airplanes, 
we see sewing machines in native huts 
far removed from their origin, the west- 
ern liusiness suit is rapidly supplanting 
the national costumes of China and .laiiaii. 
Educational methods common to Europe 
and .America are filtering into the re- 
motest corners of the earth. The film you 
are to see this morning will be studied 
by thousands of children in the Union 
o; South Africa. 

Tins vast panorama of human inter- 
relationship can hardly be encompassed 
by the child who has to depend solely for 
claiification upon traditional devices of 
communication. Experimentation in this 
field has led us to recognize, however, 
that man\- of these fundamental social 
concepts can be presented very early in 
the child's educational life by means of 
tlie film which has been devised specific- 
ally for this purpose. For example, it 
would probably be agreed that one of the 
most important concepts in the social 
studies is the realization of the profound 
tr-ansformations brought about by modern Obviously, however, such a 
concept cannot be presented in the lower 
grades if it must be discussed in terms 
of abstractions. But when the child 
through the e.xperience furnished by the 
lilm is brought face to face with life in 
colonial times ; when he sees that most 
of the family's time and energy formerly 
was spent on securing food, on making 
clothing, on keeping fires going, et cetera, 
he conies to realize by comparison with 
his own living the part modern technology 
has played in providing food, shelter, and 
clothing, in eliminating drudgery, in pro- 

April, 1940 

Proceeding; of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 149 

viding leisure time, and thus making 
possible a richer, fuller life for all. 

In the production of films in tliis area 
certain factors stand out as most im- 
portant. To begin with, we must rec- 
ognize that the instructional film properly 
prepared carries its own background and 
does not depend upon the child's pre- 
vious experience. Secondly, concrete 
human experiences can be presented. 
Thirdly, these experiences can be in- 
terpreted through the spoken word as they 
occur. Indeed, they must be so inter- 
preted if the significance of what is seen 
is to be fully realized, for it is not ob- 
jects and events in themselves that are 
important but what objects and events 
mean in terms of broader relationships. 
.\s Dewey has put it in How IVc Think : 
"All knowledge, all science, thus aims 
to grasp the tneaning of objects and 
events, and this process always consists 
m taking them out of their apparent 
brute isolation as events, and finding them 
to be parts of some larger whole sug- 
gested by them, which, in turn, accounts 
for, explains, interprets them : i.e., rend- 
ers them significant." — (Hozv li'c Think. 
pp. 117-118). 

Merely to experience events is not to 
learn from them. Men had seen lightning 
throughout historj-, but only compara- 
tively recently has the meaning of light- 
ning been grasped as one type of elec- 
trical phenomenon. Men had seen ships 
drop out of sight over the horizon count- 
less times before this phenomenon was 
seen to mean that the earth was round. 
Likewise, one may enjoy coffee for break- 
fast every morning throughout a lifetime 
without ever realizing what this means 
in terms of the interdependences of the 
modern world, the nature of international 
trade, and the world-wide distribution of 
commodities. These understandings of 
course depend upon verbal interpreta- 
tions. It must be recognized of course 
that verbal interpretations in turn must 
depend upon tools of learning that the 
child has mastered in his pre-school 
experience. These tools are "seeing" and 
"hearing" and through them the child's 
intellectual growth during the first six 
years is probably more rapid and more 
extensive than in any other equal period 
of his entire life. 

When we have come to realize that 
many limitations to subject matter pre- 
sentation have lieen removed, our vistas 
Iia\e opened up all along the line and 
new horizons in social studies instruc- 
tion begin to appear. With the disap- 
pearance of these limitations, inherent in 
traditional mediums of communication, 
we have come to recognize how profound 
have been the restrictions which have 
operated against the fundamental ex- 
pansion of the social studies curriculum. 
Too often in tlie past, we have been 
forced to present subject matter growing 
out of the cliild's immediate environment. 
We are all acquainted with the stress 
which has been placed upon the import- 
ance of initiating instruction by this 
means. Of course, it is highly important 
fliat the child be led to study objectively 
his immediate environment and his social 
relationship but this objectivity can come 

only through, a comparison witli other en- 
vironments and with social and economic 
relationships which operate with peoples 
living in distant lands and even in other 
times. The motion picture makes these 
coinparisons possible. Through the use of 
the film, the construction of the curricu- 
lum of the future will depend more upon 
the careful selection of fundamental con- 
cepts and ideas and less upon the ability 
of the child to master what in the past 
have been called "tools of learning." 

In this connection, however, we have 
come to see that the proper use of films 
leads inevitably to an increase in reading 
mastery. Pupils are stimulated by the 
film to undertake more and more read- 
ing. In addition to increased reading, 
pupils' aural and oral vocabularies are 
also extended. In other words, they un- 
derstand more of what they hear and can 
tell more about what they know. 

Dr. Gray in a recent experiment con- 
ducted in a New York State elementary 
school reports that truly significant gains 
in aural and reading vocabulary occurred 
following the use of films. It is interest- 
ing to note, furthermore, that these 
gains were made with both English and 
Spanish words. Thus we can see that 
while more fundamental social concepts 
are being mastered through the use of the 
film, at the same time the mastery of 
word usage has increased as has the 
scope of experience through extended 

These considerations are profound in 
their implications for instructional film 
production on this level. We can be 
freed from the limitations of traditional 
method. We can select situations for 
presentation which give promise of 
achieving the goals of our educational 
philosophy much earlier in the life of the 
child than heretofore has been thought 
possible. Figuratively speaking, through 
the use of the camera and the microphone, 
we are able to place the microscope upon 
elements in a situation which give the 
total situation meaning and significance. 
For example, in the film "Colonial Child- 
ren" we come to see the significance of 
the fireplace in colonial times providing 
as it does a source for heating the home, 
for cooking and for lighting the room. 
The child of today can see that the fire- 
place of colonial days has been supplanted 
by great industries nation-wide in their 
scope, utilizing the power of our water- 
falls, employing enormous turbine en- 
gines, in great industrial plants, developed 
through the ingenuity of research scien- 
tists in the laboratories of the nation. 

Limitations of time and space can be 
overcome within the twinkling of an eye. 
Common problems of human living can 
be brought to the classroom for study 
and analysis. These problems, concerned 
with man's efforts to secure food, cloth- 
ing and shelter, to protect himself against 
anti-social forces within and without the 
community, to conserve and protect his 
health, to set up institutions for the 
training of the young, to divide the quota 
of labor among the whole population and 
to trade with other communities and 
countries ; all of these aspects involve 
the broader concepts of social and eco- 

nomic living. They are inextricably en- 
twined with the effect of environment 
upon man, mentally, physically and 
socially; the effect of man upon his 
environment ; inter-relationships between 
jieoples and nations ; the effect of the 
coming of the machine upon man's stand- 
ard of living and patterns of culture 
which have emerged during the course of 
the history of different peoples. 

Some of the most important phases of 
instruction in this area include compari- 
sons of cultural patterns of diverse races 
and national groups. These comparison^ 
are so numerous as to preclude their 
presentation in films devoted strictly to 
this objective but the presentation of 
separate patterns of culture in single 
film subjects will provide materials 
from which comparisons may easily be 
drawn in the classroom. 

The general criteria for the selection 
of subject matter are as follows: 

1. Subject matter should be selected 
in terms of its relationship with the 
total social situation, not isolated 
from its normal environmental set- 

2. Subject matter should reflect life 
as conditioned by a moving, chang- 
ing environment. 

3. Subject matter should suggest con- 
flicts both of contemporary and 
of earlier society. 

4. Concrete human problems should be 
treated as such, problems which 
arise in the course of practical 

5. The broader cultural interests of 
man which condition the opera- 
tion of economy and government 
should make up a major part of the 
subject matter. 

6. Child interest and capacity shall be 
used as a control in the selection 
of life situations represented in the 
subject matter. 

7. Subject matter must be authentic. 

Furthermore, the presentation of con- 
ditions as fixed and unchanging is to be 
studiously avoided. Political boundaries 
are not to be considered as permanent 
lines of demarcation. Human cultural de- 
velopment and the state of civilization 
shall not be considered as having been 
determined but rather as having been con- 
ditioned by environment. The mastery 
of factual information in itself is not to 
be considered an end. Onlj' those data 
and situations which have a definite bear- 
ing upon problems which man has en- 
countered or is likely to encounter in 
adapting himself to his environment or 
in changing his environment to meet his 
needs, are to be presented. The essence 
of this type of procedure will be phe- 
nomena taken from life and reproduced 
for .study and discussion in the social 
studies classrootn. 

Teachers all over the country are com- 
ing to realize the value of films pro- 
duced according to these criteria. We 
have been deeply iinpressed with the re- 
sults which come through this approach 
to social instruction. Not only have 
we seen profound social concepts grow 
in the minds of youngsters ; not only 

Page 150 

Proceedings of the D. V . I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

The Broom Committee 

have we seen them studying their own 
homes and communities objectively ; not 
only have we seen them begin to acquire 
a control over their own environment but 
also we have been allowed to witness an 
exfoliation of creative activity in the 
form of individual research, in the use 
of written and spoken language, in 
music, in art and in dramatics. Further- 
more, this growth has been natural. 
Through the use of the instructional film 
the teacher no longer finds it necessary 
to impose problems arbitrarily, no longer 
is he forced to create artificial situations 
which often lead to an adventitious ac- 
tivity, frequently dropped as soon as the 
child leaves the classroom, but rather we 
find the children themselves raising the 
questions, proposing the problems, and 
conducting the research. All this mo- 
tivated by the film. 

The film which you are to see this 
morning did not just happen. It was 
not the product of a single continuity 
writer. It represents the work of some 
twenty people. Months of research into 
colonial history were necessary. The 
social studies curriculum of many typical 
school systems were analyzed. 

1. Aspects of living which could be 
thoroughly authenticated were chosen. 
A birch broom from the Boston Museum 
had to be torn apart to discover the 
method of its manufacture. Court rec- 
ords of 1680 were searched for words 
which would be used in the vocabulary 
of the family. No single word was used 
which did not appear in these actual rec- 
ords. Characters had to be chosen for 
their likeness in appearance and speech 
to what is thought to have been that of 
the early colonials. They had to be di- 
the early colonials. They had to be direct 
descendants from early colonial ancestors. 

2. Locations and situations had to be 
authentic. The entire American wing of 
the Boston Museum was closed off for 
two weeks for interior photography. 

making a colonial broom 

Furniture had to be authentic. Clothing 
had to be made of the exact materials 
and in the same way as clothing which 
still remains from that period in our his- 
tory. The situations chosen for portrayal 
were selected because of their deeper so- 
cial, cultural, and economic implications. 
In making use of the instructional film 
the teacher should not consider it a 
medium of entertainment or as an inter- 
esting break in the routine of classroom 
work. It is not simply an abbreviated 
picture show which youngsters can see 
for 15c in the theatre of any town. In- 
tellectual development must be the pri- 
mary objective. Passive entertainment 
is not an end to he sought for in the 
instructional film but here exists an in- 
teresting phenomenon. Through the 
pr-oper use of films constructed for the 
purpose of instruction we have seen come 
into being the thrill of intellectual achieve- 
ment, the joy of discovery and the 
pleasure which attends the mastery of 

new ideas wliich lead to individual par- 
ticipation in the real and actual work of 
the world. Thus we see that while truly 
educational ends have been acliieved the 
child has not been subjected to an un- 
interesting, debilitating, restrictive form 
of activity but rather he has been mo- 
tivated through the film to interesting 
and exciting activity giving promise of 
arousing interests which may persist 
throughout life. 

The full potentialities of such a film can 
be realized only by the teacher who 
understands its purposes and who employs 
a proper methodology. Experimentation 
in this area has led us to realize that 
there is one simple procedure which 
seems to stand out above all others in 
a wide variety of situations. Stated 
briefly, it is as follows : 

1. Before any film is shown the teacher 
should establish in the minds of all 
pupils in the group the purposes 
for studying tlic film. 

2. Present the film. 

3. Immediately after the film showing 
(not the following day or week) 
initiate a discussion during the course 
of which three things are accom- 
plished : 

a. Determine how well the pur- 
poses previously set up liave been 

b. Clarify any misconceptions which 

c. Use the interests aroused by the 
film as springboards into the 
further study of tlic unit, into 
all types of research, creative 
thinking and writing, oral ex- 
position, art, dramatics, etc. 

As we listen to the discussion which is 
to follow let us note how Miss Livermon 
uses this tested methodology. In this work 
we must realize that the perpetuationJ 
of democracy depends upon the abilityf 
of the individual citizen to contribute 
effectively to the achievement of social] 
goals. The instructional film through it^ 
ability to overcome many limitations to 
human learning seems destined to play 
a large part toward the progressive real* 
ization of this ideal. 

The Use of the Sound Film 

"Colonial Children/' in the Third Grade 

THE morning is a cold, bleak day in 
mid-winter. The snow is falling 
steadily and thickly. 

At the beginning of the work period 
the teacher unobtrusively places near her 
a miniature warming pan, made in exact 
proportions to those of earlier days, but 
now used in modern homes as an ash 
tray. She remarks to one of her third 

"John, your nose is red. Are you cold? 
Well, I'm cold this morning. When I 
came downstairs our furnace was out." 

The discussion centers around the state 
of heating in their homes. They list the 


Meadowbrook School 
Norfolk, Virginia 

various types of heating found in theirl 
communities; namely, hot air, steam,J 
heatrolas, oil, community heating plants.' 
As they discuss tlie subject of heat, thel 
teacher quickly picks up the miniaturej 
wanning pan. One child asks what it is?[ 
The teacher replies, 

"This is called a warming pan. InJ 
very early days in tliis country peoplel 
used big ones like this to help heat theirl 

The class immediately wishes to know " 
why the beds needed this heat. The 
teacher returned, "We are going in a 
little while to see a moving picture about 

April, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. I'.t. Meeting 

Page 151 

it. I want you to look closely and see 
what they did use to keep warm. It was 
very different from our way today." 

One child then asks if they wore a great 
many clothes. The teacher replies, "We'll 
look for that too. Suppose you write down 
what we want to look for in the picture." 

Their list includes the following ques- 
tions to be sought in the film : 

1. How did Colonial people keep 
warm ? 

2. What kind of clothes did they 
wear ? 

3. What were their homes like? 

4. Wliat did they eat for breakfast? 

5. How did Colonial children help 
their mothers and fathers? 

6. How did Colonial children read? 
With these questions in their minds 

and hands, the third grade class sees the 
film for the first time. Inunediately at 
the conclusion of the first showing the 
discussion of these questions takes place. 
,One child says. "I saw the warming pan. 
3ut did they put it on the top of the 
ed or underneath it ?" Now the necessity 
prises naturally for clearing up any mis- 
onccptions or false ideas which may have 
arisen during the film showing. Bruce 
hen remarked. "They had milk for their 
breakfast, but I didn't see any sugar. 
)id they have sugar?" And now research 
nto the living conditions of the early 
dassachusetts colonies begins, with the 
guestion ; Did they have any sugar ? If 
hey did have sugar, where did it come 
Irom? If they didn't have sugar, wdiat 
4id they use in its place? And as they go 
nto sources for this infomiation the big 
•^question of exports and imports comes 
in; early foreign trade, relations with 
the mother country, money. From the 
starting point of the third grade child's 
question which arises from his own 
natural interest grow larger problems de- 
pending upon creative thinking and en- 
larged of resources. 

From the third grade child's concrete 
interests the i olio wing activities grew 
from the film, Colonial Children. 

1. The making of a broom. 

2. The making of a quilt. 

3. Visit to Joe's mother to see her 

4. Research on sugar. 

5. Letter to absent child telling him 
about the film. 

6. Invitation of class to a father ask- 
ing him to visit the class. 

In the use of this film, ths effort is 
always made to avoid an over simplifica- 
tion of issues. This can be accomplished 
by emphasizing continually the dififer- 
ences in social living in colonial times 
and in our modern situations. Reasons 
for these differences can offset this ten- 
dency toward oversimplification in issues. 
The question. "Why?" should be con- 
tinually in the minds of all third grade 

For instance in the broom committee 
the generalization will be developed that 
this was the best way to obtain a broom 
in early colonial times, followed by study 
of its use then, and the modern methods 
of cleaning materials, such as the vacuum 
cleaner and other labor saving devices. 

In the sewing group the necessity for 

learning to sew at an early age will be 
developed. Wh.\ the need is not so great 
today will lie brought out in contrast. 

In the visit to Joe's mother to see 
the antiques, it is hoped that the young- 
sters will see that there was a need ior 
these materials in early days ; that today 
they arc used only for ornaments ; and 
that men have solved our heating prob- 
lems today in vastly different ways. 

In the development of responsibilities 
the group will see the need for family 
cooperation in tlie Colonial period, and 
perhaps this thinking may open up new- 
responsibilities today. 

Subsequent discussion of the film cen- 
tered around the following questions : 

1. What things did the colonists make 
at their homes which we buy ready 

2. What articles or conveniences are 
common today which they did not 
have ? 

3. Did they have as much money then 
as we have today ? 

4. What did the Colonial children do 
to have a good time? 

5. Was there enough work to go 
around in those times. Would many 
people be without work then ? 
Why? What about today? 

6. How did they get their ink? 

7. Did they have forks? 

8. Did the colonists make their own 
furniture ? 

9. What were their spoons made of? 
10. Did they have watches and clocks? 

Why did they not have more of 

these ? 
The film was shown again when the 
need arose. Only sections of the film 
which related to the question were 
shown when a question was to be solved. 
For instance, the art committee wished to 
settle the position of the Adams family 
in the last scene. Consequently only the 
last scene of the film was shown to the 
art committee. 

What does all this mean to the class- 
room teacher? 

1. The sound film provides materials 
which stimulate children to do creative 
work even where teachers have not other- 
wise provided for this work. 

2. The film stimulates youngsters to 
work up to the limit of their ability and 
provides materials which allow the 
teacher to administer to the need of in- 
dividual differences. 

3. Children are led to set up their 
own standards of achievement. 

4. We find that they are not satisfied 
with superficial answers. In other words 
the devices which children have often 
used of trying to pass the grade by 
giving answers which they think teach- 
ers want have been supplanted by genuine 
research and investigation eagerly under- 
taken by themselves. 

5. Another effect which teachers are 
realizing is the identifying of the home 
with the child's classroom problems. In 
other words we find parents not assist- 
ing their youngsters in learning to read, 
but rather in reading to learn. 

6. Still another effect which we have 
come to see is the startling changes of 
attitudes of youngsters toward all their 
work in school. We find that genuine 
problems have a way of demanding solu- 
tion which youngsters cannot and do not 
wish to avoid. 

7. We find that this type of procedure 
does not demand more of the teacher's 
time, but that the of the film does 
require more careful planning. Their 
efforts are directed not at what they will 
assign as work for the pupils, but at 
planning ways and means of smoothing 
the path for the pupils w-ho are solving 
their own problems and are engaging in 
stimulating creative activity. In other 
words she becomes an eagerly sought 
companion in the adventures of learning. 
Quite often a picture of the classroom 
which includes the more apparently over- 

The Quilt Committee at work. 

Page 152 

Proceedings of the D. V, I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

worked teacher is accompanied by the 
less active children. 

All in all, we find that the classroom 
tilm properly devised liberates the teacher 
from much time consuming drudgerj' and 

frees her for more profitable and chal- 
lenging opportunities of administering to 
the individual needs of children who are 
actively engaged in solving fundamental 
problems of human living. 

The Present Situation in School-Made 
Public Relations Films 

WE know that at least 90 motion pic- 
tures have been produced for the 
purpose of interpreting the schools to the 
public. This fact is rather significant 
to a good many of us. Certainly, many 
of us here have been faced with the fact 
that speeches are not always too well at- 
tended, that enthusiasm for school visi- 
tation days can be aroused only at long 
intervals, that school columns in the news- 
papers reach only a limited section of 
school patrons. We know, of course, 
that all these devices are useful in pub- 
lic relations ; we know too that new ap- 
proaches are sorely needed. 

There can be little question that the 
number of school-made films will con- 
tinue to grow. The interest in motion 
picture production on the part of edu- 
cators has developed steadily. The 
critical question which arises, however, is 
this: Will the quality of these films 
keep pace with the increasing production? 
The answer to this question, it seems to 
me, hinges in part on the extent to which 
we make available to the schoolmen infor- 
mation as to techniques and possible film- 
ing areas in the field of movie production. 

There are several ways by which this 
spread of information can be accomp- 
lished. Conferences such as the Mid- 
western Forum on Visual Teaching Aids 
should go far toward stimulating an en- 
thusiasm for producing films. Mr. Hef- 
lin's showing at the Midwestern meeting 
of his color film "Little Black Sambo", 
done entirely with puppets, left many of 
us with an urge to try our own puppet 
films. Second, the reporting in national 
iournals of the experiences of numerous 
schools in producing movies should help 
to broaden the horizon of film produc- 
tion. Hardy Finch's article in one of the 
January issues of Scholastic probably 
gave most of us who read it new ideas for 
approaches to school-made films. 

But I am convinced that we also need 
a means of direct exchange of both ideas 
and films. This need was expressed in 
our Cleveland meeting on Public Rela- 
tions films a yeir ago. It was expressed 
again at the Midwestern Forum. As a 
matter of fact, all of us who have pro- 
duced films know the value of such help. 
It was these expressions of need that 
encouraged us to circulate the question- 
naire on Public Relations Films which 
many of you answered. Opportunity was 
provided on the questionnaire for record- 
ing title, length, width, whether silent or 
sound film, content in detail, availability 
for loan, and the name of the individual 
to whom correspondence should be di- 
rected. Certain other information such 
as the financing of films was also col- 


Harvey H. Lowrey School 
Dearborn, Michigan 

lected. .\ total of 214 questionnaires 
was sent to school men from a list we 
compiled with the help of the various 
state Education Associations, the Nation- 
al Council of Teachers of English, the 
NEA, the Bureau of Educational Re- 
search of the Ohio State University, the 
movie publications, and the suggestions 
secured from educators previously res- 

Data on 90 films was assembled in the 
first Public Relations Film Bulletin. Cer- 
tain facts are outstanding in the informa- 
tion obtained thus far : 

1. The large majority of educators 
who replied were definitely interested in 
an exchange organization such as that 
proposed, and (this is the acid test) 
were willing to loan their own films to 
other schoolmen. 

2. The "Newsreel" type of film (usu- 
p.lly a group of school highlights, often 
unrelated) continues to constitute the 
great majority of the films produced by 
schools for public relations purposes. 
Many of these films have a running time 
of well over an hour (as high as 2-^4 
hours ! ) and are sometimes literally, as 
described by the administrators concerned, 
"all the activities of the school" and 
"everything from the opening of school 
in the fall to graduation in the spring." 
These films are undoubtedly valuable and 
many of them are of e.xcellent quality. 

i. There is a discernible trend, how- 
ever, toward a more highly "specialized" 
film whose purpose is to present, in care- 
fully planned detail, some one aspect of 
school life. Films such as "Cactus 
Courageous" (an eighth grade class 
studies cacti), "Early Denver," "T. B. 
Testing Program," "Nursery School," 
"Busy Hands," "Introducing Your Li- 
brary," and "Our Children Learn to 
Read" are typical of this trend. The 
emergence of this type of film is highly 

4. All films (with the exception of 
one 8mm. subject) were of the 16mm. 
type, which is obviously standard. Ap- 
proximately one film in five made some 
use of natural color film. 

5. Sound films are being used experi- 
mentallv by some schools. Four such 
productions were reported in the survey. 
Notable examples of sound films are the 
1600-foot Bay City, Michigan, picture 
on which a commentator's voice was re- 
corded after the film had been edited, a 
similar film called "A Day in Defiance 
High School", and the 400-foot "Croton- 
on-Hudson" film "School" with sound re- 
corded on the spot. 

6. The problem of financing the films 

has been met in a great variety of ways. 
It is interesting to note that the agency 
which financed the largest number of 
Public Relations V\\n\s was the Board of 
Education. This fact, in itself, is not- 
able as evidence of considerable accep- 
tance of the need for the film medium in 
making contact with the public. Close 
second in frequence was the student fund, 
followed not too closely by the use of 
admissions. Alumni organizations, teach- 
ers clubs, P.T.A., and Chambers of Com- 
merce were other means used. 

Now it seems to me that we have 
reached a point in the development of this 
whole movement toward film production 
which is rather critical in its relation to 
the future of school-made films. Through- 
out the country, we have a generally fa- 
vorable attitude toward the idea of film 
production by schools. The average su- 
perintendent or principal will probably 
agree positively with the statement that 
the growing production of school films 
is a fine thing. We in the D\T can take 
little credit for this favorable attitude but 
I believe that it is there. 

We do have a responsibility, it seems 
to me. in what comes out of this en- 
thusiasm. Let us suppose a superin- 
tendent in Urbanville decides to make 
a film on his schools. He probably has 
a man on his faculty who borrowed a 
movie camera once and took a 50- foot 
roll of a family picnic. He gets the 
job. Now the teadher may possibly 
read a book on camera technique. If 
he is unusually alert, he may even bor- 
row an exposure meter and jot down 
a few notes on what he hopes to get. 
He will probably have little or no con- 
cept of a scenario, of types of film, of 
lighting, or editing. Nor is he particu- 
larly concerned about his lack of knowl- 
edge. Why should he be? He has no 
idea of what has been done by other 
schools. There are no goals for him 
to reach. He will probably "just 
shoot." Out of his enthusiasm will 
come a roll of film, unplanned, unedited, 
largely uninteresting, and one more 
superintendent will have come to the 
conclusion that the possibilities of films 
are after all severely limited. This sort 
of thing happening in a thousand Ur- 
banvilles could soon slow up the whole 
film movement and prevent its most 
efifective growth. 

If, on the other hand, the superinten- 
dent had known of an exchange such 
as this, if he had sent to, let us say, 
Godfrey Elliot for his scenario and film 
"Busy Hands," would his resulting pro- 
duction have been as mediocre? I don't 
think so. Certainly, it would be likely 
to have been better planned ; the photo- 
graphy would have had to stand a criti- 
cal comparison ; there would have been 
an appreciation of the results that can 
come from school filming. 

Perhaps we are painting too vividly 
the possibility of a film clearing house. 
Certainly such an organization is not 
the whole answer. I am convinced, 
however, that a film exchange can have 
a useful, and perhaps important, place 
in the picture. 

April, 1940 

Proceedings of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 153 

The Future for School-Made 
Public Relations Films 

IT is an obvious fact that the average 
school patron cannot put together an 
inteUigible picture of the school's gen- 
eral program or specific achievements 
through his personal visits, even though 
those visits are both extensive and in- 
tensive. Schoolmen have for a great 
many years, and in varying degrees, 
tried to bridge the gap between school 
and community with some means of 
effective understanding. The news- 
paper, the radio, school reports, and 
personal contacts have all been used, 
and in many cases with extraordinary 

Quite recently there has been a de- 
cided movement toward the use of the 
notion picture as a public relations 
nediuni by the school. The motion 
picture has the unique ability to tell, 
^n fifteen minutes, a story that might 
ake a year of careful observation to 
Ijfet otherwise. 

In our enthusiasm for the school- 
nade public relations film, we must 
not make the mistake of forgetting that 
it is but one of a group of media used 
|to foster goodwill, respect, and under- 
Standing for the school. It is a sup- 
plement, and in many cases a spccial- 
■ized substitute, for the work already 
being done through other channels. 
It so happens that it is proving more 
effective than many other media of 
contact. It is only fair to say that 
some of this effectiveness may be due 
to the novelty of its use at this time. 
What will happen when this novelty 
wears off is a question that we may be 
able to answer here today for ourselves. 

The school-made public relations film 
will bring the school to the people ; it 
will show the human and physical fac- 
tors that compose it — their objectives, 
their problems, their failures and their 
achievements. We must not, however, 
make the mistake of regarding the 
public relations film as just another 
way of "telling" the people about the 
school ; it is, fortunately, a way of 
"showing." The producer of the public 
relations film must capitalize upon this 
unique ability of the motion picture to 
transport the viewer to another spot 
and to compress within the space of 
a few minutes a story that no amount 
of words could tell satisfactorily. If 
the film is to become, either with or 
without purpose, a mere restatement of 
newspaper releases, then it has failed 
in its mission. Whether it rises above 
mere telling and makes a successful 
appeal to its visual minded audience 
depends upon the skill that goes into its 
planning and its production. 

.\s indicated l)y Mr. Hart's remarks 
on the questionnaire findings, the ma- 
jority of our present public relations 


Public Schools, 
Oakvale, West Virginia 

films fall in t!ie category of the all- 
purpose or the snapshot type of film — 
that which takes the audience on a 
walking tour of the school. It is sur- 
prising to learn that some of these 
films are around two hours in length. 

It might be well to ask ourselves what 
result we expect of this all-purpose film. 
This generalized film can be effctive 
only in tlie initial stages of its use. 
Its chief value is as an attention-getter. 
When the novelty wears off, then its 
usefulness is virtually gone, and real 
work must go into the planning of a 
production that holds food for thought. 
The chief effect of such films is to 
produce in the audience an awareness 
of the school. It is granted that this 
is a desirable effect, but we must look 
further ahead to the presentation and 
solution of many school problems. One 
of the least desirable features of our 
present use of this medium is that 
many of us are too prone to rest on 
the production of one or two of the 
snap-shot-type films, feeling that there 
is nothing further to be done or that 
there is nothing else that can be shown. 

The school's public relations film of 
tomorrow will be a specialized vehicle, 
of 15-20 minutes length, designed to in- 
terpret some particular type of work or 
departmental achievement, to present 
an organizational problem, or to im- 
plement some drive for pupil or teachers 

The entire future of the public rela- 
tions film is conditioned by a number of 

1. If, we learn to handle production 
with intelligence and foresight, as well 
as we now handle it with enthusiasm ; 

2. If, we learn that the motion pic- 
ture is an expression of motion, and 
not of static classroom situations; 

3. If, we learn that the production 
of public relations films is not a one- 
shot process, but rather a continuous 
program of planning, producing, and 

4. If we learn that the public rela- 
tions film must be constructed for the 
average layman, not for professional 

5. If, the public relations film is 
made the cooperative product of school 
democracy ; 

6. If, schools awaken to the oppor- 
tunities contained in the exchange of 
films and information; 

If we can meet some of these con- 
ditions, then there very clearly is work 
to be done and gratifying results to be 
achieved. To give us a better appre- 
ciation of our work and to present a 
clearer view of the road ahead, we 
need to make an honest self-appraisal 
of the work that we have alreadv done : 

1. How much of our work is pure 
repetition or, at the best, mere mechani- 
cal improvement on previous productions ? 

2. How many of us build a detailed 
scenario before we start shooting? 

3. Are our public relations films 
constructed with a sequence of ideas and 
a vocabulary that the audience can 

4. Does our film require explanation 
before or after showing? 

5. Does it evoke in the audience the 
thought, "Interesting, but to what pur- 
pose ?" 

6. Does it drive home its point on 
its first showing to any audience, or 
must it be seen twice to be understood? 

7. What asurance do we have that 
the story of our film supplies the an- 
swer to a question that is in the pa- 
tron's mind, or that it successfully an- 
swers the problems that it suggests? 

8. .-^re we observing good technical 
standards in photography and editing? 

The future of the public relations film 
depends to a large extent upon whether 
we shall go our individual ways, con- 
tent with our local achievements and 
with our lack of knowledge of the prog- 
ress being made elsewhere, or whether 
we are interested enough to establish 
some informal means through which we 
can profit by the experience of others. 

As we contemplate the possibility of 
a definite program of action for the 
improvement of our school public rela- 
tions films, it might be well for us to 
analyze some of the benefits that could 
be achieved through some sort of in- 
formal organization. Such a sugges- 
tion does not imply the mere standard- 
ized election of a group of officers, for 
such action too often dies with the 
meeting in which it is born ; it does 
imply our agreement upon some agency 
through which information can be col- 
lected and disseminated, and the addi- 
tional determination on our part to 
make it something more than just an 
annual program. Here, to our way of 
thinking, are some of the things to 
which such an organization, however 
informal, might look : 

1. The exchange of films for the 
purpose of mutual improvement ; 

2. The exchange of scenarios, story 
outlines, and story ideas; 

3. The exchange of information on 
such topics as special technical prob- 
lems arising in school filming, and ways 
and means of putting the public rela- 
tions film to its most effective use; 

4. The exchange of stock footage 
for which all of us have ocasional need ; 

5. To make possible the collection 
of more complete and more accurate 
information on our activities which will, 
in turn, permit better reporting to the 
group as a whole ; 

6. To make available a mimeo- 
graphed or printed "Yearbook" which 
could summarize the year's activities, 
describe examples of outstanding work 
in the field, and answer many other 
questions for schools just beginning 
activity in this field. 

Page 154 

Proceedings of the D.V.I. Meeting 

The Educational Screen 

Local Production of Educational Films 

IN hundreds of schools motion pictures 
are being made by educators for di- 
rect teaching purposes, as well as for 
public relations work. (1) The first aim 
is generally to visualize lesson material 
in terms of local understanding and ex- 
perience, and thus to provide the neces- 
sary springboard to better understanding 
of the same subject matter on an ex- 
panded field. Almost every "first" film 
deals in some way with the school in 
which it is produced, not from any para- 
gon complex, but because of this basic 
localization urge. (2) The film is 
quickly recognized as an important, mod- 
ern and potent means of self-expression, 
and fortunately for inner-school relation- 
ships, the making of a teaching film in 
a school is so complex that it requires 
collaboration from several departments 
if it is to be well made and effectively 
used. (3) In the process of acquiring 
experience in movie making, teachers 
come to recognize the motion picture as 
a new and independent art form of great 
importance and power in modern life — 


Bell and Howell Co., Chicago 

the necessity to prepare a scenario for 
a school has moved many an English 
teacher or curriculum supervisor to in- 
clude motion picture writing in the list 
of forms of written English taught. This 
leads to thinking in terms of pictures, 
actions, and emotions, as entities for 
which writing forms and symbols must 
be found if the school is to remain 
abreast of its times. The school borrows 
from the literary and production tech- 
niques of the professional, but in apply- 
ing these to educational tasks evolves new 
forms that already modify the work and 
thought of the professional. (4) There 
is no more competition between school 
and professional producer of teaching 
films than there is between teacher's 
blackboard and publisher's text book 
press. Forward-looking professionals 
extend every aid, in the form of tech- 
nical equipment and advice, and some 
offer world-wide distribution channels for 
school-made teaching films that are of 
more than local significance, and that 
meet necessary technical standards. 

The Cost of Visual Instruction 

•yHE cost of visual aids should be ad- 
•'■ justed to other school expense the 
same as text books, heat, light, pencils, 
towels, etc. None should be higher in 
proportion to its service than others. 
The purpose of a school is to aid pupils 
to learn and those items of expense for 
helpful aids are in the essential class. 

Money spent for aids should be dis- 
tributed so as to have essential aids in 


Director Educational Museum 
of the Qeveland Public Schools 

different forms for various uses. In 
Cleveland a summary chart (Chart 1) 
for ten years shows that 17 per cent of the 
visual aids budget is spent for radio 
lantern slides. Under the radio plan 
each lantern slide is part of a definite 
lesson as prescribed in the regular cur- 
riculum. For motion pictures 12 per cent 
is spent and this is believed to be fair. 
The motion picture is still not used as 
precisely nor as conveniently as the lan- 

tern slide. For general upkeep, repair, 
miscellaneous supplies 15 per cent is al- 
lowed. If an aid to learning program is 
established there should be a definite 
sum allotted to maintain it and keep it' 

.■\11 the figures presented are based on 
certified statements and are reduced to 
the per pupil basis. This permits compari- 
son between large and small school sys- 

Chart I 








The per pupil costs shown on Chart 2 
include all supplies and salaries. The 
cost per pupil of various items for an 
average of ten years is shown on Chart 
3. The Cleveland radio lantern slide les- 
sons have been very effective in reaching 
every class in every school room. This 
has meant an organization of 153,000 lan- 
tern slides and this has cost on an aver- 
age 3 cents per pupil per year. A mo- 
tion picture library has been built and 
an extensive motion picture program is 
in progress for every school. This has 
cost 2 cents per pupil per year. For 
upkeep, repairs, and replacements the 
cost has been 3 cents per pupil. The 
cost of all supplies has been seven and 
one-half cents per pupil annually. 

The average cost for all supplies and 
visual service has been seventeen cents 
per pupil per year. Pittsburgh spends 
one dollar per pupil. Cleveland's annual 
figure is among the lowest per pupil costs 
in those school systems which have or- 
ganized visual aid services. 

















1931 • 32 





























Chart III 


10 YEAR AVERAGE 1930- 1940 









OOO 1 








O = 1 CENT 

April, 1940 

Proceedinys of the D. V. I. Meeting 

Page 155 

Where are We Headed in 
Visual Instruction? 
A Panel Discussion* 

Eo(;ar Dale. Oliio State University, 
Discussion leader 

Mrs. Camilla Best, Director of Vis- 
ual Instruction, New Orleans 

Miss Ella C. Clakk, State Teachers 
College, Winona, Minnesota 

GoDFRKV M. Elliot, Public Schools, 
Oakvale, West Virginia 

William G. Hart, Director of Visual 
Education, Dearborn, Michigan 

W. Gayle Staknes, University of 

THE discussion was opened by Dr. 
Dale who suggested that the group 
look at and appraise the present status of 
visual instruction before attempting to 
make any forecast into the future. 

The members of the panel described 
several situations in which motion pic- 
tures were used inefficiently. Miss 
Clark told about a situation in Massa- 
chusetts where four class sections of 
children saw a film in the auditorium. 
The teachers left the auditorium after 
they had seen the title of the picture, re- 
marking that they had seen the film once 
before. Mrs. Best recalled the teacher 
who, after receiving a one-reel film from 
the library, asked for three more reels 
since she had a fifty minute period to 
fill. Mr. Starnes stated that some teach- 
ers who are over-enthusiastic about films 
in the classroom will use any kind of 
film regardless of instructional quality. 
There was some disagreement as to 
whether these situations were typical or 
whether they were the exceptions which 
can probably never be entirely eliminated. 
-Mr. Hart proposed that the task of the 
persons in supervisory or teacher educa- 
tion fields was certainly to help teachers 
to use a film purposefully as a part of 
the total classroom situation. Other ma- 
terials for enriching instruction must 
also be directed toward developing the 
Unit or situation that is under considera- 

^^ Mr. Larson, in attempting to define 
"visual aids" suggested that the meaning 
of the term would be more clearly pre- 
sented if we substituted the term "rep- 
resentational aids". This definition 
would eliminate excursions and graphs 
but would include motion pictures, still 
pictures, objects, and models. 

Dr. Dale asked the panel for sugges- 
tions on how to help teachers use visual 
materials to greater advantage. Miss 
Clark suggested that the use of visual 
materials could be improved by better ac- 
quainting administrators with the field so 
that they could encourage more intelligent 
use among their teachers. Administrat- 
ors seldom attend specialized meetings 
such as those of the Department of Visual 
Instruction. A solution to this prob- 
lem might be found by building state 

* Prepared and organized by Roy Wen- 
ger of Ohio State University, and 
Dorothy Blackwell, Educational Museum, 
St Louis. 

programs around providing learning ex- 
periences in a general area of living such 
as "Conservation." In considering one 
separate area, the use of radio, visual 
aids, textbooks, and other material could 
be given their just attention. 

Dr. Dale wondered if we miglit look 
ahead to a time when nearly all teachers 
in teacher-training institutions would be 
competent in the use of visual aids. Mr. 
Starnes stated that if this were to occur, 
it might obviate the need for separate 
courses in visual education. 

Dr. Dale suggested that teachers tend to 
use those methods of teaching which arc 
most convenient to them and which they 
know best. In order to acquaint the col- 
lege teachers in Ohio with visual materi- 
als, a Visual Education Committee has 
been formed among the Ohio colleges. 
The committee aims to get visual materi- 
als used in all college courses. 

A comment v\as made by a member of 
the audience to the effect that the block 
to the use of visual materials is the 
course of study which consists of a spe- 
cific amount of subject matter that is to 
be covered in a specified number of days. 
The teacher questions the wisdom of in- 
terrupting a routine and taking time to 
show a film. A suggestion was made that 
m this case one could appeal to the 
teacher by suggesting that she could in- 
crease her eflSciency in teaching factual 
information by using visual materials. 
Such action was opposed by some mem- 
bers of the group who stated that we 
must not talk about the use of visual aids 
as such but rather in terms of the pur- 
poses of the whole curriculum. We do 
not want to further entrench outmoded 
methods by enlivening them with new 

The discussion next turned to the ques- 
tion of what supervisors and distributors 
of materials could do to bring about a 
more intelligent use of visual materials. 
Mrs. Best suggested that our distributing 
departments may be making the intelli- 
gent use of materials impossible by al- 
lowing only one day for the use of an 
item. Most of the people who expressed 
themselves on this issue agreed that if 
a teacher were permitted to use the ma- 
terials at least two days, it would make 
possible the previewing of the material 
and a considerable study of the teaching 
manual. Dr. Dale proposed that one an- 
swer to the problem of acquainting new 
teachers with visual materials might be 
found in arranging for the special show- 
ing of a great many teaching films during 
the university training period. Student 
council groups might arrange Audio- 
Visual Institutes where many films might 
be shown. This is being done at the 
Ohio State University. 

Another problem of distribution raised 
was the length of time in advance of use 
which the requisition for materials must 
be sent to most distributors. For ex- 
ample, when the Russo-Finnish crisis 
arose, teachers were desirous of quickly 
getting materials relative to the problem. 

It was impossible to foresee this need. 
An order placed for materials a semes- 
ter in advance of their use cannot pro- 
vide for illumination on important cur- 
rent affairs. 

In the matter of getting materials 
which are most needed, Mr. Elliot sug- 
gested that libraries poll educators and 
find out what they need and want. In 
Cleveland, Mr. Gregory explained, com- 
mittees are selected from various depart- 
ments to plan and try out programs. If 
these programs are considered successful, 
they are duplicated and used in the 130 
public schools of the city. Directors of 
visual education need the cooperation of 
teachers and experimental classes. 

Mr. Jensen thought that film libraries 
should have courses of study available 
for each department and then purchase 
materials that will fit into these courses. 

Mrs. Ramsey spoke on the outlook as 
far as educational mu.seums are con- 
cerned. The value in studying concrete 
objects comes from improving the indivi- 
dual's discrimination and sensitivity to- 
ward the objects which he sees. In the 
future, museums will probably stress the 
mechanical type of moving exhibit. For 
example, to help in understanding the 
process of mining coal, a miniature coal 
mine might be !?iade available where 
children can actually see mining ma- 
chinery in operation. 

In closing the meeting, Dr. Dale of- 
ferred this summary of the afternoon's 

1. We have assumed that we should 
take a critical outlook within this group. 

2. Many problems relating to visual 
aids will be solved in terms of revised 
curriculum practices. A new curriculum 
outlook is needed for more effective 

3. More should be done about the 
teacher-education problem. It may be 
possible to organize a series of extension 
courses in the field. Teachers and col- 
lege instructors should use visual aids in 
all their classes. 

4. We should do more about excur- 
sions, and the use of museums. New 
types of research are needed to show how 
visual aids may be most effectively used. 

5. There is a need for further solu- 
tion of the problems of financing and 
distributing visual aids. 

Joint Dinner With the 
Association of School 
Film Libraries 

Thirty-five members of the Associa- 
tion and the Department were present at 
the Second-Birthday Dinner of the A S 
F L, held in the Milner Hotel in St. 
Louis, February 28th, 1940. The feature 
of the occasion was the extended report 
by Fanning Hearon, Executive Secretary 
of the Association, summarizing in de- 
tail the 20-months of the Association's 

After presentation of the original or- 
ganization, purposes and ideals of the 
Association of School Film Libraries at 
its founding in June, 1938, Mr. Hearon 
described its expanding program : Re- 
view of original and recent specific aims ; 
{Concluded on page 179) 

Page 156 

The Educational Screen 


Department of Visual Instruction of the National Education Association. 

Notes from and by the 

ANOTHER winter meeting of the DVI has come 
and gone, and with it should go in this column 
the human interest story of the people who attended, 
the speeches and discussions, and the gossip and extra- 
program sessions that invariably are the colorful, ex- 
citing byplay of convention sessions. But the heavy 

black fog, smoke, coal dust, and soot of St. Louis dur- 
ing several days of pre-convention meetings stirred up 
a raw throat, brought on a case of flu, and this re- 
porter had to return to Washington and miss the 

Reports of the meetings indicate the programs were 
carefully planned, well attended, and very worthwhile. 
In fact, the speeches and discussions were too good — 
too good to be limited to the relatively small percent- 
age of administrators, supervisors, and teachers who 
stood most to benefit. Papers on the production of 
films, school architecture, and other subjects before 
the meeting were of extremely high calibre, of such 
a nature that they deserved a larger hearing, a hearing 
by other groups meeting other places at the same time. 

More sharply than ever did this meeting of the 
Department raise the fundamental question of the pur- 
pose of the Department, its membership, its function 
to education as a whole, and its relation to other de- 
partments of the N.E.A., both as represented at the 
summer and at the winter meetings. 

Year after year more or less the same people turn 
up at the meetings, and each year a new set of new 
faces appears. But the brunt of the work of the De- 
partment falls on the same shoulders, the committee 
work is done by the same people, and the main speeches 
are made on familiar subjects. It is never clear whether 
the Department is intended to be an organization of 
directors and supervisors of visual instruction, of class- 
room teachers who are using visual materials and de- 
veloping effective educational programs through their 
use, or some combination of the two. Its meetings 
are held during the sessions of the Association of 
School Administrators in the winter and the National 
Education Association in the summer. Semi-annually 
the cry is raised : "Why doesn't the Department do 
something?" and always this cry is followed by a six 
months' hush. When some members of the Depart- 
ment set out to do something, either within or without 
the Department, there is subtle opposition. A slow 
and ghastly fear that the function of the Department is 
being usurped seems to rise like a mist in the night, 
and the Department freezes into inactivity. Someone 
mentions that more attention to visual education should 
be paid on the general programs and on the programs 
of other departments, but when visual education has 
a place on the general program, officials of the DVI, 

Conducted by Charles F. Hoban, Jr. 

American Council on Education, Washington, D. C. 

hurt to the quick, protest to the N.E.A. in Washing- 
ton against such impudence. 

Yet, throughout the country, educators cry in vain 
for information on visual education, on sources of 
materials, on effective w-ays of setting up departments, 
on methods of using visual materials in the classroom, 
on ways of handling problems of illumination, projec- 
tion, teacher education. College professors, adminis- 
trators, curriculum supervisors, classroom teachers 
flock by the hundreds to regional meetings throughout 
the country. At the third annual meeting of the 
Southern Audio- Visual Education conference in At- 
lanta last fall over 700 educators from 12 states were 
in attendance. The second Midwestern Forum on Vis- 
ual Teaching Aids in Chicago this month drew a sim- 
ilar number. The New England and New Jersey 
meetings are well attended. A visual conference was 
held in Indiana the last of March. One is scheduled 
at Syracuse for New York educators this summer, and 
at the University of California the second annual con- 
ference of this sort will be held in August. In Penn- 
sylvania and Oklahoma, in Maryland and Minnesota, in 
Florida and in Washington conferences on visual edu- 
cation bring out hundreds. Why, then, is the DVI 
so limp when American education was never so re- 
ceptive to leadership in visual education? 

This column is open to an answer. Replies to the 
query on Dr. John A. Hollinger's catalogue title. "Aids 
to Perceptual Learning," are coming in to 1013 18th 
St.. N. W., Washington, D. C. They will be sum- 
marized next month. Meanwhile, may we have a word 
or two on the DVI, its function, and its program for 
the improvement of American education? 

MEMBERS of the DVI will be interested in the 
reception of the American Council on Educa- 
tion's bulletin. Films on War and American Neutrality. 
To date, nearly 600 copies have been sold. There has 
been no promotion of this document except announce- 
ment of its publication through state and national edu- 
cational journals. 

The bulletin was mimeographed, it had a nicely d*" 
signed cover, but otherwise was published as cheaply 
as possible. Its reception has been so encouraging 
that the Council's Motion Picture Project has decided 
to bring it up to date, and re-issue it in printed form. 
At the same time it will issue another bulletin, more 
elaborate, dealing with films and their uses in educa- 
tion for citizenship. The second bulletin will include 
selected films in the areas of health, employment, hous- 
ing, crime, and civic government. A third publication 
of the Project, scheduled for May 1, is the report on 
the of films throughout the curriculum of Tower 

(Concluded on page 169) 

April, 1940 

Page 157 

Summer Courses in Visual and Audio- Visual Instruction, 1940 

Compiled in Co-operation with The Society for Visual Education 

The foUoiving courses have been reported to date. figures in 
parenthesis show credit hours. An additional list -will appear in May. 


L'liiirrsity of Arizona, Tucson 

June 10-July 13: July IS-Aug. 17 
Visual and Auditory Aids in Teaching (2) 

Dr. E. L. Larson 
Hollywood Motion Picture Institute, Hollywood 

Warner Bros. Sunset Studios July 1-Aug. 9 

Motion Picture Production Technique with 
emphasis on 16mm for educational use. 
University of California, Berkeley July 1-Aug. 9 

Visual Education (2) Dr. Edgar Dale 

University of Southern California, Los Angeles 

June 30-Aug. 8; Aug. 9- Aug. 31 
Audio-Visual Education (2) Dr. Cline M. Koon 

Problems and Research (2) Dr. Cline M. Koon 


Unii'crsity of Saskalchezt'an, Saskatoon 

(Course to lie given at Regina) July 3-Aug. 13 
Visual-Audio Education William G. Hart 


Colorado Aciricuttural College, Fort Collins 

July 6-July 26 
L. E. Aspinwall 

June 17-Aug. 9 

James Finn 

June 17-July 19 

Visual Education (2) 
Colorado State College of Education, Greeley 

Visual Aids in Education (3 and 4) 
University of Colorado, Boulder 

Education Through Motion Pictures (3) Lelia Trolinger 

Visual Aids (3) Lelia Trolinger 

University of Denver, Denver 

June 17-July 19; July 22-Aug. 23 

X'italizing Instruction through Visual Aids 
(2.5 quarter hours) Eugene Herrington 


State College for Women, Milledgeville July 12-July 21 

V'isual Instruction (3 1/3) Ethel Parrish 


State Xornial Univer.'tity, Normal June 1 1-Aug. 7 

Visual Instruction (3) R. U. Gooding 

University of Ckicagu, Chicago June 19-Aug. 23 

-Auditory and Visual Instruction (3 1/3) I. Keith Tyler 

University of Illinois. Urbana June 17-Aug. 10 

Visual and Auditory 

Instructional .\ids (3) 

Louis A. ."Xstell 

U'cslern State Teachers College. Macomb 
Visual Education (4 quarter liours ) 


Ball State Teachers College, Muncic 

June 10- July 12 
Visual Materials in High School Libraries (2) 

Evelyn Hoke 
\'isual L(iucati(jn (4) 
Butler Univccnty, Indianapolis 

Visual Education S-3S3 (Beginning) 
S-3S4 (Advanced) (3 each) 
Indiana Uni-ccrsity, Bloomington 
\'isual Education (2yi) 


Drake Uni'crrsity, Des Moines 

Visual Aids in Education (3) 
State University, Iowa City 

Visual Demonstrations (no credit) 


University of Ka)isas, Lawrence 

Visual Instruction in Elementary and Secondary 
Schools (2) Fred S. Montgomery 

June 10-July 19 
.Alvin Roberts 

July 15-Aug. 16 

Roy Wenger 
June 10-Aug. 3 

H. A. Henderson 

June 1 1-Aug. 7 

L. C. l^rsoi; 

June 10-Aug. 9 

Victor Mastin 

June 10-Aug. 2 

L. W. Cochran 

June 11-Aug. 7 

June 3-Aug. 2 


University of Kentucky, Lexington June 17-JuIy 20 

*Motion Pictures in Education (3) Dr. W. Gayle Starnes 
*Problems in Audio- Visual Aids (3) 

Dr. W. Gayle Starnes 
Second Session July 22-Aug. 24 

Visual Teaching (3) Louis Clifton 

♦Organization of the Audio-Visual Aids 

Program (3) Dr. W. Gayle Starnes 

♦Graduate students only. 


Louisiana Polytechnic Institute 

Use of Audio- Visual Aids in The Class- 
room (3) R. H. Mount 
Southwestern Louisiana Institute, Lafayette June 10-Aug. 9 

Education 390 and 395 (3 hrs. each) W. C. McClendon 


University of Maine, Orono July 1-Aug. 9 

The Motion Picture in Education (2) Dr. Paul S. Miller 

Visual Education (2) Dr. Paul S. Miller 


University of Maryland, College Park June 24-Aug. 2 

Visual Education (2) Dr. Henry Brechbill 


Harvard University, Cambridge July 1-Aug. 10 

Audio-V^isual Aids to Instruction (3) James R. Brewster 


Michigan State Xornial, Ypsilanti June 24-Aug. 2 

Visual-Auditory Aids in Education (2) Floyd H. Leib 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor June 24-Aug. 18 

Visual Education— B 133s (2) F. Dean McClusky 

Western State Teachers College, Kalamazoo June 24-Aug. 2 

Audio-Visual Education (2) Ray C. Pellett 


State Teachers College, Moorhead June 10-July 19 

Audio-Visual Education (4) Dr. Arnold M. Christensen 

State Teachers College, St. Cloud 

June 10-July 26; July 27-Aug. 24 
Visual Aids (4) Roland M. Torgerson 


Mississippi State College, State College June 5-Aug. 15 

Practical Application of Visual Aids in Elementary 

Schools (3) 
University of Mississippi, University 
Visual Education (3) 


St. Louis University, St. Louis 

Education SI 59 (3) 
University of Missouri, Columbia 

Problems in Visual Education (2) 
Washington University, St. Louis 

Visual Instruction (3) 


Intermountain Union College & Billings Polytechnic 

Sallie B. Newman 

June S-Aug. 3 

Mary Hutchinson 

June 24-Aug. 2 

William Kottmeyer 

June 10-Aug. 2 

W. C. Bicknell 

June 17- July 26 

Alma B. Rogers 

Institute, Polytechnic 
Visual Education (3) 
State Normal College, Dillon 
Visual Education (2) 


State Teachers College, Wayne 

Visual Education (2) 
New Hampshire 
University of Xeic Hampshire, Durham 

Sensory .Aids in Teaching (3) 

June 10-July 19 

H. K. Moore 

July 10-Aug. 19 

Paul L. Anderson 

June 3-Aug. 2 
Dr. Griffin 

July 1-Aug. 9 
Austin L. Olney 

Page 158 

The Educational Screen 

New Jersey 

Slate Teachers College, Montclair 
Multi-sensory Aids (2) 

Slate Normal School, Newark 

Visual Aids in Education (2) 

State Teachers College, Trenton 
Radio Education 

July 1-Aug. 10 

July 2-Aug. 10 

Fred M. Richmond 

July 1-Aug. 10 

Robert B. Macdougal 

July 8-Aug. 16 

New York 

Chautauqua Summer School, Chautauqua 
Laboratory Course in Visual Aids — 

Parts I and II (2 each) Dr. George O'Donnell 

Columbia University, New York City July 8- Aug. 16 

Visual Education — 117A (2) 

Dr. M. R. Brunstetter, Dr. V. C. Arnspiger 
New York University, New York City 

Laboratory Course in Visual Aids (4) John H. Shaver 

North Carolina 

Appalachian State Teachers College, Boone June 4-Aug. 23 

Visual Instruction (3) Orby Southard 

Normal and Teachers College, Asheville June 11- July 20 

Visual Aids to Instruction (2) Hazel Gibbony 

North Dakota 

State Teachers College, Minot 
Visual Education 258 (2) 

June 10-Aug. 2 
Lester Hartnett 


Kent Slate University. Kent June 17-July 26 

Using Visual-Audio Aids in Teaching (2) Argra Ruffer 

State University, Bowling Green June 17- Aug. 9 

Audio- Visual Education (3) ) B. L. Pierce 

Administration of Audio-Visual Education (3) B. L. Pierce 

Western Reserve University, Cleveland July 17-July 26 

Visual Instruction (3) William M. Gregory 


University of Oklahoma, Norman 

Visual Aids in Education (2) Boyd Gunning 

Oklahoma Agriculture and Mechanical College, Stillwater 

June 4-Aug. 3 
Elementary Education 302 (2) ; Education 
Administration 502 (2) Haskell Pruett 


Oregon State College, Corvallis June 24-Aug. 2 

Construction and Use of Visual Aids (3) George Eby 

Educational Cinematography (3) George Eby 

University of Oregon, Eugene June 17-July 26 

Audio-Visual Aids in Education (3) L. F. Beck 

Laboratory in Audio-Visual Aids (3) L. F. Beck 


Duquesne University, Pittsburgh 

Visual Education (2) 
Geneva College, Beaver Falls 

Visual Education (3) 
Juniata College, Huntingdon 

Visual Education (3) 
Lehigh University, Bethlehem 

Visual-Audio Aids (3) 
Marywood College, Scranton 

Visual Aids to Teaching (2) 
Motion Picture Appreciation (1) 
Muhlberg College, Allentown 

Visual Education (3) 
Pennsylvania State College, State College 

June 11-June 28; July 1-Aug. 9 
Laboratory in Visual and other Sensory Aids (1) 

Prof. Fred E. Kelly 
Visual and other Sensory Aids in Education (2) 

Prof. Fred E. Kelly 
Main Session July 1-Aug. 9 

Teaching Aids in Homemaking Education (2) 

Margaret Reigel 
Visual Aids in Teaching Agriculture (3) 

Prof. H. S. Brunner 
Altoona Branch 

Laboratory in Visual and other Sensory Aids (1) 
Visual and Other Sensory Aids in Education (2) 

May Armour 

July 1-Aug. 9 

L. A. Pierce 

July 17-Aug. 16 

John S. Mclsaac 

June 17-Aug. 16 

Paul Rummel 

July 6-Aug. 13 

Raymond White 

June 26-Aug. 6 

Sister M. Sylvia 

Sister M. Sylvia 

July 1-Aug. 9 

John Trainor 

State Teachers College, California June 17-July 26 

Visual Education (1) Dr. Everett Alderman 

State Teachers College, Clarion June 17-July 27 

Visual Education (1) Dr. D. D. Peirce 

Stale Teachers College, Indiana June 19-July 28 

Visual Education (2) Wilber Emmert 

Slate Teachers College, Kutztown June 24-Aug. 3 

Visual Education (1) Allan F. Bubeck 

Stale Teachers College, Mansfield June 24-Aug. 3 

Visual Education (1 or 3) Dr. Cyril L. Stout 

State Teachers College, Slippery Rock June 17-July 27 

Visual Education (1 and 2) R. A. Waldron 
State Teachers College, West Chester 

Visual Education (1) Thomas J. Heim 
Temple University Teachers College, Philadelphia 

June 26-Aug. 4 

Projection .Apparatus (2) John T. Garman 

Illustrative Materials (2) John T. Garman 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia June 24-Aug. 6 

Visual and Sensory Techniques (2) Dr. J. H. Minnick 

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh July 2-Aug. 9 

Visual Education (2) Herbert T. Olander 


George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville 

June 10-Aug. 23 
Nature and Use of Audio-Visual Aids (4) 

Dr. M. L. Shane 
Audio-Visual Aids in Modern Language Teaching (4) 

Dr. M. L. Shane 


Abilene Christian College, Abilene June 4-July 13 

Visual Instruction (3) Dr. G. C. Morlan 

East Texas Teachers College, Commerce 

June 3-July 15; July 15- Aug. 28 

Audio-Visual Instruction (3) 

Radio in Education (3) 

Dr. W. W. Freeman, Mr. Miller (2nd term) 
McMurry College, Abilene June 11-July 19 

Visual Instruction (3) T. F. Huggins 

Sam Houston State College, Huntsville June 4-July 13 

Administration of Audio-Visual Aids (3) E. C. Waggoner 
Sue Ross State Teachers College, Alpine June 6-Aug. 25 

Audio-Visual Education (3) Dr. Leon Wilber 

Texas. Technological College, Lubbock June 6-July 15 

Visual Aids in Education (3) Dr. L. B. Cooper 

University of Texas, Austin June 4-July 15 

Research in Visual Education (2) B. F. Holland 

Use of Visual Aids in Teaching (2) B. F. Holland 

Laboratory Course for Visual Instruction (2) 

M. M. Watson 

Second Session July 15-Aug. 26 

Use of Visual Aids in Education (2 or 3) 

Dr. W. W. Freeman 


University of Utah, Salt Lake City June 10- July 19 

Audio-Visual Aids in English and Social Studies in 

Junior High Schools (2J^) 
Audio- Visual Aids in Education (2^) — Elementary course 
Audio- Visual Aids in Education (2^) — Advanced course 

Dr. A. L. Marble 

West Virginia 

West Virginia University, Morgantown 

Organizing Programs of Audio-Visual Instruction (2) 
Audio-Visual Instruction (2) H. B. Allen 


Central State Teachers College, Stevens Point June 17-July 26 

Audio-Visual Instruction (2 or 3) Clarence D. Jayne 
State Teachers College, Platteville June 17-July 26 

Visual Instruction (2 or 3) Victor E. Nylin 

State Teachers College, River Falls 

Visual Instruction (2) James I. Malott 

University of Wisconsin, Madison June 24-Aug. 2 

Education 164 (2) J. E. Hansen and F. H. Brown 

(Continued in May) 
(Readers cordially invited to send in additional entries.) 

April, 1940 

Frogs and Toads - In Hand-Made Lantern Slides 

Page 159 


FROGS and toads may form the basis for an interesting 
lesson on amphibians in the intermediate grades. The dif- 
ferences between them are seldom understood without some 
visual aids such as the slides below. 

1) Frog eggs are laid in a large mass, while toad eggs 
are found in long strings. 

2) The actual development of the frog and toad from the 
liollywog to the completely adult animal is similar. But the 
toad is more terrestrial. 

Art Department, Lindblom High School, Chicago 

3) The toad is shorter and fatter. His skin has many little 
bumps which are glands. The frog's skin is smooth. 

4) The frog has a small rudimentary ear. The toad when 
singing swells his throat out ; so does the bull frog. 

5) The toad's tongue is fastened in the front thus making 
it easy for him to catch insects. 

6) In the winter the frog hibernates to the bottom of the 
pond. The toad just digs himself so far into his burrow that 
earth fills up the entrance. 

The sim- 
plest type 
of hand - 
made slide 
is made by 
drawing or 
tracing on 
finely fin- 
ished etched 
glass with 
medium lead 
pencil. Col- 
or, by spe- 
cial crayons 
or inks, en- 
hances the 
slides great- 
ly. Fine ef- 
fects are ob- 
tained by 
with cray- 
ons. About 
one - third 
inch margin 
should be 
left all 
around the 
slide. The 
slide is read- 
ily cleaned 
with soap or 
pozvder to 
a new pic- 


Page 160 

The Educational Screen 

^(is J^iUxatuxE in ^l/iiuaL Unihuction 

A Monthly Digest 

Conducted by Etta Schneider 

Evaluation and Utilization 

Finding the Right Film— Ford L. Lem- 
\er—Srho!aslic, 36;S-T, February 26, 
The project undertaken at the 
Bureau of Visual Teaching in the State 
College of Washington involves two 
phases : film evaluation by a cooperative 
evaluation project, and a school visita- 
tion program. An evaluation form has 
been devised which provides not only 
information about each film and its con- 
tents, but also utilization of it. Variance 
in teacher judgments is not so great as 
would be expected. From the data 
already collected it is evident that there 
is a remarkable correspondence in ratings 
on films where teaching purposes coin- 
cide. Films are rated consistently high 
for one purpose and consistently low for 
another. Expression of 'general merit' 
of films without reference to teaching 
purpose do vary greatly. There is in- 
creasing evidence that the activity of 
evaluation may prove to be a practical 
teacher-training device. Teachers need 
practice and help in the evaluation pro- 

The Bureau of Visual Teaching is 
undertaking this year to adjust the many 
problems of distribution to classroom 
needs by conferences with teachers, prin- 
cipals and superintendents. Problems of 
utilization are discussed with teachers. 
For this purpose a check list has been 
devised for evaluating the administration 
and utilization of films in the particular 
situation being studied. This check list 
and the visitation are regarded as super- 
visory, a point of departure highly rec- 
ommended by the author. 

Let the Movie Be Your Guide — Blake 

Cochran and William H. Hartley — 

School Executive, 59:16 January, 1940 

This article summarizes in a new 

way the available films for educational 

use. The outline, briefly, is as follow.s : 

a) Social guidance: Recommend use 
of the film excerpts by the Commission 
on Human Relations, P.E.A. 

b) Occupational guidance : Mention 
sources of industrial films that might be 
suitable, indicating the great need for 
critical judgment in the use of these : 
sources of instructional films in the field ; 
sources of appropriate theatrical films 
where characters continually depict — for 
better or worse — occupational groups ; 
source of the movie shorts recently re- 
leased by the Teaching Films Custodians. 

The criteria recommended for evaluat- 
ing films for occupational education are : 

1. The film must not romanticize the 

vocation. The common urge to conceal 
the seamy side of the subject must be 

2. The nature of the work should be 
presented in general terms. Technical 
processes as such are unimportant for 

3. The film should present a long-term 
view of the vocation. Should be in terms 
of "life work" rather than a "day at the 

4. The social and home life of the 
worker should be brought into the voca- 
tional pattern. 

5. The focus should be on the individ- 
ual, rather than on the machine or de- 
vice with which he works. 

6. The environment in which the work 
takes place should be included in the film. 

7. Technical quality of the film must 
be high. 

Other guides are given with reference 
to program planning and classroom tech- 

Visual Aids for the Woodworking Shop 

Robert A. Brenholtz— /iirfiw/ri'a/ Arts 

and Vocational Education, 29:104, 

March, 1940 

A resume of vihat the instructor of 

any type of shopwork may do to make 

his work of teaching more effective. 

Some sources of materials and a brief 

bibliography are listed. 

Books vs. Movies, Phonographs and 
Radios — Donald Bean, University of 
Chicago Press — Peabody Journal of 
Education, 17:253-60, January. 1940 
A stimulating argument to refute the 
contention of some educators, as ex- 
pressed by a French publisher, George 
Duhamel, that since modern civilization 
is largely due to the spread of, 
the movies and radio threaten to wipe out 
the need for reading to leam. 

The author has illustrative evidence to 
show the value of non-reading material 
in college classes, high school classes and 
even with young children in primary 
grades. He sees much possibility for 
the use of films and radio with adults 
and refers to the American Association 
for Adult Education inquiries into the 
value of radio and now films. Any de- 
vices that seem to promise hope of sup- 
plementing existing agencies for improv- 
ing the critical thinking or the rational 
processes of mankind, should be put to 
use. The wise use of non-reading tools 
may even conceivably increase sounder 
and wider reading habits and advance the 
interests of books at the same time. They 
may even contribute their share toward 
transforming the face of the globe and 

overcoming the worst miseries and mis- 
takes of humanity which we see all 
around us. 

Social Effects of Films 

Some Educational Aspects of Motion 
Pictures — Frederic M. Thrasher, edi- 
tor. Journal of Educational Sociology, 
13 : entire issue, January, 1940 

The articles included have rather 
general appeal and in each case the author 
describes a project now in operation in 
the field of motion pictures, both for 
educational and theatrical consumption. 
Some of the titles and authors are : 

1. "The Motion Picture and Informal 
Education," by G. L. Freeman 

The use of 16 mm. films as a basis 
for discussion of modern problems at the 
University College, Northwestern Uni- 

2. "The Film and Education," by 
Donald Slcsinger 

A description of the aims and ac- 
tivities of the American Film Center in 
New York Cit.w 

3. "The Motion Picture .\cademy, a 
Cooperative in Hollywood," bv 
Donald Gledhill 

An attempt to justify the existence 
of this publicity stunt which professes to 
be more than it really is (See many 
current articles by movie critics and 
movie workers.) 

4. ".Suitability of Motion Picture 
Theater Prograius to the Needs of 
the Child," by Claude A. Shull. 

Evidence that corrobates the find- 
ings of earlier studies, such as the Payne 
Fund studies, the one by Mitchell, etc. 
proving that nothing has been done to 
serve the large number of children going 
to the movies over the week-end. 

5. "The Film Work of the .American 
Museum of Natural History." by 
Grace Fislier Ramsey. 

Describes the work of the Museum 
in distributing educational films. 

6. "Education vs. Censorship," by F. 
M. Thrasher 

.'\fter a review of some of the con- 
flicting pressure groups engaged in 
evaluating films, the work of the Metro- 
politan Motion Picture Council is de- 
scribed. Its work follows closely the 
philosophy of the National Board of Re- 
view, to "applaud the best and ignore the 
rest." Other audience groups, equally 
opposed to censorship, would similarly 
approve of the constructive attitude in- 
volved in "applauding the best," but 
would go further toward reducing the 
number of poor and socially undesirable 

(Continued on page 162) 

April, 1940 

Page 161 

Lessons thaf LIVE 
are easy to LEARN! 

This new simplified PROJECTOR is YEARS AHEAD 
of the field. Built by the makers of RCA Photophone 
Equipment used In Hollywood studios and in thousands 
of theatres, it offers you many exclusive features — 
yet is priced to meet modest budget requirements! 

Here, unquestionably, is the finest way 
to give lessons colorful life, to make them 
vividly interesting for students! And it is 
an inexpensive way! 

Get a new RCA 16 mm. Sound Film 
Projector for your school. Let it help you 
with your work. You'll discover a new 
eagerness in your pupils from the very 
start. And you'll quickly find it is a supe- 
rior audio -visual teaching aid. It lends 
fresh sparkle to every picture with its 
better, more brilliant projection. Ten to 
twenty per cent greater screen illumina- 
tion is provided by a specially designed 

optical system and large objective lens. 

With this new unit the sound, too, 
takes on new zest. For this Projector has 
film take-up equalizer — plus excellent 
electrodynamic speaker. 

TheRCA I6mm. Sound Film Projector 
is easy to operate, easy to clean and adjust, 
and easy to carry. Threadingline cast on pro- 
jection block greatly simplifies threading. 
This Projector also offers simple and swift 
motor rewind of all size reels. Input jack for 
microphone or Victrola Attachment. In 
all, it's better 16 ways — and is priced with 
the lowest. For full details mail coupon. 

V<A ?.-••"••*..?* WAYS*. 5 

1. Better sound reproduction. 2. Better, 
more brilliant projection. 3. Better, sim- 
pler threading. 4. Better and more effi- 
cient cooling. 5. Better reel take-up and 
rewind. 6. Better equalization. 7. Better 
operating ease. 8. Better input perform- 
ance. 9. Better reproduction. 10. Better 
framing. 11. Better tone. 12. Better ac- 
cessibility. 13. Better versatility. 14. Bet- 
ter lubrication. 15. Better lamp service. 
16. Better portability. 

Trademarks "RCA Victor," "Victrola" Reg. U. S. Pat. OflF. by RCA Mfg. Co., Inc. 
Modern schools stay modern with RCA Radio Tubes 
in their sound equipment 


Edncitional DepL, RCA Mfg. Co., Inc., Camden, N. J. • A Service of the Radio Corp. of America 

Educational Department <E-4) 
RCA Manufacturing Co.. Inc., Camden, N. J. 
Please send me complete information concerning the 
new RCA 16 mm. Sound Film Proiector. 

School ^- 

n, I should like a demonstranon 

Page 162 

The Educational Screen 

7. "Research Projects and Methods" 
A summary of current research 
projects in the field, including a study 
sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation 
under the direction of Leo C. Rosten with 
an illustrious group of educators and 
sociologists on the advisory board, to 
make a sociological study of Hollywood; 
a survey of audience studies ; a survey of 
audio-visual education in Georgia, etc. 

Movies and Tolerance — Alice V. Keli- 

her — American Teacher, 24 :25, Janu- 
ary, 1940 

Intolerance has one basic cause — 
fear. Intolerance of others for economic 
reasons grows apace and, often prejudices 
arise unconsciously. In thinking about 
the relation of the motion picture to 
tolerance we have to bear in mind that 
different individuals will carry away from 
a movie different feelings because of 
unique differences in their personalities 
and their emotional histories. No single 
movie will evoke a universally similar 
response. To those who already dis- 
approve of lynching and to those who 
are ignorant of its horrors, the film 
"Fury" becomes a powerful anti-lynching 
plea, but to those who hate some group 
or person furiously, the lynching scenes 
in that film may be met with approval. 
This does not mean that there are no 
effects that might be called 'majority 
attitudes' that arise from seeing a given 
picture. "Zola" will inspire many people 
with a new passion for justice, "Juarez" 
with a new understanding of democracy. 
There is an almost majority-minority 
problem in connection with the reactions 
to movies which deal with issues relating 
to our intolerances. The Payne studies 
revealed how certain films could affect 
children's attitudes one way or another. 
As an outlet for our emotions during 
times of stress, movies can help to reduce 
intolerant behavior by being an escape. 

For guiding persons with a deep-seated, 
stubborn intolerance the movie excerpts 
of the Commission on Human Relations 
have been found helpful. Expert leader- 
ship is necessary, however, for leading 
discussions based on these films and for 
helping students to apply situations in the 
film to similar situations in their own 
lives. Guidance is the key to the most 
significant use of the motion picture. 
It must be based on sensitivity on the 
part of the teacher to the needs of the 
student and the needs of the larger com- 
munity of which they are a part. 

A stenographic acount of student dis- 
cussion based on the film, "Bordertown" 
follows. A significant testimonial to the 
work of the Commission in promoting 
discussions based on films was made by 
a student, as follows: "After I have 
seen the movie and decided for myself 
what it means and then have the class 
discuss it, it stays with me a very long 
time. The analyzation of the pictures 
makes one more tolerant and understand- 
ing of events which are occurring every 
day. I am not so quick, to my way of 
thinking, to condemn a mistake or action 
for I immediately think there is some 
reason which caused the action." » 


Seeing Is Believing: Visual Instruction 
— Colin G. Welles. Milwaukee Voca- 
tional School, Wis. — Division of In- 
struction and Research, 1939. minieo. 

This is one of the most practical 
teadher-training courses of sturiy yet 
publislied in the field of visual education. 
Photographs and specific illustrations to 
teaching situations are abundantly fur- 
nished. The objectives of the course in- 
clude the mastery of mechanical apti- 
tude in handling equipment, acquaintance 
with the literature in the field, ability to 
adapt materials to teaching situations. 
Units are based on a consideration of: 
the school journey, objects and models, 
educational films, still pictures, graphic 
aids ; a coordination of all instructional 
materials ; sources, filing and distribution ; 
care and operation of projectors and ma- 

The course was designed as an in- 
service course for teachers at the Mil- 
waukee Vocational School. 


Building America — A Photographic 
Magazine of Modern Problems. Pub- 
lished by the Society for Curriculum 
Study, Inc. Editor, Frances M. Foster 
425 West 123rd St., New York, N. Y.' 

If there remains a supervisor of 
visual instruction who has not added this 
photographic journal to the materials 
available for the use of teachers and sec- 
ondary school students, the last four is- 
sues should make this a "must." Now 
in its fifth year, the project has as its 
chief purpose to present, by means of 
photographs, charts, graphs, cartoons and 
authentic information some of the vital 
current problems involved in our coun- 
try. The pictorial material has been 
cleverly integrated into the text. Volume 
V, thus far includes : 

No. 1 Our Latin-American Neighbors, 
Much little-known information about 
South America, together with new and 
recent pictures and charts tell us : a) who 
are our Latin-American neighbors and 
what kind of lands do they live in; 
b) what is their history; c) what are 
some of the problems our neighbors face ; 
d) what have been our government's 
relation with them; e) Have govern- 
ments and people been interested in them ; 
and f) how can we face problems to- 

No. 2 Community Planning. 

No. 3 Advertising, a valuable aid in 
any study of consumer education and 
propaganda techniques, for advertising is 
really a means of convincing people. 

No. 4 Arts and the American Crafts- 
man. A remarkable integration of native 
arts and crafts, bringing them from the 
earliest days of our country to the kind 
of arts and crafts which an industrialized 
civilization has created. This issue will 
find much favor in home economics, fine 
arts, social studies, and industrial arts 

Source Materials 

Visual Aids— Compiled by Dr. Lili 
Heimers, New Jersey State Teachers 
College, Upper Montclair, N. J., 1940. 
23 pp. mimeo. Available from State 
Teachers College Library, Montclair. 
SOc to teachers living outside of the 

This is a new and enlarKed alohabetical 
listing of free and inexpensive aids — 
exhibits, charts, graphs, maps and pictures 
—available from various agencies and 
useful in high school and collece teaching. 
Similar to the Bruce Miller listing of 
such aids, this compilation is arranged 
alphabetically by topic. Cross-references 
are included throughout. 

Additional information in anv of the 
subjects, with respect to films and slides 
and other materials not owned by the 
College, may be had free upon application 
as the College maintains a visual aids file 
much broader than the list nublished. A 
list of geographical visual aids is now 
in preparation. 

Motion Pictures and Other Visual Aids 
for Business Education— Second Edi- 
tion — compiled by Lawrence Van 
Horn, High School, Dover, N. J. The 
Business Education World Service 
Booklet No. 10, 270 Madison Avenue, 
New York City. 16 pp. 

A good source list of 16mm and 3Smm, 
silent and sound, motion picture films, 
slides, filmstrips and sound slide-films on 
various aspects of the business world — 
banking, thrift, communication, oflice 
practice, salesmanship, typewriting, trans- 
portation. Vocational Guidance, etc. In- 
formation is given as to length of the 
subjects, contents, sources and prices. 

Visual Aids in Safety Education— Pre- 
pared by the Safety Education Pro- 
jects of the Research Division of the 
National Education .Association, 1201 
Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington, 
D. C. January, 1940, 32 pp. 25 cents. 

-A^ valuable bulletin which reviews 
motion pictures (silent and sound) and 
sound-slide films on safety issued pre- 
vious to December 15, 1939. The section 
on films is classified as follows : A. Street 
and Highway Safety; B. Fire Prevention; 
C. Forest Fire Prevention ; D. First Aid ; 
E. Driver Training; F. General Safety. 
The material has been rated by the Safety 
Film Review Committee on the follow- 
ing points: suitability for school use, 
amount of objectionable advertising, 
grade levels for which the film is best 
suited, and general appeal of the him. 
Student reactions to a selected number of 
representative pfctures were also ob- 
tained. Lists of silent film strips and 
lantern slides, distributors of safety films 
and slides, and sources of safety posters, 
complete the bulletin. 

This study was carried out in connec- 
tion with the 1940 yearbook of the Ameri- 
can Association of School Administra- 
tors, which is devoted to Safety Educa- 

(Concluded on page 179) 

April, 1940 

(a iXHUM 


Accuracy — and then more accuracy ! 

That is the demand which Science, Education and Industry for 
years have placed upon optical instruments. In answering that de- 
mand, Bausch & Lomb has formed the habit of accuracy — a habit 
which is largely responsible for the excellence of every B&Lproduct . 

Millions of eyeglass lenses a year, used to multiply the seeing 
power of mankind, are manufactured by the organization respon- 
sible for B&L instruments. 

Such products as Orthogon corrected lenses, Panoptik Bifocals, 
Loxit Mountings, Nokrome Glass, and a wide variety of Ophthal- 
mic Instruments areBausch&Lomb contributions to better eyesight. 
That is why you should insist on Orthogon Lenses and B&L Frames 
and Mountings in your eyeglasses. Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., 
688 St. Paul Street, Rochester, N. Y. 




Page 164 

The Educational Screen 


(^NE of tlie readers of this column has asked. "Will 
your department report school-made films besides 
those of the 'newsreel' and school activity type?" The 
answer to this question is "Yes." 

At present, your department editor has reports on 
films dealing with safety, health, library use, type- 
writing, literature, social studies, science, psychology, 
manners, guidance, and many other subjects. He plans 
to present this information in future issues of Educa- 
tional Screen". If a sufficient number of readers indi- 
cate interest in particular types of films, preference will 
be given to them in the planning of the column. 

The "newsreel" and activity films that follow are on 
16 mm. film and are black and white, unless otherwise 

California — The extensive film making program of 
the Oakland Public Schools is indicated by the follow- 
ing list of activity films : Arithiiietic in the Oakland 
Public Schools (400 feet). Fifth Grade at Work (400), 
Keeping Step ivitli Modern Youth (800), Kindergarten 
at work (400), Physical Education (800). and Read- 
ing in the Oakland Public Schools (400j. 


R. W. Ullemeyer of the Alcott School, Denver, an- 
nounces that his school group owns a 100-foot film of 
its dog show. 

Administrators of The Chicago Normal College, the 
Parker High School, and the Parker Practice School. 
Chicago and current student activities have been re- 
corded on 1000 feet of 35 mm. film, in addition to 
this, two 300-foot 16mm. films have been made : 
Spring Festival and Men at Normal, Miss Sophie C. 
Camenisch indicates. 

A color film of the characteristic activities of each 
group in the Greeley School, Winnetka, shows such 
special features as health work, mental hygiene, and 
psychological testing, according to Donald Cawelti. 
(400 feet). 


A film used as a commencement program is described 
by Thomas S. O'Neill, principal of the Brookston High 
School, in March, 1940, Secondary Education. Pic- 
tures of the school, grounds, classes, and senior class 
members were included in 200 feet of film (8mm.). 

A film showing the work of the Dulutli Schools from 
kindergarten through junior college has many unusual 
shots, such as the kindergarten band, first grade read- 
ing, model village made by a history class, art work, 
marionettes, printing, junior college surveying, etc. At 
ihe beginning and at the end of the film Superintend- 
ent H. H. Eelkema appears to be giving the film as a 
report to the Board of Education. 

Conducted by HARDY R. FINCH 

Head of English 

High School, Greenwich, Conn. 

Member Committee on Standards for Motion Pictures and 
Newspapers of the National Council of Teachers of English 


"The Anna Schools" was the subject of a film ( 700 
feet) made by the teachers of the Anna, Ohio school 
system, Mr. George Rilling states. 

An all-color film of the dress rehearsal of a school 
operetta "Katinka" has been completed by the Movie 
Club of Roosevelt High School. Seattle, Arthur Rarig. 
head of the English Department, writes ( 3(X) feet). 

Below is the first half of the "News Reels" film 
group, from the questionnaire survey by William G. 
Hart, which located over 90 Public Relations Films 
made by schools. The March issue carried the "Spe- 
cialized Subjects"; May issue will give the balance of 
the "News Reels." (16mm footage given after title. 
All are black and white unless otherwise specified. 
Many available for free loan.) 

1. Niles School Days (1300) Scenes of Board of 
Education ; classes from kindergarten to twelfth grade ; 
sports. Loan. George Balas, Director of Visual Edu- 
cation, Central High School, Niles. Mich. 

2. Pontotoc County Schools (300) Loan. N. A. 
Stall, County Supt. of Schools, Ada, Okla. 

3. Royal Oak Public Schools (3500) Activities of 
all the schools, with emphasis on special projects. N. 
J. Quickstad, Supt. of Schools, Royal Oak, Mich. 

4. Glimpses of Agawain High School (700) Pre- 
sents all the activities in the school. Loan. A. M. 
Hadley, Head Dept. of Science. High School. Agawani, 

5. A Day in the Euclid Schools (1200) Typical ac- 
tivities in all the schools, kindergarten through high 
school. Loan. H. L. Shibler. Prin. Central School, 
Euclid, O. (Announced in February issue.) 

6. School Life (ICXX)) School activities ; general run 
of school work. Loan. D. W. McCount. Prin. High 
School, Bronwell, W. Va. 

7. A Day at School (400) Ordinary classes and 
school activities ; football and cross country track prac- 
tices. Loan. Dean Challis. High School. Dearborn, 

8. Greenville Schools at Work (1600) Intimate 
shots of class projects and work from kindergarten 
through high school. Loan. Vern E. Mabie. Supt. 
of Schools, Greenville, Mich. 

9. Year in Review (8(X)) Views of classrooms and 
students; sports, school circus, dramatics, other activi- 
ties. Loan. W. R. Climinson. Prin. High Schools. 
Port Huron. Mich. 

10. A Day at McKinley (200) Classes, elementary 
through junior high ; extra-curricular ; safety patrol. 
George A. Stracke, Public Schools. Flint, Mich. 

April, 1940 

Page 165 

U. A Visit to Lane Tech (400) All shops, athletics, 
social functions, classroom work, cafeteria : emphasis on 
technical work. Loan. A. P. Heflin, Lane Tech. High 
School, Chicago. 

12. South Mihvaukcc High (700) Sports, faculty 
leaving school, honor society. Loan. R. Shreve, Di- 
rector of Visual Education, High School, South Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 

13. 800 feet of curricular and extra-curricular activi- 
ties, social functions, students enrolling and life in the 
dormitories. James S. Kinder. Director Film Service, 
Penna. College for Women, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

14. Escambia Children and Their Schools (800) Es- 
cambia County school buildings ; outstanding work by 
different grades ; chorus, vocational and industrial arts. 
Loan. W. O. Barrow, Prin. A\'. S. Neal High School. 
Brewton, Ala. 

15. A Modern High Scliool at IVork (2000) Every- 
thing from opening of school in fall to graduation in 
spring. S. H. Lyttle, Prin. High School, Saginaw, 

16. Fairport Public School Activities (400) May 
Day festivities, classroom activities, lire drill, passing 
between classes, playground, sports; black and white 
and color. R. A. Greig. Supt. Public School, Fairport 
Harbor, O. 

17. Child Growth in the Elementary School (1000) 
Traces child growth from physical examination given 
at baby clinic to promotion into high school. Loan. 
Arnold Gregory, Prin. Wm. Raupp School, Lincoln 
Park. Mich. 

18. School Activities (3000) Classroom and building 
activities. Xorris G. Wiltse, Public Schools. Ypsilanti. 

19. Today's Activities in the Detroit Public Schools 
— W. W. Whittinghill, Director of Visual Education, 
Public Schools, Detroit, Mich. 

20. The Schools at Work (3000) Activities from 
kindergarten to twelfth grade. Not titled — designed 
for use with P. A. system. Loan. F. W. Frostic, 
Supt. Public Schools, Wyandotte. Mich. 

21. Education in North Muskegon (300) Views of 
the various classrooms showing some of the activities. 
Loan. J. E. Pease, Supt. Public Schools, N. Muske- 
gon, Mich. 

22. Glimpses of School Life in Battle Creek (200) 
Field trip to a farm with follow-up ; mathematics, sci- 
ence, visual aids. Loan. Eldon C. Geyer, Supt. Pub- 
lic Schools, Battle Creek, Mich. 

23. Life Begins at School (1200) Cross section of 
John Hay High School — its curriculum offering many 
activities. Loan. Anthony L. Cope, John Hay High 
School, Cleveland, O. 

24. Our School (400) Physical education demon- 
stration, practical arts education ; the first week of 
scliool. Loan. Landis R. Klinger. Northwest Junior 
High School, Reading, Pa. 

25. History of Wilbur Wright School (400) Various 
school activities ; classroom. Christmas, full day, maga- 
zine selling campaign ; black and white, and color. Loan. 
J. R. Goodrich, Prin. Wilbur Wright Junior High 
School. Dayton, O. 

Alert to Learn 

Clear pictures make the subject not only clear 
to the student but interesting. They make 
everyone more alert to learn. Motion pictures 
filmslides, glass slides and other projected 
visual material need to be shown on bright 
clean, efficient screens to appear sharp and 
clear to the class. 


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Each Da-Lite surface is top value in its field. 
For average requirements in the classroom, 
the Da-Lite Glass-Beaded surface is recom- 
mended. It reflects maximum light resulting 
in brighter pictures than are possible with 
ordinary white screens. 

Above is shown the Da-Lite Electrol, elec- 
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and auditoriums. It is available with White 
or Glass-Beaded surface in 14 standard sizes 
up to 20' X 20'. Write for the Da-Lite catalog 
containing scientific data on the relative 
merits of various types of screen surfaces. 
Ask your supplier about time-tested Da-Lite 
Screen equipment. 



Page 166 

The Educational Screen 


n an 

tfiE C^Lc 


Conducted by Wilber Emmert 

Director Visual Education, State Teachers College, Indiana, Pa. 


Models for Enrichment 

RECENT experiences in supervising elementary 
science, teaching a survey course in physical 
science, as well as conducting a course in descriptive 
astronomy, have brought forceably to my mind the 
necessity of making and using simple mechanical aids 
to assist the pupils in gaining correct understandings 
of some of the many abstract concepts encountered 
in courses which deal with terrestrial and celestial re- 

The writer with a few aids for astronomy teaching 

lationships. This article proposes to indicate how some 
of the teacher-pupil constructed mechanical aids and 
commercially made devices can provide lasting memory 
images and assist in overcoming some of the limitations 
to learning commonly encountered in the study of the 
topics mentioned. 

An underlying concept of perceptual learning is the 
principle that sensory experiences are necessary for 
mental activities. Sensory experiences properly con- 
ditioned result in vivid and lasting memory images. 
These memory images constitute the building blocks 
for reflective and constructive thinking. Hence, it is 
recognized that we can think only in terms of our past 
experiences; and that we can imagine only with the 
elements of our past experiences. If the visual-sen- 
sory aids used in the classroom provide the proper 
degree of reality, are within the range of the pupil's 
past experiences, fit in with the objectives of the par- 
ticular lesson, and are within the range of the intellec- 
tual maturity of the learner, they will assist in making 
the abstractions encountered meaningful, and provide 
memory images for intellectual advancement. 

Scientists have conceived a whole host of "imaginary" 
lines, circles, and angles to indicate the relations exist- 
ing on the terrestrial sphere and the celestial globe. 
"The equator is an imaginary line passing around the 
earth midway between the poles, and at right angles to 

the earth's axis." "The meridian is an imaginary line 
joining " "The horizon is an imagi- 
nary line " The globes ,maps, charts, 

etc.. commonly used in geography work assist in mak- 
ing these abstract concepts meaningful for the problems 
of the terrestrial sphere. However, the similar as- 
tronomical coordinates in the celestial sphere tax the 
conception of the abstract circles of the celestial sphere, 
imagination of the pupils. And for most minds a con- 
crete model is a necessary aid in attaining an adequate 
conception of the abstract circles of the celestial sphere. 

The Coelosphere 
The Coelosphere consists of systems of circles to 
illustrate the astronomical coordinates of the three 
systems of circles of the celestial sphere recognized in 
astronomical work, namely the horizon system, the 
equator system, and tlie ecliptic system. Commercially 
made, as in the accompanying illustration, the coelo- 
sphere sells for $16.00. However such a device can 
be made by the pupils with no outlay of money, by 
merely using materials right at hand. It looks compli- 
cated, but it is really 
easy to make. A 
tennis ball can be 
used to represent 
the earth ( equator, 
ecliptic. meridians. 
and parallels of lati- 
tude marked on with 
ink), while wire 
coat hangers can be 
conveniently shaped 
to form the circles 
df the individual 
systems. Excess 
wire of the hooks 
can be snipped off 
with a pair of pliers. 
One or two hooks 
can be straightened 
out to make the ped- 
estal for the appa- 
ratus. This device 

shows clearly the inter-relation of the different sys- 
tems of coordinates, as well as their relation to the 
earth. This is one of the most important bits of appa- 
ratus the school can secure to assist the pupils in gain- 
ing clear understandings of the problems connected 
with the circles of the celestial sphere. The meaning 
of the concepts embodied in the equinoxes, the celestial 
equator, the ecliptic, right ascension, declination, etc.. 
can be easily and effectively demonstrated. Prior to 
the use of the composite model, the pupils should have 
the opportunity to construct and use individual models 

The Coelosphere 

April, 1940 

Page 167 

of the three systems of circles. The accompanving 
sketch indicates how three coat hangers or hoops placed 
at right angles, and with a smaller circle parallel with 
the horizon, portray the chief circles of the horizon 
system. The labels can conveniently be attached with 
scotch ta])e. now universally used in schools. This 
construction work provides sensory experience of great 
value to the pupils. 

The Inverse Squares Model 
The "Inverse Squares l^w" is fundamental to much 
of the physical science work. Newton's Law of Uni- 
versal Gravitation states " the attrac- 

Inverse Squares illustration 
tion between the bodies varies inversely as the square 
of the distance between their centers." The inverse 
law holds for the intensit)' of illumination, etc. A 
mo<lel can easily be made of wire, as shown in the ac- 
companying illustration, with the squares properly 
placed t(i produce areas in the ratio of 1. 4, and 16. 
Pupils can readily make such a model of wire. A fun- 
damental thing about the use of these models is that 
the three-dimension relationship is more easilv under- 
stood and gives a clearer insight than can be gained 
from the blackboard drawing of the textbook illustra- 

Comparative Size Model 

Abstract numbers in terms of thousands and millions 
of miles often convey very little meaning to children. 
If comparisons are made these same facts may take on 
worth \\hile meaning. The pupils can make compara- 
tive size models for : the planets ; some of the stars ; 
the moon and the earth. 

The ten-cent store abounds in glass headed pins, beads, 
balls, and marbles of various sizes. After some calcula- 
tions with the diameters of the various heavenly bodies, 
it would be possible to secure some of the inexpensive 
materials to be used in constructing the comparative 
size models mentioned above. This work should result 
in meaningful understandings of the size relationships. 

Altitude-Latitude Calculator 
Since the axis of the earth points toward the north 
star, if one were at the north pole the north star 
would be directly overhead, or at an angle of 90° with 
the surface of the earth. If one were at the equator 
and pointed towards the north star, he would have to 
point parallel with the axis of the earth at an angle of 
0°. Hence as one goes north from the equator he must 
devate his sights one degree for every degree traveled 
northward to be able to see the north star. This brings 
the fundamental law, "The altitude of the pole star equals 
the latitude of the place." Pupils can construct "alti- 
tude-latitude calculators" by tacking or bolting two 



Science and Agriculture of 25 Instructional 

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What it does: Shows interdependence of sci- 
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For full details of the wide range of subject 
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Animal Life 13 films 

Human Biology ... 10 films 


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Chemistry 6 film$ 


ARTS AND CRAFTS . . 4 films 
ATHLETIC SERIES ... 4 films 

GUIDANCE 2 films 


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Gentlemen: Please send me your complete descriptive 
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Address . 

Page 168 

The Educational Screen 


f t 



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French and German Dialog 

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Five Child Health, Training and Character Building Films. 
The life cycle of an entire generation is spanned in this series. 

16 mm silent or sound; 8 mm silent. 




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For Sale or Rent — For full information writ*: 

DR. DAVID B. HILL, Salem, Oregon; Producer 

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Also other 16 mm — 8 mm Films 

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laths together, marking off a quadrant of a circle and 
attaching it to the lath assembly, or by using a protrac- 
tor to measure the angle of elevation of one arm after 
sighting at the north star. To use the calculator, rest 
one of the two laths on a surface parallel to the earth's 
surface, then sight along the other arm and elevate it 
until it is in line with the north star. Measure the 
angle of elevation, and this will be the same as the 
latitude of the place, or the number of degrees from the 
equator. Hence it is easy for the pupils themselves 
to measure the latitude of their particular locality. 
They can know without "remembering what the book 

Some other things which might be constructed are: 
a sun dial, a universal sun dial, refraction and reflection 
of light apparatus, astrolabe, falling body apparatus, 
illuminated planetarium, a telescope, hour glass, equa- 
tion of time device, barometer, star charts, zodiac chart, 
star finder, precession of the equinox apparatus, eclipse 
of sun and of moon, angle of sun's rays apparatus, 
dav and night device, season indicator. 

Construction work combined with the use of com- 
mercially made apparatus and personal observations 
should result in more meaningful instruction than 
mei-e verbal treatment of the subject. Children should 
not be denied these worthwhile experiences in their 
educational advancement. W. E. 

Selecting Projection Equipment 

{Concluded from page 142) 

who is to operate the machine to thread and run all 
of the projectors in order to better understand the 
equipment and have a better basis of comparison. If i 
it is a sound projector that is under consideration, 
check upon these items: Portability, ease of setting up, 
sound reproduction, tone control, accessibility of work- 
ing parts, ease of cleaning, wattage of amplifier, type of 
speaker, whether easy or hard on films, gadgets, etc. 
In general, the simpler the machine, the less trouble a . 
person will have. In small schools the demonstration i 
of several projectors may be impossible, but with the': 
cooperation of the countv superintendent of schools, 
several small schools may join in the project and f 
secure such demonstrations. Practically every good ma- 
chine has certain features which are unique. When 
these are studied at the same time, the particular 
features which make one machine better than another 
for your school are determined. ^Vhat makes one ma- 
chine best for one school does not necessarily make ii 
best for another. Beware of gadgets which will not 
function satisfactorily in the classroom, and are nut 
needed if they do function well. Demonstrations clear 
up these difficulties. 

In addition to these specific cautions, mav we add a 
few general suggestions ! Dealing with an t'stablishcd 
business firm is far more satisfactor\- tlian dealing with 
itinerant salesmen, or with some local man who may 
have the privilege of ordering a projector for you at 
wholesale prices, but who knows nothing about the 
equipment and can offer no help when difficulties arise. 
Itinerant salesmen who represent a company in a dis- 
tant state may offer big things but usually there is nti 

April, 1940 

recourse when the equipment fails to measure up to the 
statements concerning it. Many schools have found to 
their sorrow that promises mean little when the sales- 
man is a thousand miles away and the firm he represents 
is still farther. Usually such men are high-powered 
salesmen, and they get the signature on the dotted line 
plus the check before they leave. Then the school can 
whistle for service or replacements as they are needed. 
An established firm will see that the equipment is satis- 
factory — its reputation and prosperity depends upon its 
living up to its promises ; and frequently such a firm 
will loan a school a projector at no cost if anything 
goes wrong that necessitates repairs or replacements 
that take more than a week's vrithdrawal of the pro- 
jector from service. Such service is w-orth far more 
than the few dollars saved on a doubtful purchase. 

Equipment does not guarantee a successful visual 
instruction program for any school — in the past, too 
often that has been a false assumjJtion ; but fortunately 
that attitude is passing. However, good equipment is 
essential to a successful program of visual aids. Much 
money has been wasted by schools because the official 
in charge did not investigate possibilities of equipment 
before the purchase of projection machines has been 
made. A small amount of research before the purchase 
of a projector returns large dividends. Do not let your- 
self be one of those who buy unsuitable, and impractical 
projectors because you did not take the trouble to in- 
vestigate for yourself the relative value and cost of 
machines. This paper is not meant to minimize the 
^-alue of good salesmen for good products — the field of 
visual instruction owes such men a debt that it prob- 
ably never can repay ; but be sure that the men from 
whom you buy your equipment represent reliable firms, 
dealing with reliable equipment. Then you will have 
the foundation on which to build a successful visual 
instruction program. 

Among Ourselves 

(Concluded from page 156) 

Hill School, Wilmington, Delaware. Tower Hill was 
one of the centers cooperating with the Council in its 
motion picture evaluation program. 

TT is announced here in ^^'ashington that Pare 
■L Lorentz' new film Fight for Lijc is out of the cutting 
room, and into the theatres. It is a story of the battle 
to save mothers and to deliver live babies under slum 
conditions. If it is half as good as Lorentz' two other 
films, schools will want it. The question is, will they 
get it, when, under what conditions, and for how long? 
Address your requests to the U. S. Film Service, Office 
of Education, Federal Security Agency, Washington, 
D. C. Most other film producing agencies of the gov- 
ernment provide for the sale of films to schools at 
print costs, which average about $10 a 400-foot 
reel per 16-mm. sound print. A 16-mm. print of a 
six-reel film should cost about $60. Since the U. S. 
Film Service is rumored to have few if any funds for 
16 mm distribution, an oflf^er by schools to pay print 
cost should remedv this difficultv. 

Page 169 

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And all possible from one basic unit that will serve 
30 or 3000 students — available only from Victor. 

Every educator should keep abreast of this ever in- 
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Dept. Dl, Davenport, Iowa 
Distributors Throughout the World 

Page 170 

The Educational Screen 

Motion Pictures 

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We have added many fine subjects to 
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Ask for separate catalog listing and 
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Activities at Boston University 

Boston L'niveisity has long been a leader in New 
England visual education, serving schools and collegt 
as far avk'ay as New York State. Last year. 16 collegt 
and 120 school systems availed themselves of the Uni- 
versity's Division of Teaching Aids. Addition of a 
new service has been announced by Professor Abraham 
Krasker, able director of the Division. Believing tha 
radio recordings will open a new field in teaching aid>. 
transcriptions of educational programs will be cata- 
logued and filed for use by students and teachers. 

.\t present, 300,000 feet of silent and sound films art 
on file in the department's storeroom. These are fik-il 
horizontally in specially built shelves planned so thai 
the numbers and subject may be read easily. The film- 
are collected in "libraries," each containing a completi 
set of reels on a given subject. Five new libraries of 
educational motion pictures have been established — 
two on Social Science, one each on Science, Sport>. 
Guidance and Occupations. The subjects were chosen 
from the "Catalogue of Films for Classroom Use," the 
Hollywood shorts selected by the Mark May Com- 
mittee and distributed by Teaching Films Custodians. 

The latest innovation at Boston University School 
of Education this semester is the "School of the 
Screen," which offers programs in Adult Education. 
Xine films are shown each week on a given subject. 
In the course which lasts ten weeks the students see 
ninety films, providing a very complete education in 
the subject. Several courses on visual education are 
conducted each semester by Professor Krasker. 

Florida Progress 

A library of loan films is maintained and a Co- 
operative Film Library is sponsored by the De- 
partment of Visual Instruction of the University 
of Florida General Extension Division. The film 
service is much used, since the number of school- 
owned projectors has been rapidlj- and consistently 
growing during the last several years, according 
to Bernice Ashburn Minis, director of the Depart- 
ment. It is felt that the greatest need now is for 
more efiicient instructional methods. Teachers are 
asking for help in initiating film programs and in 
order to assist them, the Division is preparing a col- 
lection of activity unity outlines and teaching plans 
based on films and other visual aids. These outlines 
have been prepared and successfully used by- Florida 
teachers, and while there is no thought of oft'ering 
the collection as a set of examples to be followed 
for the best results, it is hoped that it may offer 
helpful suggestions to inexperienced teachers. 

The Florida Education Association maintains a 
standing committee or section on visual education. 
The group consists of about three hundred mem- 
bers, and its annual meetings are largely attended. 
Committees of the section have been at work on 
studies of motion picture appreciation courses, of 

April, 1940 

Page 171 



films adapted to secondary school suljject inatter 
fields, of school made films, of teaching methods 
with films, and on school use of radio. 

Indiana Audio- Visual Conference 

An .\u<lio-\ isual I'^ducationaj Conference, sponsored 
by Indiana University Extension Division, took place 
in Bloomington. Marcii 30. An address on "Teacher 
Training Ke.sponsihilities" by Mr. \^ C. Arnspiger 
opened the morning session, followed by a panel dis- 
cu,ssion on film distribution problems. Mr. J. E. Han 
sen was the speaker at the luncheon meeting. The first 
part of the afternoon was devoted to informal group 
discussions of .school-made visual aids, radio and rec- 
ordings, the school museum, and distribution of audio- 
visual materials. A talk on "Comparative Visual Edu- 
cation" by Dean H. L. Smith, School of Education. 
Indiana University, concluded the meeting. 

MBchigan Film Library Grows 

The Michigan Cooperative Film Library, conducted 
by the Univer.sity of Michigan Extension Service, have 
made arrangements with the recently formed Teaching 
Film Custodians of New York City, wherebv from 
fifty to a hundred Holl3'wood-produced short subjects 
will be made available in 16 mm sound to its 18.S 
members at no additional cost. 

Membership in the cooperative film jiroject is open 
to any school, college, or university, accordinsr to Dr, 
C. A. Fisher, director of the Service. "A $50.00 mem- 
bership fee for the first year, and $45.00 for the second, 
entitles the members to $65.00 worth of films at the 
non-member rental rate, and a reduced rental on 
orders in excess of that amount. There is a $1.00 
rental fee for the first dav's use of sound films, and 
$.75 for silents." 

The Michigan Secondary School Principals" As- 
sociation and Michigan school superintendents appoint 
committees to act in an advisory capacity to the Uni- 
versity in the ] of films and in shaping policies 
of the Library. There are now 450 diflferent subjects in 
the library, and a total of more than 700 films. 

—{Mich. fid. J I.) 

New Jersey Visual Educators Meet 

Tlie Xew Jersey \'isual Education Association is 
liaving a busy semester. On February 8 the third 
-Vorthcrn Xew Jersey Branch of the Association held 
a Conference and Dinner Meeting in Englewood. Ex- 
tensive conferences were conducted in Administration. 
Secondary Education, Education for Business, and 
i'.lcmentary Education as related to visual education, 
ich directed by a large panel of educators. At the 
inner wliich followed Dr. G. W. Leman, president of 
the Visual Education Association, introduced the of- 
ticers and speakers. .Another dinner meeting was held 
liy the Association at Ma])le\v()od on March 7, also 
presided over hv Dr. Leman. 


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of CHICO" 

The Story of a Boy 
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"Beautiful photography, excellent score, Chico repre- 
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"Belonj^s with Robert Flaherty's "Nanook of the 
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'"Tender charminpr, Kently humorous. The raccoons, 
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animals. If it is not the best animal picture ever made, 
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Page 172 

The Educational Screen 



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An Experiment in General Science 

{Concluded from page 146) 

4. Soft water is water that does not contain 

5. Water for drinking purposes can be safel3' purified i)i 
the home by 

6. Hardness of water is due to 

7. Spraying water into the air to purify it is known a^ 

Institute oi Cinematography Formed in Canada 

Last summer the University of British Columbia 
offered a short course on the production, history, 
appreciation and use of motion pictures, with Dr. 
Boris T. JMorkovin, head of the Department of 
Cinematography, University of Southern CaHfornia, 
as special lecturer. At the conclusion of the lec- 
tures, a meeting was held with the object of form- 
ing an organization to continue the studj' of motion 
pictures, particularly the production and educational 
use of 16mm films. The British Columbia Institute 
of Cinematography was inaugurated for this purpose. 

Committees were formed to carrj- out the ob- 
jectives. Regular monthly meetings are held for the 
presentation of special lecturers and for the coor- 
dination and study of the accomplishments of com- 
mittees working on production, education, etc. The 
production unit is now producing a traffic safety 
film in 16mm entitled "You Bet Your Life," 

Membership is open to all who wish to take an 
active interest in the work of the Institute. The fee 
is $2.00 a year. A regular bulletin is issued every 
month to members, keeping them informed on ac- 
tivities of the association and on items of special 
interest. For further details, write to Mr. L. "W. 
Chatwin, Secretary-General, Institute of Cineinatog- 
raphy. University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 

Electrical Transcriptions 

Selected programs of the "Cavalcade of America" 
series will soon be available through the Association 
of School Film Libraries, Inc., 9 Rockefeller Plaza, 
New York City. 

Another significant educational radio series of 24 re- 
cordings, "Americans All — Immigrants All," may be 
purchased through the United States Office of Educa- 
tion, Educational Radio Script Exchange. Washington, 
D. C. "These recordings present specific information 
concerning the part which has been played by the 
various culture groups in American life and dramatize 
their triumphs and achievetnents." Each is a half- 
hour program. 

Texas Departments Producing Films 

The State Health Department, State Game, Fish 
& Oyster Commission, State Department of Public 
Safety, and Traffic Division of State Highway Depart- 
ment of Texas, are producing educational films. 

8 are added to settle the suspended matter 

in water 
9. Water is composed of two elements and 

10. To distribute water is needed. 

11. Borax and washing soda are said to water. 

12. For homes without sewage systems, the is 

the best disposal method, 

13. A cliemical which may lie added to water to make 
materials settle faster is 

14. Cities which obtain their water supply from distant 

mountain streams and lakes build to carry 

the water. 

15. To prevent the entrance of sewage gases into the house 
are installed in drainage systems. 

III. Multiple Choice 
Directions : Each question will consist of several answer? 

For each question you are to decide which is the best answer, 

then write the number corresponding to this answer in the 

space to the left of the number. 

1. The process of purification wlien air is mixed with 

impure water is known as (1) filtration (2) aeration 
(3) pollution (4) distillation. 

2. People in the country have as their most common 

source of water (1) wells (2) creeks (3) city- 
water (4) lake. 

3. Sterilization of water with (1) salt (2) chlorine 

(3) copper sulfate is used to kill bacteria. 

4. Water traps in sinks keep (1) rats (2) mosquitoes 

(3) bad odor out of the house. 

5. Most harmful thing found in water is (1) bacteria 

(2) wood (3) sand. 

6. Septic tanks are used to (1) store water (2) 

purify water (3) purify sewage (4) filter water. 

7. Shallow wells (1) should be located so that all 

drainage is away from the well (2) furnishes pure 
water (3) are easier to get water from. 

8. Well water is ( 1) hard (2) soft (3) medicinal. 

9. (1) Filtration (2) distillation (3) pollution will 

remove all disease germs from water 

10. Cities should obtain their water supply (1) up- 
stream (2) downstream from where they empty 
their sewage. 

11. The disease most commonly spread by drinking 

water is (1) diphtheria (2) smallpox (3) mump^ 

(4) typhoid fever. 

12. Wells from which water flows without pumpiny 

are called (1) cisterns (2) artesian (3) diffused 
(4) reservoirs. 

I\'. True and False 
Directions: Write the letter T or F on the line before the 
number to indicate whether the statement is true or false. 

1. Water can be purified by filtration. 

2. A cliemical combination of hydrogen and oxygen 

will make water. 

3. Pure water has no color or odor. 

4. Hard water contains mineral matter. 

5. Typhoid fever is not spread by water containing 

disease germs. 

6- Sand should not be used for filtering water. 

7. The location of a city does not determine how I 

the water supply shall be secured. 

8. It is dangerous to build a cesspool near a well. 

9. Di.sposing of sewage is not a problem of inland 

10. Boiling will kill most disease-producing bacteria 

present in impure water. 
11. Drinking water is treated with chlorine to improve 

the taste. 

April, 1940 

Page 173 

12. Reservoirs in water-supply systems are placed on 

liigli hills in order to secure clear atmosphere. 

Results from the Second Procedure 

The Tests for Unit B were scored in the same way 
as for Unit A, marking only the correct items on the 
tests. The scores for the unit tests were condensed 
into tables (omitted here) to show the comparison of 
the X-and C-Groups in the pre-test and the post-test 
for Unit B. The highest possible .score was 50. To 
summarize : 

The post-test means of the X-and C-Groups were as 
follows : 

X-Group 32.15 

C-Groiip 30.05 

The mean of the gains of the X-and C-Groups were 
as follows : 

X-Group 16.42 

C-Group 14.00 

By tlie same procedure as was followed for Unit A. 
it was determined tliat in Unit B tests the X-Group 
will surpass the C-Group 80.23 times out of 100; and 
in Unit B gains the X-Group will surpass the C-Group 
91.15 times out of 100. 

Difference Between the X-Gronps 
for Unit A and Unit B 

Critical Chances out of 100 

Unit A ratio that the X-Group 

will be superior 
Post-test 1.63 94.52 

Gain 2.93 99.81 

Critical Chances out of 100 

t'liit B ratio that the X-Group 

will be superior 
Post-test .85 80.23 

•iain 1.33 91.15 


The X-Groups for both Unit A and Unit B show 
flefinite improvement over the C-Groups. The X-Group 
for Unit A shows a much greater improvement over 
the C-Group than the X-Group of Unit B shows over 
the C-Group. This difference is probably due to the 
lact that more visual aids were available for Unit A 
than for Unit B, yet what visual aids were shown in 
Unit B enhanced definitely the pupils knowledge for 
the unit. 

The purpose of educational films and slides is to 
i,nve the student clear perception of objects which arc 
beyond his immediate experience and which are neces- 
sary to extend his knowledge of the physical world. 
They are designed to give the basic experience which 
may then be elaborated by means of language. This 
experiment shows convincingly tliat they are effective 
means of giving the basic experience. When they are 
deliberately planned and consciously used to .serve this 
purpose they should make the student better acquainted 
with the world in whicli he lives, and stimulate him 
10 better thinking. 


in 16mm Sound Film now Available for 
Schools on Advance Approval basis. 


with Deanna Durbin, Herbert Marshall, (Jail Patrick and 

Arthur Treacher. 

* « * 


Edcar Bergen and "Charlie McCarthy", with Adolphe 

Menjou and Andrea Leeds. 

* * * 


featuring: Constance Bennett. Vincent Price. 

Charles Ru8:(i:les. Helen Broderick and Mischa Auer. 


with Alice Brady, Charles Winninser, Tommy Riggs and 

"Betty Lou." 

with Jackie Cooper and Edmund Lowe, (available Sept.) 

* * * 


with John Wayne. 

* * ♦ 


with Wendy Barrie and Mischa Auer. 

* * * 

starrinjf Turn Brown and Andy Devine. 


Just off the Press! Our latest and largest catalog 
of entertainment films. Yours for the asking. 


35 West 45th Street 

Dept. E-4 

New York. N. Y. 

1 6mm Projector 

High Intensity- 
Arc Lamp. 


in a prominent Hollywood, Calif., theatre 
showed that a HOLMES 16mni High Intensity 
Arc Lamp Projector drawing only 30 amperes 
would do work comparable with large profes- 
sional equipment drawing 60 amperes. 

In displaying amateur ..-., 

movies of the famous Pa- 
rade of the Tournament 
of Roses at Pasadena on 
a full-sized professional 
screen with no reduction 
in the pictorial or color 
values, the reproduction 
was so perfect with the 
Holmes' 16mm projector 
that few in the audience 
would have known they 
were not viewing a 35 mm 
picture, if the fact had not 
been announced. 
Holmes portable projec- 
tors are available with 
sound equipment, speak- 
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systems and micro- 
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changeable use in 
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Manufacturers of 16mm and 35mm sound projectors 

on request. 

Page 174 

The Educational Screen 

Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

(A) Discriminating Adults (Y) Youth (C) Children 

Date Estimate was made is shown on each film. 

Adventure in Diamonds (Mront, Isa Miranda) 
iPara)Fast-movinK. credible adventure yarn. 
Detective after diamond smuf2:p:lers tries to pro- 
tect girl accomplice of crooks and finally en- 
lists her aid agrainst murderous ganjj. Inter- 
esting shots of diamond mining. Class B but 
entertaining. 4-9-40 

(A) Fair of kind (Y) DoubtfSal ethics (C) No 

Bill of Divorcement. A (Menjou, O'Hara, Bainter. 
Whitty)(RKO) Famous play absorbingly filmed. 
Daughter, realizing insanity taint, heroically 
leaves fiance to care for father, formerly in- 
sane, and to free mother to marry man she loves. 
Keen psychological interpretations. Impressive- 
ly photographed and directed. 3-12-40 
( A ) Excellent ( Y) Somber ( C ) No 

Birth of a Nation(Lillian Gish. H. B. Walthall) 
D. W. Griffith's Civil War masterpiece, in origi- 
nal form with irregular musical background 
and mob sounds appropriate to the old film. 
Acting and photography dated but picture's 
greatness, with Grifllith's epoch-making devices, 
itill apparent. 3-12-40 

(A) Interesting (Y) Probably good (C) No 

Blue Bird,The(Shir]ey Temple) (Fox)Handsome, 
pretentious, technically fine filming of Maeter- 
linck's fantasy in Technicolor. Discontented little 
girl seeks blue bird of happiness in world only to 
find it at home. Able performances, especially Shir- 
ley's. Many delightful sequences, some beyond 
young minds, others strong ifor sensitive children. 

(A) Pleasing (Y) Good (C) Mostly fine 

British Intelligence (Karloff, Lindsay) (Warner) 
Intricate web of mystJery and deception in World- 
War-spy melodrama. Characters and audience 
baffled by spies who at one moment plot for 
Gei-many, next for P^ngland. Propaganda and 
intrigue. Suspenseful but rather awkward and 
overdone. 4-2-40 

(A) Depends on taste (Y) Possibly (C) No 

Broadway Melody of 1940(Eleanor Powell, Fred 
Astaire, George Murphy I ( MG"M I Tuneful, eye-fill- 
ing musical with beautiful settings, highlighted by 
the superb dancing of the three principals. Simple, 
fairly plausible story, humorous in spots, but mar- 
red by drunkenness as plot motivation, and lack of 
good taste in some incidents. 3-19-40 

( A ) Very gd. of kind (Y) Mature (C ) Little interest 

CongoMai8i.e(AnnSothern, JohnCa;rrolI) (Para) 
Flippant, common butvery wise little entertainer 
is stranded in African rubber camp with arrogant 
plantation owner, doctor and lonely wife. She 
solves all situations and as final coup d' etat awes 
and subdues inciting native witch doctors. 
Lightweight and possibly diverting. 3-19-40 

(A)Fairly amusing (Y)Sophisticated (C)No 

Courageous Dr. Christian (Jean Hersholt(RKO) 

The good Doctor's efforts to get better housing for 
*'squatterstown" inhabitants is opposed by citi- 
zenry until serious epidemic awakens their cooper- 
ation. Character values obscured by much that 
is artificial and unconvincing, and an obnoxious